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    Electrochemical studies of the pitting corrosion of tin in citric acid solution containing Cl-

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 53, Issue 13 , 2008 , Pages 4528-4536 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Jafarian, M ; Gobal, F ; Danaee, I ; Biabani, R ; Mahjani, M. G ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    The electrochemical behavior of a tin electrode in citric acid solutions of different concentrations was studied by electrochemical techniques. The E/I curves showed that the anodic behavior of tin exhibits active/passive transition. Passivation is due to the formation of Sn(OH)4 and/or SnO2 film on the electrode surface. Addition of NaCl to citric acid solution, enhances the active dissolution of tin and tends to breakdown the passivity at a certain breakdown potential. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic measurements allow the pitting potential (Epit) and the repassivation potential (Erp) to be determined. Potentiostatic measurements showed that the overall anodic processes can be... 

    An in-situ infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of citrate on Au(1 1 1) electrodes

    , Article Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry ; Volume 542 , 2003 , Pages 67-74 ; 15726657 (ISSN) Floate, S ; Hosseini, M ; Arshadi, M. R ; Ritson, D ; Young, K. L ; Nichols, R. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2003
    Abstract
    The specific adsorption of citrate from perchloric acid electrolytes, has been investigated using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy at Au(1 1 1) electrodes. For comparison IR spectra for formate adsorption are also presented. Clear voltammetric peaks have been observed positive of the pzc and these are shown by FTIR spectroscopy to be associated with the adsorption of citrate. Models for the surface co-ordination of the citrate anion are discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved  

    Citric acid production: Surface culture versus submerged culture

    , Article African Journal of Microbiology Research ; Volume 3, Issue 9 , 2009 , Pages 541-545 ; 19960808 (ISSN) Darouneh, E ; Alavi, A ; Vosoughi, M ; Arjmand, M ; Seifkordi, A ; Rajabi, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    Surface and submerged fermentation methods were used to produce citric acid by Aspergillus niger using chemically defined media or cane molasses. Fermentation process parameters were optimized in pilot scale tower and tray fermenters. Fermentation was running from 10 - 20 days with pH controlled at 3 - 6.5. Citric acid concentrations varied from 60 - 100 g/L depending on the strain used, the substrate, the fermentation system and the general conditions under which fermentation took place (initial sugar concentration, aeration rate, inoculum size, pH and temperature). Some essential criteria such as lower process sensitivity to short interruptions or breakdowns in aeration, expenses for... 

    Core-shell γ-Fe2O3/SiO2/PCA/Ag-NPs hybrid nanomaterials as a new candidate for future cancer therapy

    , Article International Journal of Nanoscience ; Vol. 13, issue. 1 , February , 2014 Soleyman, R ; Pourjavadi, A ; Masoud, N ; Varamesh, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    In the current study, γ-Fe2O3/SiO 2/PCA/Ag-NPs hybrid nanomaterials were successfully synthesized and characterized. At first, prepared γ-Fe2O3 core nanoparticles were modified by SiO2 layer. Then they were covered by poly citric acid (PCA) via melting esterification method as well. PCA shell acts as an effective linker, and provides vacancies for conveying drugs. Moreover, this shell as an effective capping agent directs synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via in situ photo-reduction of silver ions by sunlight-UV irradiation. This system has several benefits as a suitable cancer therapy nanomaterial. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can guide Ag-NPs and drugs to cancer cells and then... 

    Study and Preparation of Coated Drug by PEG Biopolymer (PEGylation) for Release Controlling

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Tavakoli Naeini, Ashkan (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Sarbolouki, Mohammad Nabi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the first part of this work, citric acid monomer was selected to produce dendrimer through the divergent method using logical conditions (for controlling its functional groups) on the base of poly (ethylene glycol) as the core. Triblock copolymers (ABA-type) of citric acid and poly (ethylene glycol) (PCA-PEG-PCA) as biocompatible compounds were synthesized in four different molecular weights and applied as nanocarriers. The structure definition of the molecules and nanoparticles were carried out using different spectroscopy methods. Diameter of the synthesized copolymers was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was... 

    Two nanostructured polymers: Polyaniline nanofibers and new linear-dendritic matrix of poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers for environmental monitoring in novel biosensors

    , Article International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials ; Volume 62, Issue 7 , Jul , 2013 , Pages 377-383 ; 00914037 (ISSN) Shamloo, A ; Vossoughi, M ; Alemzadeh, I ; Naeini, A. T ; Darvish, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    In this work two phenol biosensors, one based on polyaniline nanofibers (PNFs) and the other based on the newly created and introduced linear-dendritic matrix of poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (PCA-PEG-PCA), were chemically modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. These phenol biosensors showed an oxidation peak at 0.55 V. The amperometric response for biosensors based on PNFs showed a linear response range from 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.5 M phenol. Also, the amperometric response for a biosensor based on PCA-PEG-PCA showed a linear response range from 2.5 × 10-6 to 4 × 10-5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 1.5 M phenol  

    Two-stage fungal leaching of vanadium from uranium ore residue of the leaching stage using statistical experimental design

    , Article Annals of Nuclear Energy ; Volume 56 , 2013 , Pages 48-52 ; 03064549 (ISSN) Gharehbagheri, H ; Safdari, J ; Roostaazad, R ; Rashidi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    In this investigation, bioleaching of vanadium from uranium ore residue of the leaching stage was studied by Aspergillus niger in a two-step process at 30 °C and 150 rpm. The first step was initiated by growth of fungi in the absence of mine waste. Using response surface methodology, three factors were surveyed for fungal growth: initial pH, sucrose concentration and spore population. Also concentrations of oxalic, citric, and gluconic acids were measured as response in this step. During 30 days, maximum productions of these acids were 3265, 11578, and 7988 mg/l, respectively. Initial pH and sucrose concentration were significant factors for oxalic and citric acid production; however, for... 

    Recovery of metals from spent refinery hydrocracking catalyst using adapted Aspergillus niger

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 109, Issue 1-2 , 2011 , Pages 65-71 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Amiri, F ; Yaghmaei, S ; Mousavi, S. M ; Sheibani, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    This study was designed to compare one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching of spent catalyst by adapted Aspergillus niger in batch cultures. Aspergillus niger, which was adapted to heavy metal ions, Ni, Mo, Fe, and W, was grown in medium containing up to 5% (w/v) of spent catalyst. The main lixiviant in bioleaching was gluconic acid, which was produced at all pulp densities in the one-step bioleaching process. Gluconic acid was also produced in the two-step bioleaching process when the spent catalyst was present at pulp densities greater than 1% (w/v). In the spent medium leaching, however, the primary agent was citric acid. The pulp density of the spent catalyst was varied, and this... 

    Encapsulation of palladium nanoparticles by multiwall carbon nanotubes-graft-poly(citric acid) hybrid materials

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 116, Issue 4 , 2010 , Pages 2188-2196 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Adeli, M ; Mehdipour, E ; Bavadi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    Citric acid was polymerized onto the surface of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTCOOH) and MWCNT-graft-poly(citric acid) (MWCNTg-PCA) hybrid materials were obtained. Due to the grafted poly(citric acid) branches, MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials not only were soluble in water but also were able to trap water soluble metal ions. Reduction of trapped metal ions in the polymeric shell of MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials by reducing agents such as sodium borohydride led to encapsulated metal nanoparticles on the surface of MWCNT. Herein palladium nanoparticles were encapsulated and transported by MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials (MWCNT-g-PCA-EPN) and their application as nanocatalyst toward... 

    Poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers-new biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine

    , Article Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine ; Volume 6, Issue 4 , Aug , 2010 , Pages 556-562 ; 15499634 (ISSN) Tavakoli Naeini, A ; Adeli, M ; Vossoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks were synthesized through polycondensation. The molecular self-assembly of synthesized PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water led to formation of nanoparticles and fibers in different sizes and shapes depending on the time and size of PCA blocks. Ten days after dissolving PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water, the size of fibers had reached several millimeters. Mixing a water solution of fluorescein as a small guest molecule and PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers led to the encapsulation of fluorescein by products of molecular self-assembly. To investigate their potential... 

    Bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen and oxygen co-decorated carbon quantum dots with enhanced DNA plasmid expression

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces ; Volume 184 , 2019 ; 09277765 (ISSN) Yadegari, A ; Khezri, J ; Esfandiari, S ; Mahdavi, H ; Karkhane, A. A ; Rahighi, R ; Heidarimoghadam, R ; Tayebi, L ; Hashemi, E ; Farmany, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    In this paper, a bottom-up hydrothermal route is reported for the synthesis of oxygen and nitrogen co-decorated carbon quantum dots (CQDs) using ammonium hydrogen citrate (AHC) as a single precursor. DLS data approved the formation of 4.0 nm (average size) CQDs. XRD pattern shows the interlayer spacing (002) of 3.5 Å for CQDs, which is exactly the same as that of crystalline graphite. XPS and FTIR spectra verified the formation of oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on the CQDs surface. Co-decorated carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine groups on the CQDs surfaces make them as promising polyelectrolyte for gene delivery. Toxicity assay showed a survival rate of 70% under different incubation times... 

    Simultaneously synthesis and encapsulation of metallic nanoparticles using linear-dendritic block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (citric acid)

    , Article Key Engineering Materials, 8 July 2010 through 9 July 2010 ; Volume 478 , July , 2011 , Pages 7-12 ; 10139826 (ISSN) ; 9783037851357 (ISBN) Naeini, A. T ; Vossoughi, M ; Adeli, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    Linear-dendritic triblock copolymers of linear poly(ethylene glycol) and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA-PEG-PCA) were used as the reducing and capping agents to encapsulate gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in four different molecular weights were synthesized using 2, 5, 10 and 20 citric acid/PEG molar ratios and were called A 1, A 2, A 3 and A 4, respectively. Nanoparticles were encapsulated simultaneously during the preparation process. AuNPs were simply synthesized and encapsulated by addition a boiling aqueous solution of HAuCl 4 to aqueous solutions of A 1, A 2, A 3 and A 4. In the case of silver, an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 was reduced... 

    Nanostructured aluminium titanate (Al2TiO5) particles and nanofibers: Synthesis and mechanism of microstructural evolution

    , Article Materials Characterization ; Volume 103 , 2015 , Pages 125-132 ; 10445803 (ISSN) Azarniya, A ; Azarniya, A ; Madaah Hosseini, H. R ; Simchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Inc  2015
    Abstract
    Abstract In this study, aluminium titanate (AT) particles and nanofibers were synthesized through citrate sol gel and sol gel-assisted electrospinning methods in both nanostructured powder and nanofiber forms. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis showed that the synthetic products benefit a nanostructured nature with a grain size less than 70 nm. The optimal values for time and temperature at which a roughly pure AT is attained were determined as 2 h and 900 C, respectively. It was found that the sol gel precursor bears an amorphous structure till 700 C and begins to be crystallized to alumina, anatase and AT... 

    Synthesis of gold nanoparticle necklaces using linear-dendritic copolymers

    , Article European Polymer Journal ; Volume 46, Issue 2 , 2010 , Pages 165-170 ; 00143057 (ISSN) Tavakoli Naeini, A ; Adeli, M ; Vossoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    Linear-dendritic copolymers containing hyperbranched poly(citric acid) and linear poly(ethylene glycol) blocks (PCA-PEG-PCA) were used as reducing and capping agents to synthesize and support gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers with 1758, 1889 and 3446 molecular weights, called A1, A2 and A3 through this work, respectively, were synthesized using 2, 5, and 10 citric acid/PEG molar ratios. The diameter of A1, A2 and A3 in a fresh water solution was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and it was between 1.8 and 2.8 nm. AuNPs were simply synthesized and supported by addition a boiling aqueous solution of HAuCl4 to aqueous solutions of A1, A2 and A3. Supported AuNPs... 

    Effect of gamma ray on magnetic bio-nanocomposite

    , Article Materials Chemistry and Physics ; Volume 170 , 2016 , Pages 71-76 ; 02540584 (ISSN) Asadi, S ; Frounchi, M ; Dadbin, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2016
    Abstract
    Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (M-PVA) films were prepared via solution casting filled with surface modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles (M-NPs). The M-NPs were coated with citric acid during synthesis. The chemical interaction between the citric acid and M-NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The average hydrodynamic diameter of M-NPs was 19.7 nm measured by dynamic light scattering DLS and appeared almost spherical in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The M-NPs were uniformly dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and showed high optical transparency with good mechanical properties. M-PVA hydrogels were synthesized using gamma irradiation. The... 

    Fabrication and characterization of a starch-based nanocomposite scaffold with highly porous and gradient structure for bone tissue engineering

    , Article Biomedical Physics and Engineering Express ; Volume 4, Issue 5 , 2018 ; 20571976 (ISSN) Mirab, F ; Eslamian, M ; Bagheri, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Physics Publishing  2018
    Abstract
    Starch based scaffolds are considered as promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. In this study, a highly porous starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based nanocomposite scaffold with a gradient pore structure was made by incorporating different bio-additives, including citric acid, cellulose nanofibers, and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The scaffold was prepared by employing unidirectional and cryogenic freeze-casting and subsequently freeze-drying methods. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the cross-linking of starch and PVA molecules through multiple esterification phenomenon in the presence of citric acid as a cross-linking agent. Field emission scanning... 

    The metabolic network model of primed/naive human embryonic stem cells underlines the importance of oxidation-reduction potential and tryptophan metabolism in primed pluripotency

    , Article Cell and Bioscience ; Volume 9, Issue 1 , 2019 ; 20453701 (ISSN) Yousefi, M ; Marashi, S. A ; Sharifi Zarchi, A ; Taleahmad, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    BioMed Central Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    Background: Pluripotency is proposed to exist in two different stages: Naive and Primed. Conventional human pluripotent cells are essentially in the primed stage. In recent years, several protocols have claimed to generate naive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). To the best of our knowledge, none of these protocols is currently recognized as the gold standard method. Furthermore, the consistency of the resulting cells from these diverse protocols at the molecular level is yet to be shown. Additionally, little is known about the principles that govern the metabolic differences between naive and primed pluripotency. In this work, using a computational approach, we tried to shed light on... 

    Trichloroethylene degradation by PVA-coated calcium peroxide nanoparticles in Fe(II)-based catalytic systems: enhanced performance by citric acid and nanoscale iron sulfide

    , Article Environmental Science and Pollution Research ; Volume 28, Issue 3 , 2021 , Pages 3121-3135 ; 09441344 (ISSN) Ali, M ; Shan, A ; Sun, Y ; Gu, X ; Lyu, S ; Zhou, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2021
    Abstract
    In this study, the enhanced trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation performance was investigated by polyvinyl alcohol coated calcium peroxide nanoparticles (PVA@nCP) as an oxidant in Fe(II)-based catalytic systems. The nanoscale iron sulfide (nFeS), having an average particle size of 115.4 nm, was synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, TEM, HR-TEM along with EDS elemental mapping, XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, and XPS techniques. In only ferrous iron catalyzed system (PVA@nCP/Fe(II)), TCE degradation was recorded at 58.9% in 6 h. In comparison, this value was increased to 97.5% or 99.7% with the addition of citric acid (CA) or nFeS in PVA@nCP/Fe(II) system, respectively. A comparative... 

    Trichloroethylene degradation by PVA-coated calcium peroxide nanoparticles in Fe(II)-based catalytic systems: enhanced performance by citric acid and nanoscale iron sulfide

    , Article Environmental Science and Pollution Research ; Volume 28, Issue 3 , 2021 , Pages 3121-3135 ; 09441344 (ISSN) Ali, M ; Shan, A ; Sun, Y ; Gu, X ; Lyu, S ; Zhou, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2021
    Abstract
    In this study, the enhanced trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation performance was investigated by polyvinyl alcohol coated calcium peroxide nanoparticles (PVA@nCP) as an oxidant in Fe(II)-based catalytic systems. The nanoscale iron sulfide (nFeS), having an average particle size of 115.4 nm, was synthesized in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, TEM, HR-TEM along with EDS elemental mapping, XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, and XPS techniques. In only ferrous iron catalyzed system (PVA@nCP/Fe(II)), TCE degradation was recorded at 58.9% in 6 h. In comparison, this value was increased to 97.5% or 99.7% with the addition of citric acid (CA) or nFeS in PVA@nCP/Fe(II) system, respectively. A comparative... 

    Modeling of a cationic glucose-sensitive membrane with consideration of oxygen limitation

    , Article Journal of Membrane Science ; Volume 254, Issue 1-2 , 2005 , Pages 119-127 ; 03767388 (ISSN) Abdekhodaie, M. J ; Wu, X. Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    A theoretical model concerning simultaneous diffusion and reaction was developed to describe the steady state behavior of a cationic glucose-sensitive membrane with consideration of oxygen limitation and swelling-dependent diffusivities of involved species inside the membrane. Donnan equilibrium was used to find concentrations of buffer ions inside the membrane. The profiles of species concentrations, pH, polymer volume fraction and solute diffusivity inside the membrane were predicted by the model in response to step changes of glucose concentration in the external solution. The influence of various factors on the responsiveness of the membrane was analyzed using the model. The results...