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    Role of exchange flow in salt water balance of Urmia Lake

    , Article Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans ; Vol. 65, issue , 2014 , pp. 1-16 ; ISSN: 03770265 Marjani, A ; Jamali, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this paper we examine how exchange flow in Urmia Lake plays a crucial role in dynamics of the lake. Urmia Lake, a very large hyper-saline lake of high ecological significance, is located in northwest of Iran with a 15-km causeway dividing it into north and south lakes. A 1250-m opening in the causeway near the east coast links the two lakes. The differences in mean water levels and densities of the two lakes increase in spring due to large freshwater inflows into the south lake. High evaporation dominates the lake in summer. By incorporating the results of a two-layer hydraulics theory into a mixing model of the lake, we show that the exchange flow through the opening diminishes the water... 

    Mapping surface temperature in a hyper-saline lake and investigating the effect of temperature distribution on the lake evaporation

    , Article Remote Sensing of Environment ; Volume 136 , 2013 , Pages 374-385 ; 00344257 (ISSN) Sima, S ; Ahmadalipour, A ; Tajrishy, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Remote sensing is an effective tool for capturing spatial and temporal variations of water surface temperature (WST) in large lakes. The WST of Urmia Lake in northwestern Iran was examined from 2007 to 2010, using MODIS land surface temperature (LST) products. Spatial and temporal (diurnal, monthly, seasonal and inter-annual) variations of Urmia Lake WST were also investigated. Results indicate that the MODIS-derived WSTs are in a good agreement with the in situ data (R2=0.92 and bias=-0.27). Spatial analysis of WST revealed that there are three thermal zones along the lake: the shallow region in barriers of the causeway, islands and the shoreline; the south part; and the deep north parts.... 

    Evaluation of dike-type causeway impacts on the flow and salinity regimes in Urmia Lake, Iran

    , Article Journal of Great Lakes Research ; Volume 35, Issue 1 , 2009 , Pages 13-22 ; 03801330 (ISSN) Zeinoddini, M ; Tofighi, M. A ; Vafaee, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Urmia Lake, located in a closed basin in north-west Iran, is the largest lake (5000-6000 km2) in the Middle East. It is very saline with total dissolved salts reaching 200 g/l compared with a normal seawater salinity of about 35 g/l. The construction of a causeway, which was initiated in 1979 but then abandoned until the early 2000s, is near completion and will provide road access between the western and eastern provinces. The causeway has an opening 1.25 km long and divides Urmia Lake into a northern and southern basin and restricts water exchange. The flow and salinity regimes are affected by the presence of this new causeway, and there are concerns over the well being of the Artemia... 

    Assessment of 2DH and pseudo-3D modelling platforms in a large saline aquatic system: Lake Urmia, Iran

    , Article Hydrological Processes ; Vol. 28, Issue. 18 , 2014 , pp. 49534970 ; ISSN: 10991085 Zeinoddini, M ; Tofighi, M. A ; Bakhtiari, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    The main objective of this paper is to provide comparative quantitative examinations on the capabilities of two-dimensional horizontal and pseudo-three-dimensional (3D) modelling approaches for simulating spatial and temporal variability of the flow and salinity in Lake Urmia, Iran. The water quality in the lake has been an environmentally important subject partly because this shallow hypersaline aquatic ecosystem is considered to be one of the largest natural habitats of a unique multicellular organism, Artemia urmiana. This brine shrimp is the major food source for many of the protected and rare shorebirds that visit the lake. A.urmiana can grow and survive in certain ranges of salinity,... 

    Lake Urmia crisis and restoration plan: Planning without appropriate data and model is gambling

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 576 , 2019 , Pages 639-651 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Danesh Yazdi, M ; Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Losing eight meters of water level over a 20-year period from 1996 to 2016 marked the Lake Urmia (LU) as one of the regional environmental crises. This condition has threatened biota life, intensified desertification around the lake, and raised social concerns by adversely impacting the inhabitants’ health and economy. In 2013, the Urmia Lake Restoration National Committee (ULRNC) started implementing certain management practices to stop the drying trend of LU, resulted in the cease of water level drop and stabilization of LU condition in 2016. Nevertheless, the restoration actions have not yet raised the lake to the water level as planned by the roadmap. This paper aims to describe and to... 

    Revisiting bathymetry dynamics in Lake Urmia using extensive field data and high-resolution satellite imagery

    , Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 603 , 2021 ; 00221694 (ISSN) Danesh Yazdi, M ; Bayati, M ; Tajrishy, M ; Chehrenegar, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Bathymetric mapping for an accurate estimation of stored water volume in drying lakes is a key information for an effective monitoring of their recession or restoration status. Extraction of bathymetry in shallow saline lakes using remote sensing techniques has always been challenging due to the complex influences imposed by the physical properties of substrate and the spatial variability of salinity. In this study, we developed a machine learning-based model to quantify the implicit, non-linear relationship between water depth and surface reflectance by leveraging extensive in-situ data and high-resolution satellite imagery. We trained and tested the learning model in the hyper-saline Lake... 

    Using satellite data to extract volume-area-elevation relationships for Urmia Lake, Iran

    , Article Journal of Great Lakes Research ; Volume 39, Issue 1 , March , 2013 , Pages 90-99 ; 03801330 (ISSN) Sima, S ; Tajrishy, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran is the second largest hyper-saline lake worldwide. During the past two decades, a significant water level decline has occurred in the lake. The existing estimations for the lake water balance are widely variable because the lake bathymetry is unknown. The main focus of this study is to extract the volume-area-elevation (V-A-L) characteristics of Urmia Lake utilizing remote sensing data and analytical models. V-A-L equations of the lake were determined using radar altimetry data and their concurrent satellite-derived surface data. Next, two approximate models, a power model (PM) and a truncated pyramid model (TPM), were parameterized for Urmia Lake and... 

    Interaction of lake-groundwater levels using cross-correlation analysis: A case study of Lake Urmia Basin, Iran

    , Article Science of the Total Environment ; 2020 , Volume 729 Javadzadeh, H ; Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Hosseini, S. M ; Simmons, C. T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Lake Urmia (LU) is the second largest hypersaline lake in the world. Lake Urmia's water level has dropped drastically from 1277.85 m to 1270.08 m a.s.l (equal to 7.77 m) during the last 20 years, equivalent to a loss of 70% of the lake area. The likelihood of lake-groundwater connection on the basin-scale is uncertain and understudied because of lack of basic data and precise information required for physically-based modeling. In this study, cross-correlation analysis is applied on a various time-frames of water level of the lake and groundwater levels (2001–2018) recorded in 797 observation wells across 17 adjacent aquifers. This provides insightful information on the lake-groundwater... 

    The lake urmia environmental disaster in Iran: a look at aerosol pollution

    , Article Science of the Total Environment ; Volume 633 , 2018 , Pages 42-49 ; 00489697 (ISSN) Hossein Mardi, A ; Khaghani, A ; MacDonald, A. B ; Nguyen, P ; Karimi, N ; Heidary, P ; Karimi, N ; Saemian, P ; Sehatkashani, S ; Tajrishy, M ; Sorooshian, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lake Urmia (LU) once was the second largest hypersaline lake in the world, covering up to 6000 km2, but has undergone catastrophic desiccation in recent years resulting in loss of 90% of its area and extensive coverage by playas and marshlands that represent a source of salt and dust. This study examines daily Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) between 2001 and 2015 over northwestern Iran, which encompasses LU. Intriguingly, salt emissions from the LU surface associated with ongoing desiccation do not drive the study region's AOD profile, whereas pollution transported from other regions and emissions around LU are more important....