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    Wettability alteration in carbonates during "Smart Waterflood": Underling mechanisms and the effect of individual ions

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects ; Volume 487 , 2015 , Pages 142-153 ; 09277757 (ISSN) Rashid, S ; Mousapour, M. S ; Ayatollahi, S ; Vossoughi, M ; Beigy, A. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Abstract
    There are increasing evidences that adjusting the chemistry of the injecting water improves the oil recovery efficiency. However, the underlying mechanisms for this technique which is referred to as "smart waterflood" have not yet been thoroughly understood. It is needed to explore the role of individual ions through set of different tests, to find the right mechanisms behind "smart waterflood". This study is focused on the fluid/solid (carbonate) interactions through systematic wettability measurement. Contact angle measurements accompanied by spontaneous imbibition tests were employed to determine the role of individual monovalent and divalent ions in wettability alteration process by...