Search for: gas-sensors
Total 49 records
Article Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic and Nano-Metal Chemistry ; Volume 37, Issue 6 , 2007 , Pages 453-456 ; 15533174 (ISSN) ; Iraji zad, A ; Razi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
Pure and Pd-doped WO3 Nanocrystalline tungsten oxide films on alumina substrates were prepared via sol-gel method from peroxopolytungstic acid. AFM, XRD, SEM, XPS methods were used to determine the surface morphology, grain size and layer composition. XRD analysis showed WO3 nanocrystalline particles in monoclinic phase and with average size of about 333nm, which was consistent with SEM analysis results. Sensing properties of samples toward H2 gas was studied. The sensitivity of WO3 nanocrystalline films was about 4 at 2300ppm (0.2%) H2 gas. Introducing Pd to the system led to an increase in the sensitivity about 2 orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of Pd: WO3 was about 400 at 2300ppmH2
Optimization and modeling of Zn2SnO4 sensitivity as gas sensor for detection benzene in the air by using the response surface methodology, Article Journal of Saudi Chemical Society ; Volume 25, Issue 12 , 2021 ; 13196103 (ISSN) ; Tohidi, G ; Movahedi, F ; Hassannayebi, E ; Sharif University of Technology
Elsevier B.V 2021
In this paper, the performance of the benzene gas detection sensor in the air is optimized by an experimental design method. So in this work, Nanostructured thin films of ZnO and Zn2SnO4 were prepared in wurtzite form via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, using metallic zinc and tin precursors. Characterization of the gas sensor was performed by using Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (using BET method). The results show that Zn2SnO4 nanowire network exhibited good sensitivity at 299 °C temperature to low concentrations (100 ppb) of Benzene which can be potentially used as a resistive gas sensor....
Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 100, Issue 3 , 2004 , Pages 341-346 ; 09254005 (ISSN) ; Rahimi, F ; Chavoshi, M ; Ahadian, M. M ; Sharif University of Technology
Porous poly-silicon (PPS) is a cheaper alternative to single crystal porous silicon and is a favorable choice for making gas sensors. In this study, porous poly-silicon samples were prepared using different HF concentrations and the structural and gas-sensing properties were studied. The topography of the surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The variation of electrical conductivity of the samples in the presence of dry air-diluted acetone, ethanol and methanol showed that for a constant etching current, the sensitivity was highest for samples prepared in 13% HF solution. The structure of the films in the optimum HF...
Article Journal of Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical ; Volume 146, Issue 1 , 8 April , 2010 , PP. 53–60 ; Iraji Zad, A. (Azam) ; Rahimi, F. (Fereshteh) ; Sharif University of Technology
We prepared porous silicon samples coated by continuous palladium layer in electroless process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed cauliflower-shape Pd clusters on the surface. I–V curves of Schottky like Pd/porous Si samples were measured in air and in hydrogen. These measurements showed a metal–interface–semiconductor configuration rather than an ideal Schottky diode. Variations of the electrical current in the presence of diluted hydrogen at room temperature revealed that the samples can sense hydrogen in a wide range of concentration (100–40,000 ppm) without any saturation behavior. Hydrogen sensing properties of these samples were investigated at room temperature for a duration...
Fabrication and Characterization of Hydrogen Gas sensors Based on Metal Oxides/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid System, Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji zad, Azam ; Taghavinia, Nima
We have studied binary structures contain; as grown thin film of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) , CNT rich polymeric composite, Pd doped WO3 thin film, and also hybrid thin film which was mixed CNTs and WO3 nanoparticles and ternary structure which was obtained by adding Pd to hybrid structure as a hydrogen gas sensor. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and quality of as–grown and functionalized CNTs and sensitive films were studied by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, DLS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy methods. Variation of film’s electrical resistance after exposure gases is utilized as the principle of gas sensing. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNTs) films were obtained by Thermal Chemical Vapor...
Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Volume 39, Issue 15 , 15 May , 2014 , Pages 8169–8179 ; Iraji Zada, A. (Azam) ; Akhavana, O. (Omid) ; Ghasemic, S. (Shahnaz) ; Gholami, M. R. (Mohammad Reza) ; Sharif University of Technology
Pd–WO3 nanostructures were incorporated on graphene oxide (GO) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) sheets using a controlled hydrothermal process to fabricate effective hydrogen gas sensors. Pd–WO3 nanostructures showed ribbon-like morphologies and Pd–WO3/GO presented an irregular nanostructured form, while Pd–WO3/PRGO exhibited a hierarchical nanostructure with a high surface area. Gas sensing properties of thin films of these materials were studied for different hydrogen concentrations (from 20 to 10,000 ppm) at various temperatures (from room temperature to 250 °C). Although adding GO in the Pd–WO3, after hydrothermal process could increase the film conductivity, gas sensitivity...
Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Volume 37, Issue 20 , October , 2012 , Pages 15423–15432 ; Ghasemi, S. (Shahnaz) ; Irajizada, A. (Azam) ; Akhavana, O. (Omid) ; Gholami, M. R. (Mohammad Reza) ; Sharif University of Technology
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was used to improve the hydrogen sensing properties of Pd and Pt-decorated TiO2 nanoparticles by facile production routes. The TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel method and coupled on GO sheets via a photoreduction process. The Pd or Pt nanoparticles were decorated on the TiO2/RGO hybrid structures by chemical reduction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that GO reduction is done by the TiO2 nanoparticles and Ti–C bonds are formed between the TiO2 and the RGO sheets as well. Gas sensing was studied with different concentrations of hydrogen ranging from 100 to 10,000 ppm at various temperatures. High sensitivity (92%) and fast response time...
Article Bulgarian Chemical Communications ; Volume 50, Issue 2 , 2018 , Pages 298-305 ; 08619808 (ISSN) ; Ganji, D. D ; Taeibi Rahni, M ; Vakilipour, Sh ; Moradi, R ; Sharif University of Technology
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2018
Development of a new micro gas sensor is essential for the analysis of the outcome of gas separation devices. In this paper, direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of low-pressure gas sensor was performed to investigate the effect of physical parameters on the performance and main characteristics of this type of actuator in various operating conditions. Extensive parametric studies were done and the effect of ambient pressure, temperature and gap of arms were comprehensively investigated. Our findings showed that gap size significantly influences the flow features and force generation inside the sensor. © 2018 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Union of Chemists in Bulgaria
Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 146, Issue 1 , 2010 , Pages 53-60 ; 09254005 (ISSN) ; Iraji-Zad, A ; Rahimi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
We prepared porous silicon samples coated by continuous palladium layer in electroless process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed cauliflower-shape Pd clusters on the surface. I-V curves of Schottky like Pd/porous Si samples were measured in air and in hydrogen. These measurements showed a metal-interface-semiconductor configuration rather than an ideal Schottky diode. Variations of the electrical current in the presence of diluted hydrogen at room temperature revealed that the samples can sense hydrogen in a wide range of concentration (100-40,000 ppm) without any saturation behavior. Hydrogen sensing properties of these samples were investigated at room temperature for a duration...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji Zad, Azam ; Mahdavi, Mohammad
The present work emphasizes on hydrogen resistance- sensing properties of WO3 films prepared by Sol-gel routs. The sol-gel is a simple and low cost rout which makes film with high homogeneity and low processing temperature .To improve Hydrogen sensing we modified WO3 films with Pd catalysts by Sol-gel and Electroless methods. AFM , EDX, SEM , XPS , XRD , were applied to analyze structure, morphology and Chemical composition of the fabricated thin films. We measured resistance sensing behavior of prepared films in exposure to different concentration of Hydrogen. All the films were tested under the same conditions. We measured resistance sensing in exposure to concentration below 10000 ppm...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Irajizad, Azam
The interesting properties of metallic nanowires provide many applications in electronic sensors. In this project, we have synthesized Pd nanowires using electrodeposition method. These nanowires are useful for hydrogen sensors by measuring field ionization current in gas. In this project, Pd nanowires were synthesized by electrochemical deposition method in PCT template with 100 nm pore size. The used solution was contained 2mM PdCl2 + 0.1M HCl. The best reduction potential was determined about -0.2V and the best time for synthesizing nanowires was 7 minutes. Chronoampermetric diagrams showed four steps, capacitive current, growth in the holes, reaching to the surface of PCT and the growth...
Preparation, Characterization and Applications of Niobium Oxide Nanorods by Combined Sputtering-Thermal Oxidation Method, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Moshfegh, Ali Reza ; Akhavan, Omid
Recently, quasi 1D (Q1D) structures of materials such as nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts with high surface to volume ratio (A/V) and small grain size devoted an extensive part of researches. This is due to their unique properties and thus various applications in manufacturing of nanometric devices. Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) as semiconductor with wide bandgap has been applied in various fields including: electrochromic devices, gas sensors, anti-reflective coatings, capacitors, photocatalysts , field emission and recently; antibacterial systems. In this project , initially niobium thin films was deposited on Si(100) substrate using RF magnetron sputtering method and then niobium oxide...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji zad, Aazam ; Rahimi, Fereshte
H2S is a toxic gas used in chemical laboratories and industries. H2S is also liberated in nature due to biological processes and also from mines and petroleum fields. At some threshold level, exposure to concentrations over 10 ppm can result in headaches, irritability, dizziness and in some case leads to death. So that introducing sensors which sense H2S at ppm level with the low response time is so essential. The present work emphasizes on H2S resistance-sensing properties of pure and Pd doped WO3 films prepared by Arc discharge method. XRD, SEM, EDAX and XPS were applied to analyze crystal structure, morphology and chemical composition of the films. The analyzes results showed that films...
Article Case Studies in Thermal Engineering ; Volume 12 , 2018 , Pages 276-284 ; 2214157X (ISSN) ; Barzegar Gerdroodbary, M ; Mosavat, M ; Ganji, D. D ; Sharif University of Technology
Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is applied to evaluate the performance of a new micro gas sensor (MIKRA) for mass analysis of ammonia in the rarefied gas. In order to simulate a rarefied gas inside the micro gas detector, Boltzmann equation is applied to obtain high precision results. This study performed comprehensive studies to reveal the main mechanism of force generation and applied this for the analysis of the gas mixture. Our findings show that value of generated Knudsen force significantly varies when the percentage of the NH3 varies in the mixture. According to obtained results, the maximum Knudsen force increases when the fraction of the ammonia decreases. Our findings...
Preparation and Characterization of One-dimensional Copper Oxide Nanostructures for Field Ionization Gas Sensors, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji Zad, Azam
The purpose of this project is to construct a gas sensor based on one-dimensional nanostructured electrodes of copper oxide. By creating of these nanostructures, can be reduced breakdown voltage of gases, including flammable, to a few hundred volts. The CuO nanowires were grown by thermal oxidation on copper substrate to form self-assembled. In this method, by heating the copper foil,Cu2O also was formed on substrate. Effects of surface tension of substrate and oxidation temperature on surface density and structure of the nanowires were studied. SEM images taken from the samples showed that the surface tensions increases the density of nanowires and increasing the oxidation temperature leads...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Musavi, Abbas ; Shojaei, Akbar
There are different types of sensors for measuring the concentration of gases that usually have high prices because of their complicated method of production. We can produce much cheaper sensors in special conditions by using polymer membranes. Different gases can be separated by using appropriate polymer membranes and the difference between diffusion rate of these gases is the basis of the separation method and gases pass through the membrane with different flow rates in the specific entrance pressure. The flow rate of total gas which flows will be different for a binary gaseous mixture at specific temperature and pressure with different concentrations because the flow rate is relative to...
Article Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing ; Vol. 27, issue , 2014 , p. 711-718 ; Sharif University of Technology
Nanostructured TiO2-Al2O3 films and powders were prepared by a straightforward aqueous particulate sol-gel route. Titanium (IV) isopropoxide and aluminum chloride were used as precursors, and hydroxypropyl cellulose was used as a polymeric fugitive agent in order to increase the porosity. The effect of Al:Ti molar ratio was studied on the crystallization behavior of the products. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the powders crystallized at 800°C, containing anatase-TiO2, rutile-TiO2 and cubic-Al2O3 phases. Furthermore, it was found that Al2O3 retarded the anatase to rutile transformation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showed that one of the smallest crystallite sizes was...
Study and Fabrication of Electrical & Electromechanical Resonators Based on Nanostructures for Sensing Application, Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji Zad, Azam ; Sarvari, Reza ; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin
In this thesis we present fabrication, characterization, and experimental results describing electrical actuation and readout of the mechanical vibratory response of PVP, graphene-doped and ZnO fibers by employing electrical actuation. For a fiber resonator with an approximate radius of 850 nm and length of 100 µm, we observed a resonance frequency around 580 kHz with a quality factor (Q) of about 2511 in air at ambient conditions. Through the use of finite element simulations, we show that the reported frequency of resonance is relevant. Also, the measurements were performed in an enclosed chamber with controlled levels of ethanol vapor. The adsorption of ethanol causes a shift in the...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Iraji Zad, Azam
In this research, room-temperature flexible humidity sensors using graphene oxide (GO) and partially reduced grapheme oxide (PRGO) are reported. Sensing layer was deposited onto Kapton substrate by spin coating method. Topography of the sensing layer was observed by Optical Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Partial reduction of the GO was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) data. Humidity sensing properties of the samples that were annealed in different temperatures in the range of 125-200 were measured at room temperature. The sample which was reduced at 125 presented higher response about 106% and shorter recovery time of about 65 s....
Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology ; Irajizad, Azam ; Asgari, Reza
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes, a two-dimensional crystal with tunable bandgap depends on number of layers, is a promising candidate for future nanoelectronic devices. In the present research, flower shaped MoS2 nanoflakes have been synthesized via hydrothermal method. As part of the research, the growth of triangular MoS2 monolayer up to 10 micrometers has optimized by carring out several chemical vapor deposition experiments with varying deposition parameters. The prepared samples were characterized using optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopes, x-ray diffraction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism has been...