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    Chemometrics-assisted effect-directed analysis of crude and refined oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    , Article Environmental Science and Technology ; Vol. 48, issue. 5 , 2014 , pp. 3074-3083 ; ISSN: 0013936X Radovic, J. R ; Thomas, K. V ; Parastar, H ; Diez, S ; Tauler, R ; Bayona, J. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    An effect-directed analysis (EDA) of fresh and artificially weathered (evaporated, photooxidized) samples of North Sea crude oil and residual heavy fuel oil is presented. Aliphatic, aromatic, and polar oil fractions were tested for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, demonstrating for the first time the AR antagonist effects in the aromatic and, to a lesser extent, polar fractions. An extension of the typical EDA strategy to include an N-way partial least-squares (N-PLS) model capable of relating the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) data set to the bioassay data...