Search for: contraction
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Developing internet jurisdiction in B2B and B2C contracts: Focusing on Iranian legal system with comparative study of American, English and EU laws, Article Arab Law Quarterly ; Volume 31, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 276-304 ; 02680556 (ISSN) ; Sharif University of Technology
Brill Academic Publishers 2017
In the modern world, electronic communications play a significant role in areas of national and international law such as Internet jurisdiction. Private international law provides that the competent court is the court within which jurisdiction the contract is performed, so it is important to know the place of performance of the contract in the case of contracts for digital goods such as e-books or computer software delivered online. It is equally important in the case of electronic services such as e-teaching. Furthermore, as consumer protection in B2C contracts is important in developing global e-commerce, it is important to consider whether the consumer party is able to bring an action...
Coordinating a seller-buyer supply chain with a proper allocation of chain’s surplus profit using a general side-payment contract [electronic resource], Article International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering ; Volume 5, No. 2, Summer 2011, Page 63-79 ; Eshghi, Kourosh ; Sharif University of Technology
In this paper, seller-buyer supply chain coordination with general side-payment contracts is introduced to gain the maximum possible chain profit. In our model, the logistics costs for both buyer and seller are considered and the final demand is also supposed to be a decreasing function of the retail price. Since parties aim to maximize their individual profits, the contractual parameters are set in a way that these decisions become aligned with system optimal decisions. Therefore, a side payment contract is suggested in our model to assign the chain surplus profit to the chain members such that they have no intention to leave the coalition. Then, we change the contract into a quantity...
Improving public-private partnership project procurement, addressing major shortfalls in the standard-form contract, Article International Journal of Procurement Management ; Volume 13, Issue 4 , 2020 , Pages 482-506 ; Hosseini, S. M. T ; Nili Ahmadabad, M. H ; AmiriDiba, A ; Sharif University of Technology
Inderscience Publishers 2020
Standard-form contracts facilitate the sophisticated public-private partnership (PPP) procurement process. Special care should be taken during the preparation of these documents since any remaining flaws affect subsequent projects. Reviewing the standard-form contract capabilities after its application help to identify its major flaws and improve the contract clauses. This research proposed a novel structured method to address this need and verified its capability. In the proposed method, a comprehensive list of risks is first created for the PPP projects in the specified project environment. The identified risks are prioritised to highlight the priority of the required adjustments in the...
Nonlinear Seismic Assessment of Arch Dams and Investigation of Joint Behavior Using Endurance Time Analysis Method, Article Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering ; Vol. 39, issue. 5 , May , 2014 , p. 3599-3615 ; Mirzabozorg, H ; Estekanchi, H. E ; Sharif University of Technology
At the present study, application of endurance time analysis (ETA) method in seismic evaluation of arch dams is investigated. ETA is a time-history based dynamic pushover procedure, which utilizes a set of predesigned intensifying acceleration functions to estimate the responses of the structural systems in various seismic excitation levels. Dez dam was chosen as the case study and all contraction and peripheral joints were modeled based on as-built drawings. The reservoir was modeled as a compressible medium and the foundation was assumed to be massless. Results show that ETA method is able to estimate dynamic responses of the dam with acceptable accuracy in comparison with time history...
Analysing legal status of electronic agents in contracting through interactive websites: Comparative study of american, english and EU laws developing iranian legal system, Article Information and Communications Technology Law ; Volume 25, Issue 2 , 2016 , Pages 150-172 ; 13600834 (ISSN) ; Sharif University of Technology
In the modern world, electronic communications play a significant role in national and international electronic transactions. This issue has forced all legal systems to face up to many emerging legal problems in the context of electronic communications, such as the legal status of electronic agents in contracting electronically. Regarding the legal validity of e-contracts made through interactive websites, the legal status of electronic agents which play an important role in this process is questionable to see whether they are akin to real agents in the physical world or they are only a mere tool of communication. The current article tries to analyse this question by criticising a number of...
Article Power Plants and Power Systems Control 2006 ; Volume 39, Issue 7 , 2007 , Pages 65-70 ; 9780080466200 (ISBN) ; Ranjbar, A. M ; Mozafari, A ; Amraee, T ; Sharif University of Technology
Elsevier Ltd 2007
This chapter proposes a methodology for optimal dispatch of bilateral electricity contracts, which may endanger the system voltage stability in light of short-term operational planning of a deregulated power system. In this framework the value that each owner of a transaction is willing to pay reflects how much the electricity contract is important to be implemented physically. The proposed model dispatches optimally the bilateral transactions regarding the prices offered by owners of bilateral contracts for reactive power and transmission capacity utilization in one hand and, the total operational costs of reactive power resources in the other hand. The model also includes the limits...
Effect of fatigue on torque output and electromyographic measures of trunk muscles during isometric axial rotation, Article Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation ; Volume 84, Issue 3 SUPPL. 1 , 2003 , Pages 374-381 ; 00039993 (ISSN) ; Parnianpour, M ; Richardson, C. A ; Kippers, V ; Sharif University of Technology
W.B. Saunders 2003
Objectives: To examine the changes in torque output resulting from fatigue, as well as changes in electromyographic measures of trunk muscles during isometric axial rotation and to compare these changes between directions of axial rotation. Design: Subjects performed fatiguing right and left isometric axial rotation of the trunk at 80% of maximum voluntary contraction while standing upright. Setting: A rehabilitation center. Participants: Twenty-three men with no history of back pain. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from 6 trunk muscles bilaterally. The primary torque in the transverse plane and the coupling torques in...
Reliability of electromyographic and torque measures during isometric axial rotation exertions of the trunk, Article Clinical Neurophysiology ; Volume 114, Issue 12 , 2003 , Pages 2355-2361 ; 13882457 (ISSN) ; Parnianpour, M ; Kippers, V ; Richardson, C. A ; Sharif University of Technology
Elsevier Ireland Ltd 2003
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the between-days reliability of electromyographic (EMG) measurement of 6 bilateral trunk muscles and also the torque output in 3 planes during isometric right and left axial rotation at different exertion levels. Methods: Ten healthy subjects performed isometric right and left axial rotation at 100, 70, 50 and 30% maximum voluntary contractions in two testing sessions at least 7 days apart. EMG amplitude and frequency analyses of the recorded surface EMG signals were performed for rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum and multifidus bilaterally. The primary torque in the...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Alvanchi, Amin
Iran is a developing country where construction activities are significantly increased annually. Construction project contracts have a crucial effect on the project ensuring implementation that carries out the expectations and requirements of all parties. Additionally, building construction is a cost and time-consuming process. Builders and construction contractors must adhere to balanced contractual norms and standards to reduce the costs incurred by the contracting parties and to appropriately respond to the risks occurred. The next significant concern is reducing contractual claims and disputes that can delay the project's operation for an extended period. The necessity of preparing a...
Article 62nd IIE Annual Conference and Expo 2012, 19 May 2012 through 23 May 2012 ; May , 2012 , Pages 3268-3277 ; Baboli, A ; Cheikhrouhou, N ; Modarres, M ; Jokar, M. R. A ; Campagne, J. P ; Sharif University of Technology
Institute of Industrial Engineers 2012
We consider coordination by contract in a divergent supply chain including one manufacturer and several retailers which produces fashion products with short sale seasons. The retailers cooperate with the manufacturer as sales agents; i.e., they work in the framework of revenue sharing contracts. Because of their proximity to the market, retailers can provide more accurate demand forecast for the manufacturer when he wants to decide on his capacity building (expansion), product assignment decision and market prices with regard to retailers stiff due date, different lead times and different price-dependent demand functions. To ensure abundant supply and increase their sales, the retailers have...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Sepehri, Mehran ; Taghipour, Alireza
From the past, oil and gas industry has been among important industries in Iran and a major source of the government income. Hence achieving successful projects in the industry is of great importance for the country’s development and timely completion has always been considered as one of the characteristics of a successful project. Developing oil and gas fields, as it affect all of the other projects in this industry, is construed as crucial.In this regard, from the first oil exploration in Iran, authorities have signed different types of contracts with many contractors to develop oil and gas fields. Nonetheless projects in this industry, as of the projects in the construction industry in...
Comparative Material Waste Analysis in Residential Construction Projects
Sharif University of Technology
Mortaheb, Mohammad Mehdi
(Cost Plus and Lump Sum Contracts)
Type and terms of payment is one of the most important fundamentals of any construction project contract. Suitable contract type is selected based on available financial options, payment systems, project schedule and other uncertainties of project environment. Commonly in Iran; private residential construction projects are executed using cost plus or lump sum contracts. Based on project’s contract type, costs of materials’ waste are to be borne by different parties. For example in cost plus contracts, the costs of materials as well as wastes are paid by owner while in lump sum contract this cost is paid by contractor. Considering limited budget of construction projects, materials’ waste...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Nilli, Farhad
This paper by using the basic Principal-Agent model, investigate the possibility of moral hazard in relation of the bank-borrower, meaning the deviation of the granted facility - for the three proposed models in the Islamic Banking (interest free). These models include the use of only authorized exchange contracts, the use of partnership contracts and the combined use of authorized exchange contracts and partnership. This study, by accepting the Mirakhor (2011) model as the optimal case, make sure that in Islamic society, by establishing assumptions such as honesty, the probability of occurrence of moral hazard is low; Hence, moral hazard is not an inherent problem of the Islamic banking...
Article IEEE Transactions on Power Systems ; Volume 28, Issue 2 , October , 2013 , Pages 626-638 ; 08858950 (ISSN) ; Hosseini, S. H ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper proposes a dynamic time simulation model for long-term generation capacity investment decisions in the presence of either perfect or imperfect electricity market. The model is based on system dynamics concept in which the dynamics of capacity construction is traced using the forecast of electricity price cleared in the short-term electricity market. Both the perfect and oligopolistic competitions are considered and a market power index is defined to evaluate the competition level of the electricity market. The short-term and long-term dynamic analysis are used to represent the generation firms' behavior in bidding strategy and capacity investment, respectively. Both possibilities...
Simulation of mechanical force in skeletal muscle according to the intracellular Ca2+ concentration level, Article 2017 24th Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering and 2017 2nd International Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2017, 30 November 2017 through 1 December 2017 ; 2018 ; 9781538636091 (ISBN) ; Grasa, J ; Calvo, B ; Zohoor, H ; Firoozbakhsh, K ; Sharif University of Technology
Active behavior in skeletal muscle soft tissue is affected by electrical, chemical and mechanical parameters. More realistic model of skeletal muscle demands detailed formulation which is able to involve other parameters in addition to mechanical ones. In this paper a new formulation for considering Ca2+ level (as the most important chemical factor) along with mechanical parameters in force producing process of skeletal muscle is introduced and validated comparing simulated results with some experimental data. Prepared skeletal muscle behavior is able to predict the maximum generated force in muscle according to the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ level and muscle contraction velocity...
The effect of temperature on eccentric contraction-induced isometric force loss in isolated perfused rat medial gastrocnemius muscle, Article Tehran University Medical Journal ; Volume 66, Issue 6 , 2008 , Pages 388-395 ; 16831764 (ISSN) ; Keshavarz, M ; Gharibzadeh, S ; Marvi, H ; Mosayebnejad, J ; Ebrahimi Takamjani, E ; Sharif University of Technology
Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2008
Background: The typical features of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and prolonged loss of muscle strength. It has been shown that passive warmth is effective in reducing muscle injury. Due to the interaction of different systems in vivo, we used isolated perfused medial gastrocnemius skeletal muscle to study the direct effect of temperature on the eccentric contraction-induced force loss. Methods: After femoral artery cannulation of a rat, the left medial gastrocnemius muscle was separated and then the entire lower limb was transferred into a prewarmed (35oC) chamber. With the chamber temperature at 31, 35 and 39oC before and during eccentric...
Experimental Investigation of Pressure Distribution in the Wind Tunnel Contarection and Preventation of Probable Separation, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Soltani, Mohammad Reza
Contraction sections are an integral part of all wind tunnels, whether designed for basic fluid flow research or model testing. The location of the contraction, just upstream of the test section, makes it very important to achieve a high quality contraction design. The effect of a contraction on unsteady velocity variations is significant to increase the mean velocity. Furthermore, contraction has a suitable role on the turbulence reduction in a wind tunnel. The contraction itself further reduces the turbulence in terms of percentage of the wind speed. This is due to the increase of the wind speed by a factor equal to the contraction ratio. In this research, to investigation flow quality in...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Azbazari, Arash
While the action in society is at stake, it seems that, I merely do something in my personal sphere, but its consequences will not remain ultimately in my personal sphere. It goes beyond of my personal realm and obviously affects other persons and their choices. This claim is one of the most central claims of Rousseau’s philosophy of right. But if it is so, or in some more technical sense, it is the case that there is some mutual dependence between individuals in social life, then my sphere of freedom would not be merely mine. Consequently, a new question would be of some central importance: What is permissible for me, meanwhile I am living in state of society? Rousseau concludes in response...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Sheikhzadeh, Mehdi ; Talebian, Masoud
Nowadays, companies trade with each other to prosper, and the role of trading in the growth of businesses is undeniable. Many of them procure raw materials from their suppliers or sell their products to retailers. A contract is the first step to form such interaction. In a contract, each company has specific purposes which are ambiguous at the time of signing a contract. These objects and expectations are determined at the beginning of a contract, whereas both parties of a contract are uncertain about the future circumstances. In many cases, the future conditions cause one party of a contract breaches and terminates it. One of the most common reasons for breaching is the emergence of a new...
Article Cogent Engineering ; Volume 5, Issue 1 , 2018 , Pages 1-19 ; 23311916 (ISSN) ; Afzalabadi, M ; Haji, R ; Sharif University of Technology
Cogent OA 2018
In this article, we design a revenue-sharing contract to coordinate inventory control decisions in a serial supply chain consisting of one supplier, one vendor, and one retailer. We assume that the retailer faces Poisson demand and his unsatisfied demands will be lost. The retailer applies one-for-one period policy in which he constantly places an order for one unit of product to the vendor in a predetermined time interval which results in a deterministic demand for the vendor. Vendor orders the required quantity from supplier which will be immediately received at the vendor’s warehouse. Solution procedures are developed to find the equilibrium in the vendor managed inventory program with a...