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Total 139 records

    Synthesis and swelling behavior of a new superabsorbent hydrogel network based on polyacrylamide grafted onto salep [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 112, Issue 5, pages 2625–2633, 5 June 2009 Pourdjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Rezanejad Barajee, Ghasem ; Soleyman, Rouhollah ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Synthesis and swelling behavior of a new superabsorbent hydrogel based on natural salep grafted with polyacrylamide is described. The new superabsorbent hydrogel biopolymer was synthesized via radical crosslinking and graft copolymerization of acrylamide monomer onto salep backbones. Regarding to the water absorption of hydrogel, the best synthesis condition is reported. FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to confirm the structure of the final product and a mechanism for superabsorbent hydrogel formation was also suggested. After preparing the desired hydrogels based on optimum condition, several factors affecting the swelling behavior of hydrogel including pH of... 

    Modification of carbohydrate polymers via grafting in air. 1. Ceric-Induced synthesis of starch-g-polyacrylonitrile in presence and absence of oxygen [electronic resource]

    , Article Starch - Starke ; Volume 54, Issue 3-4, pages 140–147, April 2002 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Zohurian Mehr, Mohammad J
    Abstract
    Monomer grafting, a unique technique for polysaccharide modification, is always performed under inert (e.g., N2) atmosphere. This work is the first report related to evaluating the possibility and efficiency of the grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch in presence of oxygen. Thus, corn starch (in both granular and gelatinized states) as well as soluble starch were grafted by AN using a ceric-carbohydrate redox initiating system. Graft copolymerizations were performed under nitrogen, air, and oxygen atmospheres at similar conditions. Grafting occurrence was verified using chemical and spectral proofs. The polymerization mechanism and kinetics were investigated by recording the... 

    Modification of carbohydrate polymers via grafting in Air. 2. Ceric-Initiated graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto natural and modified polysaccharides [electronic resource]

    , Article Starch - Stärke ; Volume 54, Issue 10, pages 482–488, October 2002 Pourjavad, A. (Ali) ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, Mohammad J
    Abstract
    Acrylonitrile (AN) was grafted onto various natural and modified polysaccharides (i.e., gum arabic, gum tragacanth, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, chitosan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose) by using ceric-carbohydrate redox initiating system. After overcoming practical problems, mainly from the high viscosity of the aqueous solutions of the different substrates, the graft copolymerization reactions were run either in air or in N2 atmosphere under similar conditions. Grafting was confirmed using chemical and spectral (FTIR) proofs. The reactions were kinetically investigated using semi-empirical expressions and time-temperature profiles. An anomalous... 

    Modified Chitosan. 2. H-chitoPAN, a novel pH-responsive superabsorbent hydrogel [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 90, Issue 11, pages 3115–3121, 9 December 2003 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J
    Abstract
    Chitosan was modified with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) through ceric-initiated graft copolymerization. The chitosan-g-PAN product was saponified using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to prepare a novel superabsorbent hydrogel, H-chitoPAN. Duration of completing the saponification reaction as well as the water absorbency capacity of the hydrogel was decreased with increasing the alkaline concentration. Either chitosan-g-PAN or H-chitoPAN was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC, TGA, and DTG thermal methods. According to FTIR, all the nitrile groups were converted to carboxylate and carboxamide groups. Both modified chitosans exhibited enhanced thermal stability over chitosan. The... 

    Modified Chitosan. 3. Superabsorbency, Salt- and pH-Sensivity of Smart Ampholitic hydrogels from Chitosan-g-PAN [electronic resource]

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 173–180, April 2004 Mahdavinia, G. R. (Golam Reza) ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, M. J
    Abstract
    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted chitosan was prepared by ceric-initiated graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan in a homogenous medium. The copolymer chitosan-g-PAN product was then hydrolyzed to yield a novel smart hydrogel (H-chitoPAN) with superabsorbing properties. The influence of add-on values as well as temperature and time of hydrolysis of the initial chitosan-g-PAN on swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in water and various salt solutions. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbing hydrogel was studied as well. The hydrogels exhibited ampholytic and pH-sensitivity characteristics. Several sharp swelling changes were observed in lieu of pH variations in a... 

    Modified carrageenan. 1. H-carragPAM, a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers ; September 2005 Vol. 20 no. 5 475-490 Hosseinzadeh, H. (Hossein) ; Pourjavadi, A ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, , M. J
    Abstract
    A novel kappa-carrageenan (C)-based superabsorbing hydrogel was synthesized through graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto a C substrate in the presence of a crosslinking agent. The crosslinked C-poly(AAm) polymer graft was partially hydrolyzed in alkaline medium to yield a superabsorbent resin, H-carragPAM. The resin structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The variables of graft copolymerization (monomer, initiator, polysaccharide and crosslinker concentration, reaction temperature and time as well as stirrer speed) that affected on the ultimate water-swelling capacity were optimized. The time-temperature variation of the copolymerization was investigated in terms of the... 

    Modified carrageenan. 6. Crosslinked graft copolymer of methacrylic acid and kappa-carrageenan as a novel superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt- and high pH-sensitivity

    , Article Macromolecular Research ; Volume 13, Issue 6 , 2005 , Pages 483-490 ; 15985032 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Harzandi, A. M ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Polymer Society of Korea  2005
    Abstract
    A novel, polysaccharide-based, superabsorbent hydrogel was synthesized through crosslinking graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) onto kappa-carrageenan (κC), using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for κC-g-polymethacrylic acid (κC-g-PMAA) formation was suggested and the hydrogel structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables, including MBA, MAA, and APS concentration, was systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with the maximum possible swelling capacity. The swelling kinetics in distilled water and various salt solutions were... 

    Modified chitosan III, superabsorbency, salt- and pH-sensitivity of smart ampholytic hydrogels from chitosan-g-PAN

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 4 , 2004 , Pages 173-180 ; 10427147 (ISSN) Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Ltd  2004
    Abstract
    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted chitosan was prepared by ceric-initiated graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan in a homogenous medium. The copolymer chitosan-g-PAN product was then hydrolyzed to yield a novel smart hydrogel (H-chitoPAN) with superabsorbing properties. The influence of add-on values as well as temperature and time of hydrolysis of the initial chitosan-g-PAN on swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in water and various salt solutions. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbing hydrogel was studied as well. The hydrogels exhibited ampholytic and pH-sensitivity characteristics. Several sharp swelling changes were observed in lieu of pH variations in a... 

    Modified chitosan. II. H-chitoPAN, a novel pH-responsive superabsorbent hydrogel

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 90, Issue 11 , 2003 , Pages 3115- ; 00218995 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2003
    Abstract
    Chitosan was modified with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) through ceric-initiated graft copolymerization. The chitosan-g-PAN product was saponified using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to prepare a novel superabsorbent hydrogel, H-chitoPAN. Duration of completing the saponification reaction as well as the water absorbency capacity of the hydrogel was decreased with increasing the alkaline concentration. Either chitosan-g-PAN or H-chitoPAN was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC, TGA, and DTG thermal methods. According to FTIR, all the nitrile groups were converted to carboxylate and carboxamide groups. Both modified chitosans exhibited enhanced thermal stability over chitosan. The... 

    Modification of carbohydrate polymers via grafting in air: 2. Ceric-initiated graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto natural and modified polysaccharides

    , Article Starch/Staerke ; Volume 54, Issue 10 , 2002 , Pages 482-488 ; 00389056 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2002
    Abstract
    Acrylonitrile (AN) was grafted onto various natural and modified polysaccharides (i.e., gum arabic, gum tragacanth, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, chitosan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose) by using ceric-carbohydrate redox initiating system. After overcoming practical problems, mainly from the high viscosity of the aqueous solutions of the different substrates, the graft copolymerization reactions were run either in air or in N2 atmosphere under similar conditions. Grafting was confirmed using chemical and spectral (FTIR) proofs. The reactions were kinetically investigated using semi-empirical expressions and time-temperature profiles. An anomalous... 

    Modification of carbohydrate polymers via grafting in air. 1. Ceric-induced synthesis of starch-g-polyacrylonitrile in presence and absence of oxygen

    , Article Starch/Staerke ; Volume 54, Issue 3-4 , 2002 , Pages 140-147 ; 00389056 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2002
    Abstract
    Monomer grafting, a unique technique for polysaccharide modification, is always performed under inert (e.g., N2) atmosphere. This work is the first report related to evaluating the possibility and efficiency of the grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch in presence of oxygen. Thus, corn starch (in both granular and gelatinized states) as well as soluble starch were grafted by AN using a ceric-carbohydrate redox initiating system. Graft copolymerizations were performed under nitrogen, air, and oxygen atmospheres at similar conditions. Grafting occurrence was verified using chemical and spectral proofs. The polymerization mechanism and kinetics were investigated by recording the... 

    Fast-swelling superabsorbent hydrogels from poly(2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate-co-sodium acrylate) grafted on starch

    , Article Starch/Staerke ; Volume 60, Issue 2 , 2008 , Pages 79-86 ; 00389056 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Samadi, M ; Ghasemzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    Fast-swelling highly porous superabsorbent hydrogels were synthesized through a rapid radical polymerization under normal atmospheric conditions. To synthesize a biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) were grafted on the starch backbone in an aqueous solution. The graft copolymerization reaction was carried out in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linker in a homogeneous medium. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron... 

    Adhesion modification of polyethylenes for metallization using radiation-induced grafting of vinyl monomers

    , Article Surface and Coatings Technology ; Volume 201, Issue 16-17 , 2007 , Pages 7519-7529 ; 02578972 (ISSN) Shojaei, A ; Fathi, R ; Sheikh, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    The present paper demonstrates the performance of the radiation grafting technique as a chemically based surface pretreatment method to adhesion modification of polyethylene surfaces toward the metallic layer. Gamma irradiation over a dose range of 4-10 kGy is used for grafting of vinyl monomers including acrylamide (AAm) and 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) onto the surface of three different polyethylenes including low density polyethylene (LDPE) and two kinds of high density polyethylenes, namely HDPE-1 and HDPE-2. The grafting yield is evaluated based on the weight increase of the samples. It is found that the grafting yield is dominated by the crystallinity of the polyethylene, so that lower... 

    Modified CMC: Part1-optimized synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose-g-polyacrylonitrile

    , Article Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition) ; Volume 14, Issue 2 , 2005 , Pages 131-138 ; 10261265 (ISSN) Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sadeghi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    As the first part of a continued research on conversion of carboxymethyl cellulose-sodium salt (CMC) to useful biopolymer-based materials, large numbers of cyanide functional groups were introduced onto CMC by grafting with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The graft copolymerization reactions were carried out under nitrogen atmosphere using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. Evidence of grafting was obtained by comparing FTIR spectra of CMC and the graft copolymer as well as solubility characteristics of the products. The synthetic conditions were systematically optimized through studying the effective factors including temperature and concentrations of initiator, acrylonitrile monomer,... 

    New polysaccharide-g-polyacrylonitrile copolymers: synthesis and thermal characterization [electronic resource]

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 14, Issue 7, pages 508–516, July 2003 Zohurian Mehr, M. J. (Mohammad Jalal) ; Pourjavadi, Ali ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Various natural and modified polysaccharides (i.e. arabic gum, tragacanth gum, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, chitosan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose) were modified using ceric-initiated graft polymerization of acrylonitrile under inert atmosphere. Grafting was confirmed using spectral (FT-IR) proofs. The grafting parameters were determined by conventional methods. Thermal characteristics of the homopolymer-free copolymers were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen atmosphere. The major thermal transitions as well as the activation energy of the major decomposition stages were... 

    Modified CMC.2. Novel carboxymethylcellulose-based poly (amidoxime) chelating resin with high metal sorbtion capacities [electronic resource]

    , Article Reactive and Functional Polymers ; Volume 61, Issue 1, August 2004, Pages 23–31 Zohurian Mehr, M. J. (Mohammad Jalal) ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sadeghi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) was doubly modified to prepare a novel poly(acrylamidoxime) chelating resin. Acrylonitrile was firstly graft polymerized onto CMC using cerium ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted CMC was then amidoximized via treatment with hydroxylamine to prepare the ion exchange resin. The sorption capacity of the resin towards bivalent metal ions was evaluated while varying the pH, the loading of the PAN and the initial metal ion concentration. The adsorption kinetics were investigated for the cupric ion. The chelating resin exhibited very high metal sorption capacity in comparison with either synthetic or polysaccharide-based... 

    Novel cationic-modified salep as an efficient flocculating agent for settling of cement slurries

    , Article Carbohydrate Polymers ; Volume 93, Issue 2 , April , 2013 , Pages 506-511 ; 01448617 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Fakoorpoor, S. M ; Hosseini, S. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    A new cationic flocculant was synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and 3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC) onto salep using free radical polymerization initiated by ammonium persulfate (APS) to produce cationic salep [S-g-P(AM-co-MAPTAC)]. Reaction parameters (monomers/salep ratio, concentration of reactants, MAPTAC/AM ratio, and APS) were optimized using a full factorial experimental design to obtain the highest settling rate for cement suspensions. The best performing product was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The resulted cationic flocculant may be... 

    Gamma irradiation mediated synthesis of a new superabsorbent hydrogel network based on poly(acrylic acid) grafted onto salep

    , Article Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society ; Volume 7, Issue 3 , 2010 , Pages 652-662 ; 1735207X (ISSN) Rezanejade Bardajee, G ; Pourjavadi, A ; Soleyman, R ; Sheikh, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    A novel and smart biopolymer-based hydrogel was synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto the salep backbones. The new superabsorbent hydrogel was synthesized via simultaneous crosslinking and graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) monomer onto salep backbones using radiochemical methods. In radiochemical methods, γ-rays as initiator, energy source and crosslinker are applied. In our experiments, the effects of reaction variables such as relative contents of salep and AA, as well as γ-rays total dose were examined. According to water absorbency of the entitled network, the best synthesis condition is reported. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM photograph and TGA analysis were used... 

    Modified CMC. 4. Ceric-initiated methacrylonitrile graft polymerization onto carboxymethylcellulose

    , Article Journal of Polymer Materials ; Volume 21, Issue 4s , 2004 , Pages 351-359 ; 09738622 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Pooraghaberar, A ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2004
    Abstract
    Graft copolymerization of methacrylonitrile (MAN) onto carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was carried out under argon atmosphere in a homogeneous aqueous medium by using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. The FTIR spectroscopy and solubility characteristics of the products were used for confirming the graft copolymer formation. The effect of the concentration of the initiator, monomer and polysaccharide as well as the reaction time and temperature on the graft copolymerization reactions were investigated to achieve the optimum grafting conditions (i.e. CAN 0.00065 mol/L, MAN 0.85 mol/L, CMC 1% W/V, reaction temperature 45°C, and reaction time 2 h). According to the empirical rates of... 

    Modified carrageenan. 2. Hydrolyzed crosslinked κ -carrageenan-g-PAAm as a novel smart superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt sensitivity

    , Article Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition ; Volume 15, Issue 12 , 2004 , Pages 1499-1511 ; 09205063 (ISSN) Hosseinzadeh, H ; Pourjavavdi, A ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2004
    Abstract
    A novel pH-responsive superabsorbing hydrogel based on κ-carrageenan (κC) was prepared through polyacrylamide crosslinking grafting followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The hydrogel structure was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The hydrolysis conditions were systematically optimized to obtain a hydrogel with maximum swelling capacity. Thus, the reaction variables, including the hydrolysis time and temperature, concentration of sodium hydroxide, amount of hydrogel hydrolyzed and post-neutralization pH, were optimized. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in 0.15 M aqueous solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3. As observed for the hydrolyzed hydrogel (H-carragPAM),...