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    Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Study of a Flexible Cardiac Stabilizer for Beating Heart Robotic Surgery

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Houshmand, Arvin (Author) ; Farahmand, Farzam (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    A popular way for performing minimally invasive heart surgery is to use cardiac stabilizers that fix the heart during surgery. In the recent years several research works have been conducted to develop effective cardiac stabilizers. While these developments have attempted to improve fixation of the heart, there are reports indicating that a rigid cardiac stabilization may induce injury to heart muscle tissues due to restricting the heart motion in all directions. A more efficient approach than rigid cardiac stabilization might be to use a flexible cardiac stabilizer in combination with a surgical robot having motion compensation capability. The scope of this research is designing a device to... 

    A hybrid algorithm for prediction of varying heart rate motion in computer-assisted beating heart surgery

    , Article Journal of Medical Systems ; Volume 42, Issue 10 , 2018 ; 01485598 (ISSN) Mansouri, S ; Farahmand, F ; Vossoughi, G ; Alizadeh Ghavidel, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York LLC  2018
    Abstract
    An essential requirement for performing robotic assisted surgery on a freely beating heart is a prediction algorithm which can estimate the future trajectory of the heart in the varying heart rate (HR) conditions of real surgery with a high accuracy. In this study, a hybrid amplitude modulation- (AM) and autoregressive- (AR) based algorithm was developed to enable estimating the global and local oscillations of the beating heart, raised from its major and minor physiological activities. The AM model was equipped with an estimator of the heartbeat frequency to compensate for the HR variations. The RMS of the prediction errors of the hybrid algorithm was in the range of 165–361 μm for the... 

    Control tuning of a اeart motion tracking system in off-pump heart surgery

    , Article 5th RSI International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics, IcRoM 2017, 25 October 2017 through 27 October 2017 ; 2018 , Pages 445-450 ; 9781538657034 (ISBN) Rahmati, Z ; Behzadipour, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Design, implementation and experimental evaluation of a classic PID, and a modern Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for an off-pump heart tracking system were carried out. Following the design and simulation analysis of the controllers, experimental evaluation was conducted on the slave robot of SINA tele-operational surgical system. Results revealed that considering the volatile high-frequency/speed pattern of heart motion, the agility of the controlled system is the most influential factor on its performance. With this in mind, unlike the Ziegler-Nichols-based tuned PID with emphasis on steady-state condition, the PID control with more transient behavior showed a superior performance.... 

    Control tuning of a اeart motion tracking system in off-pump heart surgery

    , Article 5th RSI International Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics, IcRoM 2017, 25 October 2017 through 27 October 2017 ; 2018 , Pages 445-450 ; 9781538657034 (ISBN) Rahmati, Z ; Behzadipour, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2018
    Abstract
    Design, implementation and experimental evaluation of a classic PID, and a modern Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for an off-pump heart tracking system were carried out. Following the design and simulation analysis of the controllers, experimental evaluation was conducted on the slave robot of SINA tele-operational surgical system. Results revealed that considering the volatile high-frequency/speed pattern of heart motion, the agility of the controlled system is the most influential factor on its performance. With this in mind, unlike the Ziegler-Nichols-based tuned PID with emphasis on steady-state condition, the PID control with more transient behavior showed a superior performance.... 

    A comprehensive multimodality heart motion prediction algorithm for robotic-assisted beating heart surgery

    , Article International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery ; Volume 15, Issue 2 , 2019 ; 14785951 (ISSN) Mansouri, S ; Farahmand, F ; Vossoughi, G ; Alizadeh Ghavidel, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Ltd  2019
    Abstract
    Background: An essential requirement for performing robotic-assisted surgery on a freely beating heart is a prediction algorithm that can estimate the future heart trajectory. Method: Heart motion, respiratory volume (RV) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signal were measured from two dogs during thoracotomy surgery. A comprehensive multimodality prediction algorithm was developed based on the multivariate autoregressive model to incorporate the heart trajectory and cardiorespiratory data with multiple inherent measurement rates explicitly. Results: Experimental results indicated strong relationships between the dominant frequencies of heart motion with RV and ECG. The prediction algorithm... 

    Mechanical Analysis of the Influence of Surgical Glues on the State of the Aorta after Cardiovascular Surgery

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nejadsadeghi, Nima (Author) ;
    Abstract
    With the emergence of a variety of surgical glues in the market and utilizing them in recent years, nowadays, based on the post-surgery studies, it has become transparent that there are additional factors, such as the long-term effect of surgical glues on tissue, to consider beyond the sealants ability to act as a mechanical barrier or a means to buttress friable tissue so that it can hold sutures. Mechanical properties of the surgical glues have especially a significant role in the applications that the tissue undergoes cyclic loading (such as arteries’ tissues). A mismatch between the mechanical properties of the tissue and the sealant can result in the remodeling of the artery that may... 

    Beating-heart robotic surgery using bilateral impedance control: Theory and experiments

    , Article Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; Volume 45 , 2018 , Pages 256-266 ; 17468094 (ISSN) Sharifi, M ; Salarieh, H ; Behzadipour, S ; Tavakoli, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    A bilateral impedance controller is presented to enable robot-assisted surgery of a beating heart. For this purpose, two desired impedance models are designed and realized for the master and slave robots interacting with the operator (surgeon) and the environment (heart tissue), respectively. The impedance models are designed such that (a) the slave robot complies with the oscillatory motion of the beating heart and (b) the surgeon perceives the non-oscillatory portion of the slave/heart contact force at the master robot implying arrested-heart surgery. These performance goals are achieved via appropriate adjustment of the impedance model parameters without any measurement or estimation of... 

    Heart Motion Measurement and Prediction for Robotic Assisted Beating Heart Surgery

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mansouri, Saeed (Author) ; Farahmand, Farzam (Supervisor) ; Vossoughi, Gholamreza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    An essential requirement for performing robotic assisted surgery on a freely beating heart is a prediction algorithm which can estimate the future heart trajectory with a high accuracy in a long horizon. The main objective of this research was measurement and prediction of the heart motion for robotic assisted beating heart surgery. In this study, first the feasibility of a stereo infrared tracking system for measuring the free beating heart motion was investigated by experiments on a heart motion simulator. Simulator experiments revealed a high tracking accuracy when the capturing times were synchronized and the tracker pointed at the target from an appropriate distance.Then, the heart... 

    Simulation of LAD-LCX Bifurcation Hemodynamics of Coronary Artery Disease to Design an Effective Bypass Graft

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Tajeddini Sarvestani, Farshad (Author) ; Firoozabadi, Bahar (Supervisor) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor) ; Pakravan, Hossein Ali (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this study, three recent predictors of severity of coronary stenosis including fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave free-ratio (iFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), are calculated for a number of patient-specific models of left coronary arteries. These patients are admitted to Tehran heart center. The main aim is presenting the optimum numerical and clinical detection technique to assess the severity of coronary stenosis. The effect of geometric features of stenosis is studied on the results of the FFR, iFR, and CFR in order to determine their accuracy. It is observed that CFR does not have a good estimate of the amount of disease. But, iFR, as a less risky test than FFR,... 

    Design an Analysis of a Heartbeat Motion Compensation Controller in a Robotic Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahmati, Zahra (Author) ; Behzadipour, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is one of the most complicated and invasive surgeries, in which the chest is cleaved up to 20 cm. Also, heart motion with 1-2Hz frequency bothers surgeons to perform on. This leads surgeons to get interested in minimally invasive robotic surgery methods. The idea is to synchronize the robot motion with heart, in order for surgeons to perceive it stationary. This needs 3 major stages: online taking of data, estimate the future heart motion, and control the robot. First studies employ visual seroving for control demand. Later studies, although differ in data collection methods, rely on classic error-based feedback controllers, such as PID. Fast... 

    Design, Analysis, and Experimental Study of a Slave Robot for Minimally Invasive Beating Heart Surgery

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Alamdar, Alireza (Author) ; Farahmand, Farzam (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this study, a practical approach for robotic beating heart surgery was proposed. This approach eliminates lateral movements of the heart and compensates for normal heart movement by using 1 DOF heart stabilizer and 1 DOF heart compensator simultaneously. It is a compromise between complete fixation of the heart, which damages the heart tissue, on one hand and complex and impractical compensation of the free heart movement on the other. One of the core components of the proposed system is the slave robot, which includes a 1 DOF compensator and a 4 DOF tool holder robot. Based on the selected laparoscopic tool, a modified agile-eye mechanism for activating the wrist was introduced,... 

    Feasibility of infrared tracking of beating heart motion for robotic assisted beating heart surgery

    , Article International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery ; Volume 14, Issue 1 , February , 2018 ; 14785951 (ISSN) Mansouri, S ; Farahmand, F ; Vossoughi, G ; Ghavidel, A. A ; Rezayat, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    Background: Accurate tracking of the heart surface motion is a major requirement for robot assisted beating heart surgery. Method: The feasibility of a stereo infrared tracking system for measuring the free beating heart motion was investigated by experiments on a heart motion simulator, as well as model surgery on a dog. Results: Simulator experiments revealed a high tracking accuracy (81 μm root mean square error) when the capturing times were synchronized and the tracker pointed at the target from a 100 cm distance. The animal experiment revealed the applicability of the infrared tracker with passive markers in practical heart surgery conditions. Conclusion: With the current technology,...