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    Low Grade Heat Driven Multi-Effect Distillation and Desalination

    , Book Rahimi, Bijan ; Chua, Hui Tong
    Elsevier  2017
    Abstract
    Low Grade Heat Driven Multi-effect Distillation and Desalination describes the development of advanced multi-effect evaporation technologies that are driven by low grade sensible heat, including process waste heat in refineries, heat rejection from diesel generators or microturbines, and solar and geothermal energy. The technologies discussed can be applied to desalination in remote areas, purifying produced water in oil-and-gas industries, and to re-concentrate process liquor in refineries.
    This book is ideal for researchers, engineering scientists, graduate students, and industrial practitioners working in the desalination, petrochemical, and mineral refining sectors, helping them... 

    Saline brine desalination: Application of sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD)

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 71 , 2017 , Pages 12-18 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Fatehi, L ; Kargari, A ; Bastani, D ; Soleimani, M ; Shirazi, M. M. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Desalination Publications  2017
    Abstract
    In this work, desalination of saline brines using the sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) process is investigated. The Taguchi method was applied for optimization of the operating parameters. An L9 orthogonal array was used to investigate the influence of pertinent variables, including feed temperature (Tf: 45°C, 55°C and 65°C), feed flow rate (Qf: 200, 400 and 600 mL/min), feed concentration (Cf: 10, 25 and 50 g/L) and sweeping gas flow rate (Qc: 4, 10, and 16 SCFH) on the distillate flux. Results of the experiments showed that maximum distillate flux, which was about 10 L/m2 h, obtained at 65°C feed temperature, 16 SCFH sweeping gas flow rate and brackish water with 10 g/L salt... 

    Shortcut design of reactive distillation columns

    , Article Chemical Engineering Science ; Volume 71 , 2012 , Pages 166-177 ; 00092509 (ISSN) Avami, A ; Marquardt, W ; Saboohi, Y ; Kraemer, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Shortcut design methods can be valuable tools for rapid screening of different separation process alternatives to assess feasibility and determine minimum energy demand. This work presents a variant of the feed angle method (Kraemer et al., 2011), which applies to single- and double-feed reactive distillation columns. The proposed method relies on pinch point analysis and determines the minimum energy demand from the calculation of a tray at the feed pinch. It is fully algorithmic and insensitive to impurities in product specifications. Its validity and performance is illustrated by a variety of case studies covering multi-component and multi-reaction systems, mixtures with potential... 

    An optimized neural network model of desalination by vacuum membrane distillation using genetic algorithm

    , Article CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th Conference PRES ; 2012 Tavakolmoghadam, M ; Safavi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2012
    Abstract
    An experimental based ANN model is constructed to describe the performance of vacuum membrane distillation process for desalination in different operating conditions. The vacuum pressure, feed inlet temperature, concentration of the feed salt aqueous solution, and feed flow rate are the input variables of this process, while response is the permeate flux. The neural network approach is capable for modeling this membrane distillation configuration. The application of Genetic Algorithm to optimize the ANN model parameters was also examined. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th... 

    An optimized neural network model of desalination by vacuum membrane distillation using genetic algorithm

    , Article Procedia Engineering ; Volume 42 , 2012 , Pages 106-112 ; 18777058 (ISSN) Tavakolmoghadam, M ; Safavi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    An experimental based ANN model is constructed to describe the performance of vacuum membrane distillation process for desalination in different operating conditions. The vacuum pressure, the feed inlet temperature, the concentration of the feed salt aqueous solution and the feed flow rate are the input variables of this process, whereas the response is the permeate flux. The neural network approach was found to be capable for modeling this membrane distillation configuration. The application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize the ANN model parameters was also investigated  

    Equilibrium approach to reactive distillation calculations with identification of phases

    , Article 19th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering, CHISA 2010 and 7th European Congress of Chemical Engineering, ECCE-7, 28 August 2010 through 1 September 2010, Prague ; 2010 Saboohi, Y ; Avami, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    A method for simultaneous phase identification and equilibrium calculations is put forward and applied on the highly nonlinear multiphase reactive distillation calculations. The method is based on modifying mole fraction summation equations. In the proposed methodology phase identification, phase equilibrium, and chemical reaction equilibrium calculations can be performed simultaneously and effectively. Simulation and optimization of equilibrium reactive distillation can be done efficiently using this approach. The methodology has been verified with the help of case studies. The method provides phases actually present at equilibrium, their quantities and compositions in each stage of the... 

    Application of a new gibbs energy equation to model a distillation tower for production of pure ethanol

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Technology ; Volume 34, Issue 10 , 2011 , Pages 1715-1722 ; 09307516 (ISSN) Hashemi, N ; Pazuki, G ; Vossoughi, M ; Hemmati, S ; Saboohi, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on MESH equations was proposed to simulate saline extractive distillation columns. The interaction parameters between each component of water-CaCl 2 and ethanol-water were obtained from mean ionic activity coefficients and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental data. Additionally, the interaction coefficients for the ethanol-CaCl 2 pair were fitted to experimental VLE data which were reported by Nishi for the ethanol-water-CaCl 2 system. It should be noted that adjustable parameters between each pair were considered to be temperature dependent. The results confirmed that the proposed model could accurately predict the experimental... 

    Design and Performance Improvement of Distillation Column of Helium Purification Cycle

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bayat, Mohammad (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Due to its unique properties, helium has extensive applications in various fields such as medicine, life sciences, electronic industries, welding, meteorology, and the industries which require low-temperature cooling. Also, designing the cryogenic distillation columns is one of the complex aspects of these plants. In the present study, the distillation column of a helium extraction plant from natural gas has been simulated by means of theta method of convergence. The required thermodynamic properties were determined from the Enhanced Predictive Peng-Robinson (E-PPR 78) equation of state, which has high accuracy in predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas componens. The... 

    Evolutionary design of optimum distillation column sequence

    , Article Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering ; Volume 90, Issue 4 , 2012 , Pages 956-972 ; 00084034 (ISSN) Boozarjomehry, R. B ; Laleh, A. P ; Svrcek, W. Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    2012
    Abstract
    Synthesis of the optimum distillation column sequence (DCS), which incorporates a huge search space composed of both conventional and complex arrangements, is a highly complicated combinatorial problem in the field of chemical process design and optimisation. In this study, a novel procedure for the synthesis of optimum DCS proposed by Boozarjomehry et al. [Boozarjomehry et al., Can. J. Chem. Eng. 87, 477-492 (2009)] is expanded to include the complex distillation arrangements. The method is based on evolutionary algorithms, and the total annual cost (TAC) is the main criterion used to screen alternatives. Efficient procedure has been proposed for encoding mechanism to include and classify... 

    A new and applicable method to calculate mass and heat transfer coefficients and efficiency of industrial distillation columns containing structured packings

    , Article Energy ; Volume 36, Issue 3 , 2011 , Pages 1415-1423 ; 03605442 (ISSN) Sadeghifar, H ; Safe Kordi, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    Most of the methods developed for efficiency estimation of distillation columns were based on the empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods cannot estimate efficiency of industrial columns with sufficient accuracy. In this paper, a new and applicable method was developed for calculation of efficiency (and mass and heat transfer coefficients) of distillation columns containing structured packings. This method has potential advantages; e.g., it can calculate efficiency without using any empirical mass transfer and hydraulic correlations and models, and without the need to estimate the operational and hydraulic parameters of column.... 

    Comparison of dynamic and static performances of a quaternary distillation sequence

    , Article Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research ; Volume 49, Issue 13 , June , 2010 , Pages 6135-6143 ; 08885885 (ISSN) Baghmisheh, G ; Shahrokhi, M ; Bozorgmehri, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    In this work, steady state and dynamic performances of quaternary distillation column sequences designed based on steady state and dynamic cost functions have been investigated. To quantify the dynamic performance, product losses due to disturbances have been considered in the objective function. In addition, variations of operating costs such as utilities have been considered in the objective function. To separate a quaternary mixture into four products, 22 configurations have been used. It has been observed that the feed composition, disturbance frequency and magnitude affect the dynamic behavior strongly. To decrease the optimization computational load, a scheme that provides a suboptimal... 

    Improvement of the thermal cracking product quality of heavy vacuum residue using solvent deasphalting pretreatment

    , Article Energy and Fuels ; Volume 30, Issue 12 , 2016 , Pages 10322-10329 ; 08870624 (ISSN) Hamidi Zirasefi, M ; Khorasheh, F ; Ivakpour, J ; Mohammadzadeh, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2016
    Abstract
    In this work we used the vacuum distillation residue from an Iranian heavy crude oil refinery in a solvent deasphalting (SDA) process using different temperatures (60-120°C), pressures (5-9 bar), solvents (n-pentane and ethyl acetate), and solvent to feed ratios (3 to 1, 5 to 1, and 7 to 1). The resulting products included deasphalted oil (DAO) and residue (PITCH). The DAO yields in SDA when n-pentane was used as solvent were significantly higher than those when ethyl acetate was used as solvent. The DAO was subsequently processed by thermal cracking at 500°C and atmospheric pressure to investigate the effect of solvent deasphalting processing conditions on the yield of coke and liquid... 

    Hierarchical optimal control of a binary distillation column

    , Article Optimal Control Applications and Methods ; 2018 ; 01432087 (ISSN) Ramezani, M. H ; Sadati, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    This paper presents a two-level optimal control for the binary distillation column. From the control point of view, the binary distillation column is a high-order system consisting of several interconnected subsystems (trays) that aim to maximize output purity. Controlling the system in a hierarchical manner not only decreases complexity and solution time but also can improve the control structure's reliability. In this study, the distillation column is decomposed into NT second-order subsystems, each representing one stage (one tray). Accordingly, the cost function is decomposed, and thus, the overall problem is converted into NT lower-order subproblems where each tray has its own... 

    Automatic design of conventional distillation column sequence by genetic algorithm

    , Article Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering ; Volume 87, Issue 3 , 2009 , Pages 477-492 ; 00084034 (ISSN) Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, R ; Pourahmadi Laleh, A ; Svrcek, W. Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    Synthesis of the optimum conventional (with non-sharp separations) distillation column sequence (DCS) is a challenging problem, in the field of chemical process design and optimization, due to its huge search space and combinatorial nature. In this paper, a novel procedure for the synthesis of optimum Conventional Distillation Column Sequence is proposed. The proposed method is based on evolutionary algorithms. The main criterion used to screen alternative DCS's is the Total Annual Cost (TAC). In order to estimate the TAC of each DCS alternative all columns that exist in the DCS are designed using short-cut methods. The performance of the proposed method and other alternatives are compared... 

    Simulation and performance improvement of cryogenic distillation column, using enhanced predictive Peng–Robinson equation of state

    , Article Fluid Phase Equilibria ; Volume 489 , 2019 , Pages 117-130 ; 03783812 (ISSN) Ardeshir Larijani, M ; Bayat, M ; Afshin, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    In this study, a cryogenic distillation column has been designed and simulated via a computer code based on the theta method of convergence. The required thermodynamic properties are determined from the enhanced predictive Peng-Robinson (E-PPR 78) equation of state which has a good accuracy in predicting the corresponding thermodynamic properties of natural gas components. The combined code of distillation column/equation of state has been verified with that of another study. In the present study, the results are achieved by the constant molar over-flow and inclusion of energy equations assumptions. In order to have more accuracy in the results, the energy equations were considered in the... 

    Modeling, Design and Simulation of Cyclic Distillation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alipour, Mohammad Mehdi (Author) ; Farhadi, Fathollah (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Cyclic distillation can bring new life in old distillation columns, by using a periodic operation mode that leads to significant benefits, such as increased column throughput, lower energy requirements and much higher separation performance. The design method for this type of column are reviewed. Among two design approaches, the Lagrangian one is selected, where equations are formulated as delay differential equations, moving from bottom to top of the column to determine feed tray location and total tray numbers. No rigorous design method is selected in order to calculate the column parameters.In this thesis, by defining an economic index that encompasses capital investment, operating costs... 

    From source model to quantum key distillation: An improved upper bound

    , Article IWCIT 2014 - Iran Workshop on Communication and Information Theory ; 2014 Keykhosravi, K ; Mahzoon, M ; Gohari, A ; Aref, M.R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    In this paper we derive a new upper bound on the quantum key distillation capacity. This upper bound is an extension of the classical bound of Gohari and Anantharam on the source model problem. Our bound strictly improves the quantum extension of reduced intrinsic information bound of Christandl et al. Although this bound is proposed for quantum settings, it also serves as an upper bound for the special case of classical source model, and may improve the bound of Gohari and Anantharam. The problem of quantum key distillation is one in which two distant parties, Alice and Bob, and an adversary, Eve, have access to copies of quantum systems A, B, E respectively, prepared jointly according to... 

    Characterization of polymeric membranes for membrane distillation using atomic force microscopy

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 51, Issue 31-33 , 2013 , Pages 6003-6008 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Shirazi, M. M ; Bastani, D ; Kargari, A ; Tabatabaei, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2013
    Abstract
    As membrane distillation (MD) is an under-developed separation process, specific membranes for MD applications are not yet commercially available. Therefore, microporous polymeric membranes made of hydrophobic materials fabricated for microfiltration purposes are usually used for MD applications. Characterization of such kind of membranes is important in order to achieve a better in-depth understanding of their performance and to fabricate specific membranes for MD process. One of the emerging characterization methods is atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. AFM is a newly developed high-resolution method that is useful for studying the surface topography of various types of membranes, and... 

    An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    , Article Heat and Mass Transfer/Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung ; Volume 51, Issue 10 , October , 2015 , Pages 1393-1402 ; 09477411 (ISSN) Sadeghifar, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2015
    Abstract
    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to... 

    Steady-State Operability Analysis of Nonlinear Plants Using Output Controllability Index

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moradpanah, Maryam (Author) ; Pishvaie, Mahmoud Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Selecting an appropriate control structure is an important subject in the design of control systems. Distillation column is one of the most popular and widely used unit operations in industry which complete understanding of its operability and controllability is one of the most important issues in the process control engineering. The present work studies the method of Output Controllability Index for nonlinear systems and compares it with Relative Gain Array and Condition Number. By using this index, the extent of intrinsic controllability of a process can be identified quantitatively in the absence of any controller. Also, the controllability of the process can be stated numerically or...