Search for: arid-region
0.005 seconds

    Calibrating priestley-taylor model to estimate open water evaporation under regional advection using volume balance method-case study: chahnimeh reservoir, Iran

    , Article Journal of Applied Sciences ; Volume 8, Issue 22 , 2008 , Pages 4097-4104 ; 18125654 (ISSN) Daneshkar Arasteh, P ; Tajrishy, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    The objective of this study is to calibrate Priestley-Taylor (PT) model for estimating open water evaporation from an arid region reservoir called Chahnimeh. Chahnimeh Reservoir which is situated in the Sistan area in the southeast of Iran is being affected by regional energy advection during May to October. Therefore, common models of open water evaporation estimation such as PT require calibration. PT method was calibrated for Chahnimeh Reservoir using a volume balance method. Results showed that PT coefficient, αPT, as a constant over the year varies between 2.47±0.09 and 1.20±0.03 for two different hydrologic conditions of dry and wet. It means that there is also an intra-annular... 

    Contribution of the Middle Eastern dust source areas to PM10 levels in urban receptors: Case study of Tehran, Iran

    , Article Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 75 , 2013 , Pages 287-295 ; 13522310 (ISSN) Givehchi, R ; Arhami, M ; Tajrishy, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    The origins and evolution of the Middle Eastern dust storms which frequently impact the residents of this arid region were studied. A methodology was adapted and developed to identify the desert regions of potential dust sources and determine their contributions to PM10 concentrations in the highly-populated receptor city of Tehran, Iran. Initially, the episodes of regional dust intrusion and the resulting amounts of increase in the particulate concentrations during these episodes were determined using a statistical analyzing methodology. The dust episodes were also inspected with the aerosol index information from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian... 

    Seasonal prediction of Karoon streamflow using large-scale climate indices

    , Article World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2011: Bearing Knowledge for Sustainability - Proceedings of the 2011 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, 22 May 2011 through 26 May 2011 ; May , 2011 , Pages 1184-1193 ; 9780784411735 (ISBN) Azimi, M ; Golpaygani, F ; Tajrishy, M ; Abrishamchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Water resources limitation in arid and semi arid regions on one hand and water demand increase on the other, have made the optimum utilization of existing water resources and systems necessary. In this context, researchers are trying to increase the accuracy and lag time of prediction by using various statistic and empirical models as well as different local and long-range variables in the last decades. Karoon River is the greatest and most important river in Iran because of agricultural water demand supply and hydroelectric power production. Therefore streamflow prediction of this river has considerable economical and social benefits. In this study the relationship between Karoon stramflow... 

    Selective withdrawal optimization in a multipurpose water use reservoir

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 16, Issue 10 , 2019 , Pages 5559-5568 ; 17351472 (ISSN) Aghasian, K ; Moridi, A ; Mirbagheri, A ; Abbaspour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Center for Environmental and Energy Research and Studies  2019
    Dam construction in arid and semiarid regions is generally related to the risk of increased salinity, due to water passage in contact with salty formations. Hence, it is important to take reservoir thermal and salinity stratification into account in operational rules. In the present study, a simulation–optimization model was developed to determine the amount of water release from various outlets to discharge the brine from hypolimnion layer considering the downstream water quality limitations. The most appropriate time, rate, and concentration to release brine were determined based on water consumption conditions and downstream water demand and river ecology characteristics. The proposed... 

    Quantification of irrigation water using remote sensing of soil moisture in a semi-arid region

    , Article Remote Sensing of Environment ; Volume 231 , 2019 ; 00344257 (ISSN) Jalilvand, E ; Tajrishy, M ; Ghazi Zadeh Hashemi, S. A ; Brocca, L ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Inc  2019
    Irrigated agriculture is the principal consumer of fresh water resources. Most countries do not have a precise measurement of water consumption for irrigation. In this study, an innovative approach is proposed that allows for estimation of irrigation water use at the catchment scale based on satellite soil moisture data. To this end, the SM2RAIN algorithm, which had been originally developed for estimation of rainfall from the soil moisture observations, is adopted. The satellite soil moisture observations obtained from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) along with different rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET) products in the period 2012–2015 are used as the input to the... 

    Thermal structure and energy budget for alghadir reservoir, iran

    , Article Water Resources ; Volume 40, Issue 6 , 2013 , Pages 621-630 ; 00978078 (ISSN) Hassani, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Knowing the rate of evaporation from surface water resources such as channels and reservoirs is essential for precise management of the water balance. Few detailed evaporation studies exist for small lakes or reservoirs in arid regions of the world. In this study, monthly evaporation was determined by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget technique (BREB) for Alghadir reservoir (Saveh, Iran) from 1995-2007 and compared with class-A pan. Daily data were obtained from IMO (Iran Meteorological Organization) weather station, located near the reservoir, for all of these years. Some variations have been observed on the estimated evaporation of the energy budget at different years, ranging from 151 cm for 1997... 

    Conceptualization of a fresh groundwater lens influenced by climate change: A modeling study of an arid-region island in the Persian Gulf, Iran

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Vol. 519, issue. PA , 2014 , pp. 399-413 ; ISSN: 00221694 Mahmoodzadeh, D ; Ketabchi, H ; Ataie-Ashtiani, B ; Simmons, C. T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Understanding the fresh groundwater lens (FGL) behavior and potential threat of climatic-induced seawater intrusion (SWI) are significant for the future water resources management of many small islands. In this paper, the FGL of Kish Island, an arid-region case in the Persian Gulf, Iran, is modeled using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. These simulations are based on the application of SUTRA, a density-dependent groundwater numerical model. Also, the numerical model parameters are calibrated using PEST, an automated parameter estimation code. Firstly a detailed conceptualization of the FGL model is completed to understand the sensitivity of the FGL to some... 

    Inverse modelling for freshwater lens in small islands: Kish Island, Persian Gulf

    , Article Hydrological Processes ; Volume 27, Issue 19 , 2013 , Pages 2759-2773 ; 08856087 (ISSN) Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Rajabi, M. M ; Ketabchi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    A number of challenges including instability, nonconvergence, nonuniqueness, nonoptimality, and lack of a general guideline for inverse modelling have limited the application of automatic calibration by generic inversion codes in solving the saltwater intrusion problem in real-world cases. A systematic parameter selection procedure for the selection of a small number of independent parameters is applied to a real case of saltwater intrusion in a small island aquifer system in the semiarid region of the Persian Gulf. The methodology aims at reducing parameter nonuniqueness and uncertainty and the time spent on inverse modelling computations. Subsequent to the automatic calibration of the... 

    Contribution of Iraqi and Syrian dust storms on particulate matter concentration during a dust storm episode in receptor cities: Case study of Tehran

    , Article Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 222 , 2020 Jalali Farahani, V ; Arhami, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Frequent dust storms originated from Middle Eastern deserts impact major cities in Iran, including Tehran. Previous studies identified Iraqi and Syrian deserts as the main cross-border contributors to Tehran Particulate Matter (PM) levels. In this study, the contribution of Iraqi and Syrian dust storms to Tehran's PM10 and PM2.5 concentration were assessed during a dust storm episode. Initially, a dust storm event was identified through the statistical analysis of the recorded air pollution data at Tehran's monitoring stations and the visual inspection of the satellite images. A combination of CMAQ/WRF/SMOKE modeling systems was used to simulate PM concentrations from Tehran local sources... 

    Assessment of the impacts of sewerage network on groundwater quantity and nitrate contamination: case study of tehran

    , Article World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2020: Groundwater, Sustainability, Hydro-Climate/Climate Change, and Environmental Engineering, 17 May 2020 through 21 May 2020 ; 2020 , Pages 53-66 Khorasani, H ; Kerachian, R ; Aghayi, M. M ; Zahraie, B ; Zhu, Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)  2020
    Many communities in arid and semi-Arid areas rely on groundwater for drinking water. However, anthropogenic activities such as the use of fertilizers and human waste disposal impose the risk of nitrate pollution to the aquifers. With over 8.5 million population, Tehran, the capital of Iran, has experienced rapid population growth during the past decades while the majority of the city did not have a sewerage network and the main way of wastewater disposal was individual cesspits inside houses. The long-Term discharge of raw wastewater in cesspits has increased nitrate concentration in the Tehran aquifer which serves as a source of one-Third of drinking water for the city. Although the... 

    System dynamics to assess the effectiveness of restoration scenarios for the Urmia Lake: A prey-predator approach for the human-environment uncertain interactions

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 593 , 2021 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Barhagh, S. E ; Zarghami, M ; Alizade Govarchin Ghale, Y ; Shahbazbegian, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    In recent decades, population growth, agricultural development and climate change have caused environmental problems in the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions such as Iran. Urmia Lake, one of the unique biosphere reserves of the world, has suffered from these problems in the last 20 years. Although many studies conducted to the negative impacts of human-induced activities, especially agricultural expansion on the lake, few studies focused on providing restoration plans for that. This study uses a system dynamics method for modelling the restorations scenarios of Urmia Lake based on the prey-predator approach. This method is helpful to simplify the complicated feedbacks and... 

    Multi-criteria decision making for integrated urban water management

    , Article IAHS-AISH Publication ; Issue 293 , 2005 , Pages 73-82 ; 01447815 (ISSN) Zarghaami, M ; Abrishamchi, A ; Ardakanian, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    The integration of water demand management measures using a multi-criteria decision making model is discussed. The demand management measures include leakage detection, water metering and distribution network rehabilitation. A Compromise Programming method is used for integration of criteria including economic efficiency, public health and sustainability. The model is found to be efficient for long-term plans for implementation and usage of resources and is capable of being employed by decision makers in comprehensive urban water management studies  

    Conceptual hydrosalinity model for prediction of salt load from wastewater flows into soil and ground water

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 6, Issue 3 , 2009 , Pages 359-368 ; 17351472 (ISSN) Abbaspour, M ; Mirbagheri, S. A ; Monavvari, M ; Javid, A. H ; Zarei, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Dynamic hydrosalinity models are available, but are not used extensively on a large scale soil which receives wastewater from industrial areas, partly because adequate database are expensive to be obtained. Thus, for this reason, there is an urgent need to assess the salt and other pollutant loads collected in wastewater flows into the soil and/ or ground water systems. A conceptual hydrosalinity model was used on two major underlying principals of mass balance and steady state. This model was initially tested on the 4,117 km2 plains west of the Yazd-Ardakan district in the central part of Iran. This model was used at a time when the soil and ground water salinity problem was serious due to... 

    Multi-criteria decision making for integrated urban water management

    , Article Water Resources Management ; Volume 22, Issue 8 , 2008 , Pages 1017-1029 ; 09204741 (ISSN) Zarghami, M ; Abrishamchi, A ; Ardakanian, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    The city of Zahedan, in South-eastern Iran, has high population growth, limited local freshwater resources and inadequate water distribution system resulting in water supply failures in recent years. This paper will investigate integration of several demand management measures such as leakage detection on water distribution network, water metering and low volume water fixtures as well as the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources of this city. For integration of water management criteria, compromise programming will be used as a multi-objective decision making method. The criteria include minimizing the cost, maximizing water supply and minimizing the social hazards due to the...