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    Designing and modeling a centrifugal microfluidic device to separate target blood cells

    , Article Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering ; Volume 26, Issue 3 , 2016 ; 09601317 (ISSN) Shamloo, A ; Selahi, Aa ; Madadelahi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Physics Publishing  2016
    Abstract
    The objective of this study is to design a novel and efficient portable lab-on-a-CD (LOCD) microfluidic device for separation of specific cells (target cells) using magnetic beads. In this study the results are shown for neutrophils as target cells. However, other kinds of target cells can be separated in a similar approach. The designed microfluidics can be utilized as a point of care system for neutrophil detection. This microfluidic system employs centrifugal and magnetic forces for separation. After model validation by the experimental data in the literature (that may be used as a design tool for developing centrifugo-magnetophoretic devices), two models are presented for separation of... 

    Numerical simulation of centrifugal serpentine micromixers and analyzing mixing quality parameters

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification ; Volume 104 , 2016 , Pages 243-252 ; 02552701 (ISSN) Shamloo, A ; Madadelahi, M ; Akbari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier, B.V  2016
    Abstract
    Centrifugal microfluidics or the Lab on a CD (LOCD) has developed vast applications in biomedical researches and analyses. Fluid mixing is an application of the LOCD. In this paper, multiple centrifugal micromixers were simulated. Various parameters were originally presumed to have an effect on mixing performance. These parameters include inlet angle, angular velocity, cross-sectional profile, perpendicular length ratio and the number of channels in series. They were each analyzed through simulations. It was gathered that the inlet angle does not significantly affect the mixing quality. Increasing angular velocity steadily increases mixing quality for all geometries. The vertical triangular... 

    A centrifugal microfluidic platform to measure hemoglobin of whole blood

    , Article 2017 24th Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering and 2017 2nd International Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2017, 30 November 2017 through 1 December 2017 ; 2018 ; 9781538636091 (ISBN) Mahmodi Arjmand, E ; Saadatmand, M ; Bakhtiari, M. R ; Eghbal, M ; Balaei, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Microfluidics has been becoming more and more popular over last two decades. The reason for this, is inherent features of microfluidics including low consumption of samples and reagents, high sensitivity, short analysis time, and low cost. As well as, centrifugal microfluidics as a subset of microfluidics has been able to prove itself as a helpful tool in analytic assays. The main application of centrifugal microfluidic devices is being used in point-of-care testing systems. Herein, we presented a microfluidic disc for measuring hemoglobin(Hb) concentration in the EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood using cyanmethemoglobin method. In this experiment, at first a hand-made standard solution was... 

    Fluidic barriers in droplet-based centrifugal microfluidics: Generation of multiple emulsions and microspheres

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 311 , May , 2020 Madadelahi, M ; Madou, M. J ; Dorri Nokoorani, Y ; Shamloo, A ; Martinez Chapa, S. O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B. V  2020
    Abstract
    Droplet generation is very important in biochemical processes such as cell encapsulation, digital PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), and drug delivery. In the present paper, a density-based method called “fluidic barrier” is introduced to produce multiple emulsions on a centrifugal microfluidic platform or Lab-on-a-CD (LOCD). We show that the density and the viscosity of the fluids involved are important parameters for predicting the characteristics of the droplets generated with this method. Moreover, we broadened this concept by using the fluidic barriers to separate reactive chemicals. As a proof of concept, alginate and CaCl2 solutions are separated by an oil barrier to control the... 

    Design and Fabrication of Centrifugal Microfluidic System to Measure Blood Factors

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mahmoudi Arjmand, Ehsan (Author) ; Saadatmand, Maryam (Supervisor) ; Eghbal, Manochehr (Supervisor) ; Bakhtiari, Mohammad Reza (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Diabetes mellitus is a global endemic that is rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. Recently, the American Diabetes Association has recommended the hemoglobin A1c as a possible substitute to fasting blood glucose for diagnosis of diabetes because it is an indicator of long-term glycemic control. Also, centrifugal microfluidics systems have a good potential to be used in the point of care testing systems. In this study, two centrifugal microfluidic discs were designed and manufactured in order to separately measure the hemoglobin and hemoglobin A1c in the whole blood. In the first part of the study, the hemoglobin measurement disc consists of two chambers... 

    Simulation of Fluid Aliquoting in Centrifugal Microfluidics

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yousefpour, Mohammad Hossein (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Arghavani, Jamal (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this thesis, a numerical analysis of micro chamber filling in centrifugal microfluidics is investigated. In the development of micro total analysis systems, it is often necessary to achieve complete and uniform filling of relatively large micro chambers. With centrifugal devices, these large micro chambers must often be orientated perpendicularly to the direction of centrifugal force and are usually bounded by materials with varying surface properties. On the other hand, the mixing characterization of two fluid by centrifugal microfluidic method has been also conducted. The multiphase flow analyses based on Eulerian-Eulerian approach have been conducted and the VOF method was used for ... 

    Analyzing mixing quality in a curved centrifugal micromixer through numerical simulation

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification ; 2017 ; 02552701 (ISSN) Shamloo, A ; Vatankhah, P ; Akbari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V 
    Abstract
    The Lab On a CD (LOCD), also known as Centrifugal Microfluidics, has evolved into a sophisticated platform for performing biomedical assays due to its marvelous miniaturization and accurate simulation of biological reactions. Among the numerous applications of the LOCD is fluid mixing. In this paper a centrifugal, serpentine micromixer is simulated and reformed toward better mixing performance. The micromixer was chosen to be curved as a curved design was found to be thrice as functional and compact as a rectilinear design, mixing-wise. The two angular velocity and opening radius parameters were originally hypothesized to affect mixing performance. Effect of angular velocity was studied over... 

    Analyzing mixing quality in a curved centrifugal micromixer through numerical simulation

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification ; Volume 116 , 2017 , Pages 9-16 ; 02552701 (ISSN) Shamloo, A ; Vatankhah, P ; Akbari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2017
    Abstract
    The Lab On a CD (LOCD), also known as Centrifugal Microfluidics, has evolved into a sophisticated platform for performing biomedical assays due to its marvelous miniaturization and accurate simulation of biological reactions. Among the numerous applications of the LOCD is fluid mixing. In this paper a centrifugal, serpentine micromixer is simulated and reformed toward better mixing performance. The micromixer was chosen to be curved as a curved design was found to be thrice as functional and compact as a rectilinear design, mixing-wise. The two angular velocity and opening radius parameters were originally hypothesized to affect mixing performance. Effect of angular velocity was studied over... 

    Numerical simulation of mixing and heat transfer in an integrated centrifugal microfluidic system for nested-PCR amplification and gene detection

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 283 , 2019 , Pages 831-841 ; 09254005 (ISSN) Naghdloo, A ; Ghazimirsaeed, E ; Shamloo, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    Nucleic acid amplification via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the essential and powerful methods used in a myriad of bio-assays in clinical laboratories. Application of microfluidic devices in biologically-related processes like PCR can result in the usage of less volume of reactant samples and reduce the processing time. By implementing PCR systems on centrifugal microfluidic platforms, automation and portability can be easily achieved. Although several methods have been developed, most of them are still dealing with challenges of the required high processing time. This study presents the numerical simulation of a fully automated PCR system with the goal of enhancing the mixing... 

    Design, Simulation and Fabrication of a Centrifugal Microfluidic Device for Circulating Tumor Cells Separation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naghdloo, Amin (Author) ; Shamloo, Amir (Supervisor) ; Nouri Borujerdi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, two centrifugal microfluidic platforms with the goal of separation and genetical study of circulating tumor cells have been designed, simulated and fabricated. Circulating tumor cells are the ones that are detached from the cancer tumors, entered the blood and disseminated the danger of cancer through other parts of the body. Both passive and active methods of separation are investigated in this study. The passive method is based on the inertial effects of the fluid and the active method is based on the magnetophoretic force exerted from an external magnetic field. In order to use the active method, the magnetic nanoparticles are attached to the breast cancer cells by the... 

    Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Integrated Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform for Separation and Lysis of Circulating Tumor Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Momeni, Maede (Author) ; Shamloo, Amir (Supervisor) ; Firoozbakhsh, Keykhosrow (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cancer diagnosis area has recently been in the limelight of the medical research and there exist an unremitting focus on the devices & technologies which enable cancer detection in its victims. Lately a genius diagnostic method based on isolation and entrapment of circulating tumor cells has been developed which pave the path for cancer identification. These circulating cells which are detached from the primary tumor are carried out through body by means of circulation system. They play key role in phenomenon called metastasis. Separating these rare cells from multifarious background blood cells, assessing their quantity can supply valuable information on the stage of disease as well as its... 

    Design, Simulation and Construction of a Rapid Gene Amplification Microfluidic Device Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amadeh, Ali (Author) ; Shamloo, Amir (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Polymerase chain reaction method is a conventional method for obtaining multiple copies of a specified segment in the DNA molecule and to amplify the DNA molecule itself. Therefore, this method has been of paramount importance in different fields of research and has been applied for different applications. PCR requires thermal cycling, or repeated temperature changes between two or three discrete temperatures to amplify specific nucleic acid target sequences. To achieve such thermal cycling, conventional bench-top thermal cyclers generally use a metal heating block powered by Peltier elements or benefit from forced convection heat transfer. Although efforts have been made in order to reduce... 

    Design and Fabrication of a Centrifugal Microfluidic System to Cell Lysis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Khorrami Jahromi, Arash (Author) ; Saadatmand, Maryam (Supervisor) ; Eghbal, Manouchehr (Supervisor) ; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cell lysis, as the first procedure of cell pretreatment, is a process that breaks cell membranes open thereby facilitating access to intracellular substances, such as DNA, proteins, and other components for further analysis to diagnose and treat diseases at early stages. Currently, there are several methods for cell lysis at macroscales. However, the time-consuming and expensive procedures as well as the large scal of the system are the main disadvantages of the systems. Recently, microfluidic systems have attracted considerable attention due to advantages associated with automation, integration and miniaturization of biomedical test protocols. Centrifugal microfluidics (Lab-on-a-Disc) is a... 

    Design, Simulation and Fabrication of a Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform for Separation and Studying of Circulating Tumor Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Akbari, Ali (Author) ; Shamloo, Amir (Supervisor) ; Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project a centrifugal, microfluidic platform to the end of separation and studying circulating tumor cells is designed, modelled and analyzed. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are specific types of cancer cells which leave the original tumor and enter the blood stream. For the separation of CTCs, a novel anti-body separation technic has been used which targets the specific MCF7 CTCs using their corresponding Ep-CAM antibody. First the Ep-CAM antibody is coated on magnetic nanoparticles through a chemical bonding process. Afterwards the CTCs are exposed to their antibodies, through which they will bind together and form CTCs with magnetic characteristics. Finally through exerting an... 

    Design and Fabrication of a Centrifugal Microfluidic System to DNA Extraction

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fathi Ganje Lou, Ali (Author) ; Farhadi, Fathollah (Supervisor) ; Saadatmand, Maryam (Supervisor) ; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction, as one of the most important steps in modern molecular diagnostics, is the process by which DNA is separated from intracellular materials like proteins, membranes, and other materials contained in the cell. Microfluidic technology enables sophisticated, time-consuming and costly experiments with minimal use of raw materials, time and cost and acceptable accuracy. The predominant advantages of centrifugal microfluidic systems are utilizing centrifugal force to generate propulsion without the need for a pump, and eliminating the need for experts to run the system. Various fluidic operations such as valving, mixing, metering, heating, and sample... 

    Design and fabrication of a centrifugal microfluidic disc including septum valve for measuring hemoglobin A1c in human whole blood using immunoturbidimetry method

    , Article Talanta ; Volume 190 , 2018 , Pages 134-139 ; 00399140 (ISSN) Mahmodi Arjmand, E ; Saadatmand, M ; Bakhtiari, M. R ; Eghbal, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2018
    Abstract
    Diabetes mellitus is a global endemic with a rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. Recently, hemoglobin A1c has been recommended by the American Diabetes Associations as a possible substitute for fasting blood glucose for the diagnosis of diabetes, because it is an indicator of long-term glycemic control. Also, centrifugal microfluidic systems have good potential for use in the point of care testing systems. In this study, a centrifugal microfluidic disc was designed and manufactured to measure hemoglobin A1c in whole blood using an immunoturbidimetry based method. Also, a new passive valve, named septum valve, was presented to precisely control the entry... 

    Newtonian and generalized Newtonian reacting flows in serpentine microchannels: pressure driven and centrifugal microfluidics

    , Article Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics ; Volume 251 , January , 2018 , Pages 88-96 ; 03770257 (ISSN) Madadelahi, M ; Shamloo, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2018
    Abstract
    This paper presents a comprehensive 3D numerical simulation of reacting flows in micro scale dimension through centrifugal, or Lab-On-a-CD (LOCD), and pressure-driven, or Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) devices. Three different serpentine channel configurations (rectangular, triangular and sinusoidal) are investigated. In these configurations, two chemical species enter from two inlets and according to an irreversible chemical reaction, start yielding other species. Both Newtonian and generalized Newtonian fluids are considered in the simulations and the results are compared for both LOC and LOCD devices. Besides, the effects of different parameters such as the aspect ratio of channels’ cross section,... 

    Design and simulation of an integrated centrifugal microfluidic device for CTCs separation and cell lysis

    , Article Micromachines ; Volume 11, Issue 7 , July , 2020 Nasiri, R ; Shamloo, A ; Akbari, J ; Tebon, P ; Dokmeci, M. R ; Ahadian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG  2020
    Abstract
    Separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood samples and subsequent DNA extraction from these cells play a crucial role in cancer research and drug discovery. Microfluidics is a versatile technology that has been applied to create niche solutions to biomedical applications, such as cell separation and mixing, droplet generation, bioprinting, and organs on a chip. Centrifugal microfluidic biochips created on compact disks show great potential in processing biological samples for point of care diagnostics. This study investigates the design and numerical simulation of an integrated microfluidic device, including a cell separation unit for isolating CTCs from a blood sample and a... 

    A new detection chamber design on centrifugal microfluidic platform to measure hemoglobin of whole blood

    , Article SLAS Technology ; Volume 26, Issue 4 , 2021 , Pages 392-398 ; 24726303 (ISSN) Mahmodi Arjmand, E ; Saadatmand, M ; Eghbal, M ; Bakhtiari, M. R ; Mehraji, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Inc  2021
    Abstract
    Undoubtedly, microfluidics has been a focal point of interdisciplinary science during the last two decades, resulting in many developments in this area. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms have good potential for use in point-of-care devices because they take advantage of some intrinsic forces, most notably centrifugal force, which obviates the need to any external driving forces. Herein, we introduce a newly designed detection chamber for use on microfluidic discs that can be employed as an absorbance readout step in cases where the final solution has a very low viscosity and surface tension. In such situations, our chamber easily eliminates the air bubbles from the final solution without...