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    Economic Effects of Dam Construction in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Tajrishy, Mohammad Saeed (Author) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    The economic effects of large dams that were constructed during 1370-1393 in Iran are explored in this thesis and their effects on agriculture and welfare of their own district and downstream districts are analyzed. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method is used to investigate these effects and for more accurate results, we control for geographical variables and rainfall. The results of this study show that dam construction leads to higher agricultural yield, production value and irrigated area in the dam’s own district; but it doesn’t affect yield, production and irrigated area of downstream districts. Also dam construction results in planting more water-intensive crops in their own district... 

    A comparative studyof cellulose agricultural wastes (almond shell, pistachio shell, walnut shell, tea waste and orange peel) for adsorption of violet B dye from aqueous solutions

    , Article Oriental Journal of Chemistry ; Vol. 30, issue. 4 , 2014 , p. 2091-2098 Hashemian, S ; Shayegan, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Adsorption of violet B azo dye from aqueous solutions was studied by different cellulose agricultural waste materials (almond shell (AS), pistachio shell (PS), walnut shell (WS), Tea waste (TW) and orange peel (OP)). Cellulose agriculturalwaste sorbents characterized by FTIR and SEM methods. The effects of different parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration were studied. Maximum removal of dye was obtained at contact time of 90 min and pH 11. The adsorption of violet B was fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm model was better fitted than Freundlichmodel. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency of violet B by... 

    Composites of rice husk/wheat straw with pMDI resin and polypropylene

    , Article Polymers and Polymer Composites ; Volume 15, Issue 8 , 2007 , Pages 619-626 ; 09673911 (ISSN) Frounchi, M ; Dadbin, S ; Jahanbakhsh, J ; Janat Alipour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Rapra Technology Ltd  2007
    The application of agricultural fibers for making particleboards has been studied in two types of composites: (i) type I particleboards were composites of wheat straw and rice husk fibers with polymeric methylene di-phenyl diisocyanate resin (pMDI) as a binder made by compression moulding; (ii) type II particleboards were composites of rice husk and polypropylene made by extrusion and injection moulding. In type I particleboards, the effects of varying the resin content and various combinations of wheat straw/rice husk fibers were investigated and characterised in terms of physical and mechanical properties of particle boards such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, compression... 

    System dynamics to assess the effectiveness of restoration scenarios for the Urmia Lake: A prey-predator approach for the human-environment uncertain interactions

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 593 , 2021 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Barhagh, S. E ; Zarghami, M ; Alizade Govarchin Ghale, Y ; Shahbazbegian, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    In recent decades, population growth, agricultural development and climate change have caused environmental problems in the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Urmia Lake, one of the unique biosphere reserves of the world, has suffered from these problems in the last 20 years. Although many studies conducted to the negative impacts of human-induced activities, especially agricultural expansion on the lake, few studies focused on providing restoration plans for that. This study uses a system dynamics method for modelling the restorations scenarios of Urmia Lake based on the prey-predator approach. This method is helpful to simplify the complicated feedbacks and... 

    Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    , Article Talanta ; Vol. 128, issue , 2014 , Pages 231-236 ; ISSN: 00399140 Es-Haghi, A ; Baghernejad, M ; Bagheri, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with... 

    Comparative assessment of bioethanol supply chain: insights from Iran

    , Article Biofuels ; Volume 12, Issue 4 , 2021 , Pages 475-483 ; 17597269 (ISSN) Haj Hasan, A ; Avami, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2021
    Biofuels are important alternative fuel in recent years. In this work, the bioethanol supply chain planning is performed by BioEnergy Supply Model to optimally find the best pathways using economic and environmental objective functions in Iran. Then, different sustainability criteria focusing on environmental, economic, and social concerns are assessed for possible routes of the bioethanol production from available resources. Although agriculture residues and wastes, decrease the greenhouse gas emissions but municipal solid wastes are more economic and require less water. The agricultural wastes and residues improve the sustainability. Then, criteria focusing on environmental, economic, and... 

    Contribution and Economic Value of Groundwater in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nasrollah Poursamami, Amir (Author) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In this paper we seek to find the contribution of groundwater in irrigation agriculture in Iran. We use nationwide panel data of agricultural production in the period of 1993-2013. The results show us differences in productivity of agricultural outputs due to availability of groundwater. Panel data allows us to control regional factors like soil fertility affecting the productivity. We are looking for the main contributors to groundwater usage. Population growth in demand side and groundwater availability in supply side seem to be the most important factors  

    The Impact of Climate Change on Iran’s Agricultural Sector

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ziaeian Ghasemzadeh, Negar (Author) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Agriculture consists a significant share in the economies of developing countries, and since temperatures and precipitation are considered to be the inputs for crop production, climate change has a direct impact on the agricultural sector. In this study, we are investigating the effect of climate change on the production and yield of crops in Iran, and for this purpose, we have used annual changes in temperature, precipitation, production, and yield of crops taking into account the fixed effects of year and district. To do this, we have used the panel data of districts between 1993 and 2015 regarding temperature and precipitation, the area under cultivation, and the amount of crops.... 

    Bed moisture estimation by monitoring of air stream temperature rise in packed-bed solid-state fermentation

    , Article Chemical Engineering Science ; Volume 61, Issue 17 , 2006 , Pages 5654-5663 ; 00092509 (ISSN) Khanahmadi, M ; Roostaazad, R ; Mitchell, D. A ; Miranzadeh, M ; Bozorgmehri, R ; Safekordi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    We develop a method for predicting the moisture content of the fermenting solids in an intermittently mixed packed-bed bioreactor on the basis of measurements of the inlet and outlet gas stream temperatures and the assumption that both the gas streams are saturated with water vapor. This method can be used to estimate when an intermittently mixed packed bed should be mixed and how much water should be added during the mixing event. The predictions were experimentally verified for the growth of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran in a thin packed bed. We show that the application of a controller based on our estimation method would have led to adequate moisture control, with significant errors in... 

    Development of a mathematical methodology to investigate biohydrogen production from regional and national agricultural crop residues: A case study of Iran

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Volume 42, Issue 4 , 2017 , Pages 1989-2007 ; 03603199 (ISSN) Asadi, N ; Karimi Alavijeh, M ; Zilouei, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2017
    This study aims to construct a quantitative framework to assess biological production of hydrogen from agricultural residues in a country or region. The presented model is able to determine proper crops for biohydrogen production, its possible applications and use as well as environmental aspects. A multiplicative decomposition method was designed to forecast future production and Monte Carlo simulation was employed in the model to evaluate the risk of estimations. From 2013 to 2050, the hydrogen production capacity could increase from 53.59 to 164.41 kilotonnes (kt) in Iran. The highest contribution to biohydrogen production (52.1% in 2013 and 73.3% in 2050) belongs to cereal crops... 

    Introduction to FEW nexus

    , Article Food-Energy-Water Nexus Resilience and Sustainable Development: Decision-Making Methods, Planning, and Trade-Off Analysis ; 2020 , Pages 29-56 Lotfi, A ; Mohammadi Ivatloo, B ; Asadi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer International Publishing  2020
    Food, energy, and water (FEW) resources have high interconnection and interdependencies as each resource can be affected by the other two. Thus, the Nexus approach is introduced and implemented to manage FEW. This chapter discusses each sector of FEW: availability, production, consumption, interaction, and interconnection between them, and finally suggests some action to improve the operation of the Nexus. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020  

    GABIST: A new methodology to find near optimal LFSR for BIST structure

    , Article 14th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, ICECS 2007, Marrakech, 11 December 2007 through 14 December 2007 ; 2007 , Pages 1107-1110 ; 1424413788 (ISBN); 9781424413782 (ISBN) Kamal, M ; Salmani Jelodar, M ; Hessabi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Fault coverage and test time have important roles in using Built in self-test (BIST). Two parameters are crucial and effective in BIST design: LFSR's polynomial (or configuration) and its initial seed. In this paper we propos a practical method for finding near optimal LFSR with genetic algorithm (GA) and show that LFSR is a good TPG compared with other TPGs. In this method, the candidate seeds are achieved through a deterministic approach, and an evolutionary approach is employed to obtain the LFSR configurations for the desired fault coverage under test time constraint. The configurations are encoded in binary chromosomes. The evolution process evolves the fittest configurations to achieve... 

    Geo-spatiotemporal intelligence for smart agricultural and environmental eco-cyber-physical systems

    , Article Studies in Computational Intelligence ; Volume 911 , 2021 , Pages 471-491 ; 1860949X (ISSN) Majidi, B ; Hemmati, O ; Baniardalan, F ; Farahmand, H ; Hajitabar, A ; Sharafi, S ; Aghajani, K ; Esmaeili, A ; Manzuri, M. T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2021
    The rapid changes of the climate and the environment requires smart solutions and deployment of intelligent automated systems in agriculture and environment management. Rural communities should use artificial intelligence and big data analytics solutions in order to be able to mitigate the effects of climate change in the next decades. The Eco-Cyber-Physical-System (ecoCystem) is a combination of the living entities of the ecosystem in conjunction with the Cyber-Physical System (CPS) based components of the smart rural environments, interacting as a system. The goal of the ecoCystem is to use the power of artificial intelligence combined with Internet of Things (IOT) in order to provide... 

    Production of glucoamylase by aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation

    , Article International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications ; Volume 25, Issue 1 , 2012 , Pages 1-7 ; 1728-144X (ISSN) Nahid, P ; Vossoughi, M ; Roostaazad, R ; Ahmadi, M ; Zarrabi, A ; Hosseini, S. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this study, Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger was investigated under solid state fermentation using low cost by-products of agricultural processes as substrate. Highest enzyme production was observed when a combination of wheat bran (WB) and corn flour (CF) was used as compared to WB+ rice bran, WB+ rice flour and WB alone. Several compositions of corn flours were experimented. The best combination of WB in addition of 10% corn flour resulted maximum enzyme activities. Study of the fermentations in flasks revealed 373.3 IU/gds and 41.4 g/l for the enzyme activity and protein concentration respectively under conditions of 30± 1°C, pH 4.7 and time 96 h. Optimum conditions... 

    A nine-step approach for developing and implementing an “agricultural drought risk management plan”; case study: Alamut River basin in Qazvin, Iran

    , Article Natural Hazards ; Volume 102, Issue 3 , 2020 , Pages 1187-1205 Fatehi Marj, A ; Hosseini Hossein Abadi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2020
    Occurrence of drought, as an inevitable natural climate feature, cannot be ceased while happening. However, costs of the consequences could be alleviated using mature scientific integrated approaches. To reduce the amount of damage, it is required to provide “Contingency” and “Mitigation” action plans. For this reason, development of efficient operating instructions for various regions based on weather conditions and field studies is needed as well as having a sophisticated understanding of socioeconomic situations. This paper describes an approach to provide the first national agricultural drought risk management plan for a river basin in Iran country as a pilot. The study lasted for... 

    Seismic response and failure modes of steel silos with isotropic stepped walls: The effect of vertical component of ground motion and comparison of buckling resistances under seismic actions with those under wind or discharge loads

    , Article Engineering Failure Analysis ; Volume 120 , 2021 ; 13506307 (ISSN) Mehretehran, A. M ; Maleki, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Steel silos are one of the main structures for bulk solids handling and storage in many industries and agricultural sectors. A growing body of research suggests the importance of including the vertical component of earthquake ground motion in seismic analysis and design of certain structures. In the case of steel silos, this may induce additional meridional compression to exacerbate buckling failures in such thin shells. Accordingly, this paper investigates the buckling behavior of three cylindrical steel silos (i.e., a squat, an intermediate slender and a slender silo) with stepped walls subjected to horizontal only (H) and horizontal and vertical (HV) ground accelerations to address this... 

    Interconnected governance and social barriers impeding the restoration process of Lake Urmia

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 598 , 2021 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Pouladi, P ; Badiezadeh, S ; Pouladi, M ; Yousefi, P ; Farahmand, H ; Kalantari, Z ; Yu, D. J ; Sivapalan, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Lake Urmia in Iran has undergone catastrophic desiccation due to increasing anthropogenic development, especially in the agricultural sector. A paramount national goal is to restore the lake to its former healthy condition, but corresponding water governance and restoration efforts have encountered various, mostly human-related, challenges. We argue here that these challenges stem from lack of awareness and insufficient consideration of the local social conditions and the subtleties of human-water interactions, which we collectively refer to as socio-hydrological barriers. Ignorance of such socio-hydrological barriers can lead to policy efforts that are mismatched with local realities and,... 

    A novel sensitive aptamer-based nanosensor using rGQDs and MWCNTs for rapid detection of diazinon pesticide

    , Article Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; Volume 9, Issue 1 , 2021 ; 22133437 (ISSN) Fooladi Talari, F ; Bozorg, A ; Faridbod, F ; Vossoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    An optical apta-nanosensor was designed and developed based on reduced graphene quantum dots (rGQDs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and applied for the selective detection of diazinon as one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides. Considering the GQDs and rGQDs high fluorescence emission and optical stability, efficient optical transducers could be designed and precise detection methods could be developed based on such transducers. Herein, by using rGQDs, diazinon specific aptamer, and MWCNTs, a simple economical fluorescence method has been introduced to detect and measure diazinon with the detection limit of 0.4 nM (0.1 μg/L) in the range of 4-31 nM, meeting the... 

    Explore Reasons for Rejection of Agricultural Technologies in Underdeveloped Areas with Water Scarcity Problem

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Choobchian, Pooria (Author) ; Kiamehr, Mehdi (Supervisor) ; Maleki, Ali (Supervisor)
    Respect to increasing water scarcity in the world, it is necessary to ameliorate agriculture methods in order to efficiency enhancement. However, it seems that in underdeveloped counties faced with the water problem, barriers exist which prevent farmers from adopting new technologies. For researching this problem, drop pressure technology studied in Salmas County locate in West Azerbaijan state in Iran. The purpose of this research is to explore factors of lack of diffusion of new agricultural technologies in underdeveloped areas with water scarcity problem. The research problem is that notwithstanding government facilities, the diffusion rate of drop pressure technology in this area is very... 

    Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Various Pollution from Aqueous Solutions by Vegetable Residues

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohebali, Sanaz (Author) ; Bastani, Dariush (Supervisor) ; Seif-Kordi, Ali Akbar (Supervisor)
    Celery residue modified with H2SO4 was utilized as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of hazardous dyes (methylene blue, malachite green and congo red) and heavy metals (Pb(II) and Cd(II)) from aqueous solution in batch adsorption process. Also, celery residue modified with cationic surfactant (CTAB) to enhance the removal of congo red (anionic dye). The treated and untreated adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The efficacy of dye removal of the modified celery residue was investigated by varying adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, initial dye concentration, and temperature. Experimental data were fitted by three...