Search for: ecology
0.006 seconds
Total 27 records

    Interplay between competitive and cooperative interactions in a three-player pathogen system

    , Article Royal Society Open Science ; Volume 7, Issue 1 , 2020 Pinotti, F ; Ghanbarnejad, F ; Hövel, P ; Poletto, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society Publishing  2020
    In ecological systems, heterogeneous interactions between pathogens take place simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, when two pathogens cooperate, while at the same time, multiple strains of these pathogens co-circulate and compete. Notable examples include the cooperation of human immunodeficiency virus with antibiotic-resistant and susceptible strains of tuberculosis or some respiratory infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Models focusing on competition or cooperation separately fail to describe how these concurrent interactions shape the epidemiology of such diseases. We studied this problem considering two cooperating pathogens, where one pathogen is further structured... 

    Corrigendum: partial replacement of copper slag with treated crumb rubber aggregates in alkali-activated slag mortar” (construction and building materials (2020) 256, (S0950061820314732), (10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119468))

    , Article Construction and Building Materials ; Volume 283 , 2021 ; 09500618 (ISSN) Ameri, F ; Shoaei, P ; Reza Musaeei, H ; Zareei, A. R ; Chee Ban, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    The authors regret that there was an error in the SEM image presented in Fig. 4(c) of the previously print version of the article. Please refer to the corrected SEM image as presented here. It is noteworthy that this change does not affect any of the conclusions. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd  

    A comprehensive review on design, monitoring, and failure in fixed offshore platforms

    , Article Journal of Marine Science and Engineering ; Volume 9, Issue 12 , 2021 ; 20771312 (ISSN) Amiri, N ; Shaterabadi, M ; Kashyzadeh, K. R ; Chizari, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2021
    Offshore platforms have had diverse applications in the marine industry, for example, oil or gas platforms can provide facilities to store the oil and gas before transport those to refineries. Offshore wind turbines are another well-known use of the offshore platform for generating power. As platforms encounter various strong forces from water and wind currents, the materials used for these structures are mainly steel or concrete. These platforms are classified into different types, according to the depth of water and their applications. In addition, offshore platforms, as artificial reefs may be used for decades at different marine conditions. Consequently, their design and maintenance are... 

    Optimal Model of Energy and Exergy of Iran’s Economic Activities and their Impact on the Environment

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Mohammad Sadegh (Author) ; Saboohi, Yadollah (Supervisor)
    The economic activities in a country involved with depletion of natural resources and emission of pollutants and gases to the environment. Depletion of exhaustible resources and environmental pollutions are two determinants of sustainability of development. The present research work is aimed at studying the sustainability of Iranian economy in 2009. The analysis of sustainable development of economy is based the concept of exergy, exergy efficiency and ecological exergy efficiency. Exergy efficiency is the ratio of the exergy of a product in economic activity to the exergy of input streams to that section of economy. Ecological exergy efficiency is defined as the ratio of exergy of product... 

    Exact solution of generalized cooperative susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) dynamics

    , Article Physical Review E ; Volume 100, Issue 1 , 2019 ; 24700045 (ISSN) Zarei, F ; Moghimi Araghi, S ; Ghanbarnejad, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Physical Society  2019
    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for coinfection as cooperative susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) dynamics. We first solve the SIR model analytically for two symmetric cooperative contagions [L. Chen, Europhys. Lett. 104, 50001 (2013)10.1209/0295-5075/104/50001] and then generalize and solve the model exactly in the symmetric scenarios for three and more cooperative contagions. We calculate the transition points and order parameters, i.e., the total number of infected hosts. We show that the behavior of the system does not change qualitatively with the inclusion of more diseases. We also show analytically that there is a saddle-node-like bifurcation for two cooperative SIR... 

    Review of cycles and indices of drought and their effect on water resources, ecological, biological, agricultural, social and economical issues in Iran

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Studies ; Volume 62, Issue 6 , 2005 , Pages 709-724 ; 00207233 (ISSN) Abbaspour, M ; Sabetraftar, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    This paper assesses the cycles and indices of drought in Iran and prepares general maps of the region, which are affected by droughts with 10- and 30-year reversible periods frequency of 1 and 3 years by utilizing statistical methods. To study the condition of drought, some indices have been applied in Yazd Province over a 48-year statistical period (1925-2000). Then with regard to existing statistics (1998-2001), the effect of drought on various issues during the most recent drought cycle have been assessed. © 2005 Taylor & Francis  

    Investigation of the Multipurpose Reservoir Operating Rule Curves Considering Ecological Requirement for Adaptation to Climate Change

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kaveh Garna, Roja (Author) ; Abrishamchi, Ahmad (Supervisor)
    Nowadays climate change is a crucial environmental challenge in the world. In addition, population growth, growing demand for water and subsequently increase in water resources development plans have challenged basin management. So that the water resources systems are not responsive to the needs and the demand for water has outpaced the available water resources. Dams and reservoirs are the most effective water supply systems that alter the unequal temporal and spatial distribution of water. In addition to supply of drinking water, ecological requirements, hydroelectric power generation and downstream irrigation, they have an important role in minimizing the damages caused by flood and... 

    Environment-friendly Water Network Planning for Eco-industrial Parks with Centralized Hub

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Taheri, Saman (Author) ; Avami, Akram (Supervisor)
    Collaboration of different agencies working together in a geographical location to reduce waste and optimize the sharing of resources such as energy, raw materials, water, technology, information, etc., made Eco Industrial Parks (EIPs) as a significant step toward sustainability. EIPs has been the focus of increased attention in recent years. Much of the research on industrial parks is related to water and energy network design. This project seeks to identify suitable water network designs for eco industrial parks by identifying the challenges associated with industrial parks. Then, by presenting nonlinear mathematical model and related optimization solution, the superiority of the proposed... 

    Assessing the Ecological Potential of Tehran City Using Sustainable Urban Criteria

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Aghashahi, Nazli (Author) ; Abrishamchi, Ahmad (Supervisor)
    The citizens’ dissatisfaction with the decreased life and residential care quality is increasing as a result of the rapid growth and development of cities. To find an effective solution to reduce and control these harmful effects is one of the main concerns of urban managers and planners in most countries. In this research, various ecological and sustainability criteria were selected through library-based studies and relative recognition of the region. The Maps were mostly provided through satellite imagery and some by using synoptic data collected from the official aerology website of the country, Iran. Through surveying the experts, different criteria were evaluated and based on the... 

    Determination of environmental water requirements of Lake Urmia, Iran: An ecological approach

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Studies ; Volume 64, Issue 2 , 2007 , Pages 161-169 ; 00207233 (ISSN) Abbaspour, M ; Nazaridoust, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lake Urmia is a thalassohaline ecosystem. It is an extremely simple ecological pyramid. This makes it a very sensitive ecosystem. This ecosystem has been facing various threats regarding the amount of water released from the associated basin. To calculate the lake water requirement with an ecological approach, we identified three variables: ecology, water quality, and water quantity indices as environmental indicators. The ecological index represented by Artemia urmiana is considered as an independent variable; while, the water quality index represented by concentration of NaCl, and the water quantity index represented by water elevation are regarded as dependent variables. The salinity... 

    A history-dependent stochastic predator-prey model: Chaos and its elimination

    , Article European Physical Journal B ; Volume 13, Issue 3 , 2000 , Pages 601-606 ; 14346028 (ISSN) Gerami, R ; Ejtehadi, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York  2000
    A non-Markovian stochastic predator-prey model is introduced in which the prey are immobile plants and predators are diffusing herbivors. The model is studied by both mean-field approximation (MFA) and computer simulations. The MFA results a series of bifurcations in the phase space of mean predator and prey densities, leading to a chaotic phase. Because of emerging correlations between the two species distributions, the interaction rate alters and if it is chosen to be the value which is obtained from the simulation, then the chaotic phase disappears  

    Thermodynamic assessment and multi-objective optimization of performance of irreversible dual-miller cycle

    , Article Energies ; Volume 12, Issue 20 , 2019 ; 19961073 (ISSN) Abedinnezhad, S ; Ahmadi, M. H ; Pourkiaei, S. M ; Pourfayaz, F ; Mosavi, A ; Feidt, M ; Shamshirband, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG  2019
    In this study, a new series of assessments and evaluations of the Dual-Miller cycle is performed. Furthermore, the specified output power and the thermal performance associated with the engine are determined. Besides, multi-objective optimization of thermal efficiency, ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP) and ecological function (Eun) by means of NSGA-II technique and thermodynamic analysis are presented. The Pareto optimal frontier obtaining the best optimum solution is identified by fuzzy Bellman-Zadeh, Linear Programming Technique for Multidimensional Analysis of Preference (LINMAP), and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) decision-making... 

    An uncertain agent-based model for socio-ecological simulation of groundwater use in irrigation: a case study of Lake Urmia Basin, Iran

    , Article Agricultural Water Management ; Volume 249 , 2021 ; 03783774 (ISSN) Anbari, M. J ; Zarghami, M ; Nadiri, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Socio-ecological systems include diverse resources of complexity involving complicated interactions, feedback, dynamic behavior patterns, heterogeneity in agents’ characteristics and behaviors, as well as system uncertainties. Agent-based modeling is introduced as a tool to simulate different levels of stakeholders and interactions, including individual, group, and institutional agents in complex socio-ecological systems. In the present study, an agent-based model was developed to explore sustainable solutions in uncertain conditions for groundwater restoration of a critical aquifer in the Lake Urmia Basin, Iran. Different projects for aquifer restoration such as wells monitoring, license... 

    Developing an Integrated Energy and Environment Management System in Industrial Parks. Case Study: Siri Island

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Azamian, Sara (Author) ; Saboohi, Yadollah (Supervisor)
    Industrial parks represent integrated industrial systems where it helps implementing efficient measures for managing natural and fossil fuel resources and their impact on environment quality. In Iran, the most industrial parks have faced serious problems due to the irreversible effects on ecosystems. mass/energy flows management and optimization based on industrial ecology, can lead to minimizing the environmental impacts and to maximizing the value added of industrial parks simultaneously. In the present research, sustainable development in Siri island as Eco-industrial park in Iran has been investigated. The island includes: extraction, separation, operation and transportation of crude oil... 

    Resilient approach toward urban development in lake catchments; case of Lake Urmia

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 23, Issue 4 , 2016 , Pages 1627-1632 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Ahmadi, A ; Abbaspour, M ; Arjmandi, R ; Abedi, Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2016
    The climate change and human development in lake catchments have put these habitats in drying conditions, e.g. Aral Sea in Asia, Lake Chad in Africa, Lake Mead in USA, Lake Urmia in Iran, etc. These ecosystems play an important role in social, ecological, and economic activities. Lake Urmia, recognized as an international wetland in 1973 and located in Iran, which is the second largest hypersaline lake in the world, is in the same state. Lake Urmia biologically and ecologically is one of the most interesting places in the world. This lake is a habitat for various species. The lake's surface has shrunken from 6000 km2 to 900 km2 in 2013. The statistics indicate that the population has... 

    Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by lysinibacillus macrolides and bacillus firmus isolated from contaminated soil

    , Article International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications ; Volume 32, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages 628-633 ; 1728144X (ISSN) Samadi, A ; Sharifi, H ; Ghobadi Nejad, Z ; Yaghmaei, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Materials and Energy Research Center  2019
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause many significant ecological problems because of their low degradability, high harmfulness, and solid bioaccumulation.Two bacterial strains were isolated from soil that had been polluted with electrical transformer liquid for more than 40 years. The isolates were distinguished as Lysinibacillus macrolides DSM54Tand Bacillus firmus NBRC15306Tthrough 16S rRNA sequencing analysis.This is the primary report of an agent of the genus Bacillus firmus equipped for the removal of PCBs. The strains could develop broadly on 2-Chlorobiphenyl and 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl. GC/MS analysis of individual congeners revealed up to 80% degradation of the xenobiotics in 96h,... 

    Interconnected governance and social barriers impeding the restoration process of Lake Urmia

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 598 , 2021 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Pouladi, P ; Badiezadeh, S ; Pouladi, M ; Yousefi, P ; Farahmand, H ; Kalantari, Z ; Yu, D. J ; Sivapalan, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Lake Urmia in Iran has undergone catastrophic desiccation due to increasing anthropogenic development, especially in the agricultural sector. A paramount national goal is to restore the lake to its former healthy condition, but corresponding water governance and restoration efforts have encountered various, mostly human-related, challenges. We argue here that these challenges stem from lack of awareness and insufficient consideration of the local social conditions and the subtleties of human-water interactions, which we collectively refer to as socio-hydrological barriers. Ignorance of such socio-hydrological barriers can lead to policy efforts that are mismatched with local realities and,... 

    Using satellite data to extract volume-area-elevation relationships for Urmia Lake, Iran

    , Article Journal of Great Lakes Research ; Volume 39, Issue 1 , March , 2013 , Pages 90-99 ; 03801330 (ISSN) Sima, S ; Tajrishy, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran is the second largest hyper-saline lake worldwide. During the past two decades, a significant water level decline has occurred in the lake. The existing estimations for the lake water balance are widely variable because the lake bathymetry is unknown. The main focus of this study is to extract the volume-area-elevation (V-A-L) characteristics of Urmia Lake utilizing remote sensing data and analytical models. V-A-L equations of the lake were determined using radar altimetry data and their concurrent satellite-derived surface data. Next, two approximate models, a power model (PM) and a truncated pyramid model (TPM), were parameterized for Urmia Lake and... 

    Effects of Temporal Correlations on Co-infection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sajjadi, Ebrahim (Author) ; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor) ; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh (Co-Supervisor)
    SIS and SIR are common models for describing and predicting the epidemics of the contagious diseases. But these models fail to predict patterns of spreading dynamics in the case of co-infective diseases, i.e. getting infected by one disease, alters the chance of getting infected by the other one. Coinfection has been studied in the mean field approximation and on complex networks with different topologies. Another study shows temporal correlations of the underlying transmission network, play role on co-infection dynamics.In this research we investigate the effects of various temporal correlation on epidemic order parameters of independent infection and co-infection.For this purpose, we... 

    Assessment of 2DH and pseudo-3D modelling platforms in a large saline aquatic system: Lake Urmia, Iran

    , Article Hydrological Processes ; Vol. 28, Issue. 18 , 2014 , pp. 49534970 ; ISSN: 10991085 Zeinoddini, M ; Tofighi, M. A ; Bakhtiari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    The main objective of this paper is to provide comparative quantitative examinations on the capabilities of two-dimensional horizontal and pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) modelling approaches for simulating spatial and temporal variability of the flow and salinity in Lake Urmia, Iran. The water quality in the lake has been an environmentally important subject partly because this shallow hypersaline aquatic ecosystem is considered to be one of the largest natural habitats of a unique multicellular organism, Artemia urmiana. This brine shrimp is the major food source for many of the protected and rare shorebirds that visit the lake. A.urmiana can grow and survive in certain ranges of salinity,...