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    Optimization of Encapsulation of Probiotic Living Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sajjadi Dehkordi, Sahar (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In the recent year, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria according to their perceived health benefits. Probiotics are feed and food supplements that beneficially affect the host’s health. The term “probiotic” includes a large range of microorganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria. Because they can stay alive until the intestine and provide health beneficial effects like lowering cholesterol, improving lactose tolerance and preventing some cancers like colon cancer on the host health. It has been recommended that the viability of probiotics should be at least 107 CFU/ml of product at time of consumptions to provide selective... 

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid Microbial Production

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Toori Karami, Hadiseh Sdat (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term used to describe the mixture of geometric isomers of linoleic acid which has several beneficial biological effects. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal of nutraceutical purposes, an isomer-selective and safe process is required. The introduction of biological reactions to CLA production will solve this problems. Nowadays, CLA is produced through chemical isomerization of linoleic acid which results in by-production of unexpected isomers. From this point of view biotechnology methods and producing microorganisms implementation have gained lots of attention because of not producing unwanted bypass products and also being natural method.... 

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Production Via Chemical Method Using Vegetable Oils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Afarin, Maryam (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds, has gained considerable attention because of its anticarcinogenic and obesity treatment properties. The most biologically active CLA isomers are 9c, 11t-18:2 and 10t, 12c-18:2. Natural sources of CLA are fat of meat and dairy products derived from ruminant animals. About 3 grams of CLA per day is necessary to provide human health needs, but each person receives about 10% of this value from natural resources, thus production of CLA as a dietary supplement is necessary. CLA is produced from biological and chemical methods but because of high yield of chemical... 

    Producing l-theanine from Liquid Waste Obtained from Tea Polyphenol Production(and Biosynthesis of Theanine by Glutaminase)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sakhaei, Minoo (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Theanine is a non-protein amino acid which was first isolated from tea plant leaves (Camellia sinensis) and also found in a mushroom named Xerocomus badius and some other Camellia species such as C.japonica and C.sasanqua. Theanine comprises about 50% of amino acids in tea and 1-2% of dry weight of tea leaves. It contributes to the umami taste and unique flavor to tea infusion and has many physiological and pharmaceutical effects such as anti-tumor and anti-cancer activity, neuroprotection, antihypertensive, relaxation, increased focus and anti-obesity effects. So this compound is essential for human body but is not synthesized in it and should be administrated orally. In recent years, study... 

    Separation and Purification of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers from Vegetable Oils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hajizadeh, Mohammad (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds, has gained considerable attention because of its anticarcinogenic and obesity treatment properties. The most biologically active CLA isomers are 9c, 11t-18:2 and 10t, 12c-18:2. The aim of this study is to separate and purify the two essential isomers via enzymatic method by Candida rugosa lipase and chemical method by urea crystallization and also optimization of reaction conditions in order to better separation. For enzymatic purification, L-menthol and Lauryl alcohol were used separately. Optimization of reaction conditions by enzyme content, time and the ratio of... 

    Immobilization of Enzymes to Nanoparticles for use in Wastewater Treatment

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nisan, Roya Sadat (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Nowadays , application of enzymes as biocatalysts in wastewater treatment processes is increasing. It is economically important to reuse enzymes and increase their stability in these types of processes. Therefore, was immobilization of enzymes and using them in wastewater treatment have a great importance.In this project, Horseradish peroxidase enzyme, whose effect on phenol removal reactions in other studies has been proven before, was immobilized on the alginate-coated magnetic nanoparticles, to investigate the effect of immobilization on the stability and function of this enzyme for phenol removal. The enzyme was immobilized at the temperature of 25 ° C and pH = 8, according to the data... 

    Folic Acid Microencapsulation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kiaeipour, Pegah (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Most natural folate derivatives are highly sensitive to temperature, oxygen and light and their stability depends on food process condition. Alginate and pectin were evaluated for folic acid encapsulation and increasing its stability. By combining them and optimising encapsulation condition the efficiency was enhanced up to 90% . Furthermore, using polymers in combined form caused decrease in folic acid leakage from capsules in acidic condition of stomach. First of all, the time of encapsulation was measured which was 140-180 minutes. In this study the effect of Calcium Chloride concentration on encapsulation was studied. Therefore, two variables were selected which were pectin to algine... 

    Biological Removal of Acrylamide Produced During the Baking Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Matouri, Mashaer (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In recent year's acrylamide as a suspected substance for tumor growth has been studied. In some researches this topic is mentioned that acrylamide is produced by the reaction of asparagine and natural sugars. This reaction takes place only at very high temperatures during the heating process. The maximum amount of this substance is determined in fried potato products. In this study, a response surface methodology (RSM) 5-level-3-factor face centre central-composite design (FCCCD) was applied to envestigate the effects of asparaginase (300-900 U/kg of flour), baking temperature (230-280 °c) and baking time (13-16 min) on acrylamide (AA) formation in yeast-leavened wheat bread and... 

    Ways to Detect Dounterfeit Honey

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Emrani, Morteza (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Honey as a food product with plant origin that nearly ninety percent of its dry weight is composed of sugars (mostly fructose and glucose) which has many food and pharmaceutical properties. So honey quality strongly depends on bees feeding practices. For this reason common indexes is defined generally are on the basis of hony composition, for example fructose and reducing sugar portion must be at least thirty and sixty-five percent respectively of total weight or sucrose percent must be utmost five and otherwise puts into question honey quality. To check the quality of five honey samples taken from the market, indexes such as water content, sugar composition(fructose, reducing and total... 

    Producing of Peroxidase Enzymes using Pahnerochaete Chrysosporium for Decolorization of Molasses Wastewater

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alizadeh, Manijheh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    The treatment of water effluent from alcohol industries is among the most challenging industrial wastewater treatments. The challenge mainly arises from the high capacity of organic compounds allowing the growth of microorganisms and pollutants. Brown color of the wastewater also contributes to this phenomenon; it absorbs more sunlight which then reduces the oxygenation of water and thus adversely affecting the aquatic life. Moreover, the acidity of the wastewater decreases the pH level of agricultural soils, so its quality Thus, distillery wastewater, without any treatment can pose a serious threat to the environment. In our study, we investigate the decolorization of molasses wastewater... 

    Investigation of biotechnological production of Vitamin C

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alizad Derakhshi Azar, Sepideh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Vitamin C is an essential for the survival of human, animals and plants. Human and most animals can not produce vitamin C in their bodies, thus the need to produce vitamin C as a supplement is necessary. Nowadays, for the industrial production of vitamin C, two Chinese and Rychstyn methods are used, the first method is a two-step method which is accomplished biological and the second method is done chemically. In Chinese method, first step, which is the most important step is production of L-sorbose from D-sorbitol by Gluconobacter oxydans bacteria .Thus, in this study it was attempted to optimize the production of L-sorbose to be used in industrial production of L-ascorbic acid. In... 

    Preparing a Coated Tablet of Vitamin C

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rastegar, Mehrnoush (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Vitamin C is one of the essential ingredients for the survival of human beings, animals and plants. This vitamin is an ester that in its structure there is a cyclic ester, an alkene Factor (C = C) and four hydroxyl factor (OH). This vitamin is a white solid, water-soluble and non-toxic that exists in many fruits, especially citrus. Its presence in the diet of human resistance them against infections increases. The main factor causing acidic property in vitamin C is the presence of OH groups attached to the alkene. Various forms of vitamin C exists in pharmaceutical collection of European countries. Since the tablet form because of the many advantages including being economical compared with... 

    Liposome Nanoparticles Synthesis in order to Study the Antibiotic Drug Delivery in Simulated Environment of Body

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bahari, Mohsen (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the preparation of nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery. Nanoparticle carriers, by changing the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug, improve the function of the drug and reduce its side effects. In the manufacture of nanoparticles, various materials such as polymers, metal particles, lipids, etc. are used to transfer the drugs, which can produce a different shape and size of the particles depending on their production method. The purpose of this project is the synthesis of liposomal nanoparticles (as nano-carriers) to load an antibiotic (Eucalyptus oil) and study the release of the encapsulated drug in the simulated environment of... 

    Determination of Micro Encapsulation of Probiotic

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Najafizadeh, Mobarakeh (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Probiotics are defined as essential live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. In order to provide health benefits for probiotic bacteria it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g of food product or 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. Several studies have shown that certain strain of lactic acid bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus prevent some diseases linked to the gastro-intestinal tract. however, many reports have demonstrated their poor survival and stability. Their survival in the... 

    Production of Biocellulose Nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter and Evaluation of the Release of the Azithromycin Antibiotic Loaded on It in a Simulated Gastric Fluid

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Gholizadeh, Yousef (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Bacterial cellulose is a kind of cellulose with high purity and Crystallization, which is mainly produced by gram-negative bacteria in aqueous media containing a sugar source.Cellulose produced by this method is in the form of nanofibers and one of its considerable aspects, nowadays, is that this kind of cellulose is used as a drug carrier system for treating various diseases. Azithromycin is used as an antibiotic for the treatment of a wide range of bacterial infections. In this study, cellulose nanofibers were synthesized by gluconacetobacter and its surface was modified using 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg/ml carboxymethylcellulose solution in sodium acetate buffer. Then, by stabilizing azithromycin... 

    Production of Food Emulsifier

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amin Mahalati, Alireza (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manuchehr (Supervisor)
    This research relates to an improved method for making surfactant esters, especially sorbitan monostearate and tristearate. Sorbitan esters of fatty acid, stearate are derived from a reaction between sorbitan and fatty acid. Sorbitan fatty acid ester called sorbitan ester, are surfactants highly safe to use on human body and are widely used as a food additive in the production process as emulsifiers. Sorbitan esters are well known emulsifiers suitable for use in food, pharmaceutical products as well as many other applications. Despite its simple name, sorbitan ester is complex mixture of molecules. One such technique involves direct esterification of sorbitol or an intramolecular condensate... 

    Fabricate of Novel Drug Vector Based on Metallic Nanoparticles and Study of its Effects on Cell Line

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Asadishad, Bahareh (Author) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Application of nanoparticles in targeted delivery and controlled drug release is recently highly attracted especially in cancer therapy. In this study with the aim of developing a novel drug vector based on metallic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles with their unique characteristics were used to design a vector for targeted anti-cancer drug delivery to tumor. First, gold nanoparticles were chemically synthesized therough sodium citrate and sodium brohydrate reductions with average diameters of 22 and 11 nm, respectively. Then, the activated poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and activated folic acid were conjugated to the lysine-capped gold nanoparticles. Subsequently, the widely used anticancer... 

    Using SiO2¬ Nano Particles in Enhanced Oil Recovery Process

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghajari, Zeinab (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor)
    After primary and secondary recovery processes more than 50 percent of oil remains in reservoirs. Therefore for more recovery from these reservoirs, methods of enhanced oil recovery should be applied.In this paper the effect of nanoparticles of SiO2 in size of 14 nm, on wettability is investigated. Using this nanoparticle, the wettability of carbonate rock in reservoirs could be changed and alter from oil-wet or mix-wet to water-wet. To assess this, hydrophilic changes of sandstone core and carbonate core are studied using the contact angle test. The same test is done on the carbonate core saturated with brine and oil that had received injection with brine and nanoparticles of SiO2 with two... 

    Experimental Study and Optimization of Bioremediation of PAHs by Newly Isolated Thermophilic Filamentous Fungi in Slurry Bioreactor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sarayloo, Ehsan (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    Sustainable development requires the development and promotion of environmental management and a constant search for green technologies to treat a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats contaminated by increasing anthropogenic activities. In this work we investigated the ability of four previously isolated fungi, BBRC 9057, BBRC 20020, BBRC 9058 and BBRC 9002, in degradation of polycyclic (PAHs) and the effect of UV irritation on fungi cell growth and degradation of PAHs. Also we studied the degradation of anthracene by thermophilic filamentous fungi in liquid and soil slurry bioreactor. Cell growth and anthracene degradation ability of BBRC 9057 increased 6.51 and 1.82 times rather... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hassanjani, Sina (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Vosoughi, Manouchehr (Co-Advisor)
    Nowadays with the extension of industry and factories as well as different kinds of plants, a wide range of pollution and circumference hazardous has been entered to the people`s life. Industrial wastewater has been always a threat for health of our environment and efforts for reducing its dangerous effects are still under studies. Dairy wastewater is one of the main branches of food industrial pollutions and it has been studied in this specific project. The goal was to reduce the Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD) of dairy wastewater with oxidation of Titanium Dioxide Nanophotocatalyst oxidation under UV irradiation. Among the various methods for synthesizing of this Nanophotocatalyst, the...