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    Investigate Laboratory Production of Hydroxyurea

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nejati, Poorya (Author) ; Bastani, Dariush (Supervisor) ; Seifkordi, Ali Akbar (Supervisor) ; Zegordi, Elahe (Co-Advisor)
    Hydroxyurea is an anticancer drug that is commonly used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (white blood cell cancer in bone marrow), polycythemia vera (red blood cell cancer), sickle cell anemia, solid tumors, and in particular leukemia. In this research, in addition to analyzing all available methods for synthesis of hydroxyurea, the most economical method for synthesis of hydroxyurea which is Hantzsch method was chosen; then we synthesized hydroxyurea crystals using a precipitation or crystallization process. To do so, two hydroxylamine hydrochloride and potassium cyanate reactants have been used in the semi batch reactor. Since the reaction efficiency and purity of the synthesized... 

    Design a Microfluidics System for Drug Testing of Leukemia Patient's Bone Marrow Aspirate

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahimi, Ali (Author) ; Saidi, Mohammad Said (Supervisor)
    Cancer is one of the most causes of mortality in the world. Leukemia is a type of cancer initiated by the rapid proliferation of blood cells including WBCs, RBCs, and Platelets, that classified into four general types of AML, ALL, CML, and CLL. The main treatment of leukemia is chemotherapy. Because of many problems that patients have with this treatment and not so good results of chemotherapy, we design a microfluidic chip that can perform personalized medicine treatment for leukemia patients.This microchip consists of two main parts, Concentration Gradient Generator (CGG), and cell culture. CGG system is a tree CGG with two inlets and four outlets, which makes a linear concentration of... 

    Cancer Detection and Classification in Histopathology Images Under Small Training Set

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Askari Farsangi, Amir Hossein (Author) ; Rohban, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Sharifi Zarchi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Histopathology images are a type of medical images that are used to diagnose a variety of diseases. One of these illnesses is the Leukemia cancer, which has four different subtypes and is diagnosed using a blood smear image. As a result of the advancement of deep learning tools, models for diagnosing various types of disease from images have been developed in recent years.In this project, one of the best models developed to diagnose four different types of disease was replicated, and it was demonstrated that, while this model achieves acceptable accuracy, its decision is not based on medically significant criteria. In the following, a general method for diagnosing the disease is proposed... 

    The global burden of childhood and adolescent cancer in 2017: an analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

    , Article The Lancet Oncology ; Volume 20, Issue 9 , 2019 , Pages 1211-1225 ; 14702045 (ISSN) Force, L. M ; Abdollahpour, I ; Advani, S.M ; Agius, D ; Ahmadian, E ; Alahdab, F ; Alam, T ; Alebel, A ; Alipour, V ; Allen, C.A ; Almasi Hashiani, A ; Alvarez, E.M ; Amini, S ; Amoako, Y.A ; Anber, N.H ; Arabloo, J ; Artaman, A ; Atique, S ; Awasthi, A ; Bagherzadeh, M ; Basaleem, H ; Bekru, E.T ; Bijani, A ; Bogale, K.A ; Car, M ; Carvalho, F ; Castro, C ; Catalá-López, F ; Chu, D.-T ; Costa, V.M ; Darwish, A.H ; Demeke, F.M ; Demis, A.B ; Demoz, G.T ; Dharmaratne, S.D ; Do, H.P ; Doan, L.P ; Dubey, M ; Eftekhari, A ; El-Khatib, Z ; Emamian, M.H ; Abbasalizad Farhangi, M ; Fernandes, E ; Fischer, F ; Fouladi Fard, R ; Friedrich, P.M ; Fukumoto, T ; Gedefaw, G.A ; Ghashghaee, A ; Gholamian, A ; Haj-Mirzaian, A ; Haj-Mirzaian, A ; Hamidi, S ; Harvey, J.D ; Hassen, H.Y ; Hay, S.I ; Hoang, C.L ; Hole, M.K ; Horita, N ; Hosseini, S.N ; Hosseinzadeh, M ; Hsairi, M ; Hudson, M.M ; Innos, K ; Jalilian, F ; James, S.L ; Kasaeian, A ; Kassa, T.D ; Kassebaum, N.J ; Keiyoro, P.N ; Khader, Y.S ; Khubchandani, J ; Kianipour, N ; Kirby, J ; Kisa, A ; Kisa, S ; Kocarnik, J.M ; Lauriola, P ; Lopez, A.D ; Mägi, M ; Malik, M.A ; Manafi, A ; Manafi, N ; Mansournia, M.A ; Massenburg, B.B ; Mehta, V ; Meles, H.G ; Meretoja, T.J ; Mestrovic, T ; Mirzaei Alavijeh, M ; Mir, S.M ; Mohammad, D.K ; Darwesh, A.M ; Mezerji, N.M.G ; Mohammadibakhsh, R ; Mohammadoo Khorasani, M ; Mokdad, A.H ; Moodley, Y ; Moosazadeh, M ; Moossavi, M ; Moradpour, F ; Morrison, S.D ; Muchie, K.F ; Naghavi, M ; Nazari, J ; Ngunjiri, J.W ; Nguyen, C.T ; Nguyen, L.H ; Nguyen, S.H ; Nguyen, T.H ; Nixon, M.R ; Olagunju, A.T ; Olagunju, T.O ; Ong, S.K ; Paapsi, K ; Pennini, A ; Pereira, D.M ; Pillay, J.D ; Qorbani, M ; Rabiee, M ; Rabiee, N ; Raoofi, S ; Rawaf, D.L ; Rawaf, S ; Reiner, R.C ; Rezaei, N ; Rezapour, A ; Roba, K.T ; Robison, L.L ; Rodriguez Galindo, C ; Roshandel, G ; Safiri, S ; Salahshoor, M ; Salehi Zahabi, S ; Samy, A.M ; Santric Milicevic, M.M ; Satpathy, M ; Sawyer, S.M ; Seyedmousavi, S ; Shabaninejad, H ; Shaikh, M.A ; Shamshirian, A ; Shamsizadeh, M ; Shirkoohi, R ; Siabani, S ; Singh, J.A ; Siramlee, K ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R ; Temsah, M.-H ; Tran, B.X ; Ullah, I ; Vahedian Azimi, A ; Vollset, S.E ; Vos, T ; Waheed, Y ; Weldesamuel, G.T ; Workie, H.M ; Xu, R ; Yaseri, M ; Yonemoto, N ; Yu, C ; Zadnik, V ; Zahirian Moghadam, T ; Zaidi, Z ; Zangeneh, A ; Zewale, T.A ; Ziapour, A ; Zodpey, S ; Murray, C.J.L ; Fitzmaurice, C ; Bhakta, N ; GBD 2017 Childhood Cancer Collaborators ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lancet Publishing Group  2019
    Background: Accurate childhood cancer burden data are crucial for resource planning and health policy prioritisation. Model-based estimates are necessary because cancer surveillance data are scarce or non-existent in many countries. Although global incidence and mortality estimates are available, there are no previous analyses of the global burden of childhood cancer represented in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Methods: Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 methodology, childhood (ages 0–19 years) cancer mortality was estimated by use of vital registration system data, verbal autopsy data, and population-based cancer registry incidence... 

    Synthesizing efficacious genistein in conjugation with superparamagnetic Fe3O4 decorated with bio-compatible carboxymethylated chitosan against acute leukemia lymphoma

    , Article Biomaterials Research ; Volume 24, Issue 1 , 2020 Ghasemi Goorbandi, R ; Mohammadi, M. R ; Malekzadeh, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    BioMed Central Ltd  2020
    Background: Genistein (C15H10O5) is a soy isoflavone with anti-cancer properties such as inhibition of cell growth, proliferation and tumor invasion, but effective dosage against hematopoietic malignant cells was not in non-toxic range. This property cause to impede its usage as chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, this hypothesis raised that synthesizing biocompatible nanoparticle could assist to prevail this struggle. Methods: Genistein covalently attached on Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated with carboxymethylated chitosan to fabricate Fe3O4-CMC-genistein in alkaline circumstance. This obtained nanoparticles were evaluated by TEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD and VSM and its anti-cancer effect by growth rate... 

    Application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of Biofluids in Disease Diagnosis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ganji, Mohammad (Author) ; Nejat, Hossein (Supervisor) ; Meghdari, Ali (Supervisor) ; Beigzadeh, Borhan (Co-Advisor)
    The ability to diagnose a disease rapidly, non-invasively, with high confidence level and low cost can be of great importance in many ways such as 'detection and on-time conduction of remedial strategies. Hence It can reduce fatality rate and costs in the hygiene field. Currently some pathological diagnosis methods are not suitable considering their precision and costs and in addition to that, most of them are single-function and are developed for diagnosis of a particular disease and don't perform well in the case of multiple disease factors. Many diseases are caused by metabolic disorders and thus direct study of metabolic factors can provide us with a lot of evidence on the disease. One... 

    Design a New Sugar- amino Acid-based Drug Structure as an Alternative to Methotrexate, with the Aim of Treating Leukemia and some Autoimmune Diseases

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shapouri, Amin Mohammad (Author) ; Fattahi, Alireza (Supervisor)
    This project aims to design a drug to fight leukemia and some autoimmune diseases having few side effects. These drugs are composed of natural sugar and amino acid structures. Among the various treatments available, drug structures as inhibitors of enzymes involved in cancer-related cellular processes is an important treatment. Methotrexate is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs in the last half-century and treats leukemia and many autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. It is a derivative of folic acid (vitamin B9) and one of the drugs with specific properties. It is an anti-folate whose anti-metabolic effects can help kill cancer cells. One of the problems with using this drug to... 

    Design of Methods for Synthesis and Immobilization of Nitrogen Ligands Such as Pyridine onto the Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Design of Pharmaceutical Structures Based on Amino Acids and Carbohydrates to Inhibit Polymerase Η for the Treatment of Leukemia and their Applications In Resins and Ionic Liquids

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kalhor, Sepideh (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor) ; Fattahi, Alireza (Supervisor)
    1- Mesoporous silica materials have been found to possess pore sizes ranging from 2 -10 nm alongside 2D-hexagonal and 3D-cubic structural features. The specific properties of nanoparticles of the mesoporous silica family, such as the collected size, porosity, morphology, and high chemical stability, make them among the best drug delivery systems and catalysts. Designing the catalysts with advanced structures that effectively locate the transition metals and create active centres onto the surfaces of mesoporous silica materials has attracted extraordinary attention. According to many studies, mesoporous silica materials without organic functional groups cannot be used as catalysts in chemical... 

    A novel method for segmentation of leukocyte nuclei based on color transformation

    , Article 26th National and 4th International Iranian Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2019, 27 November 2019 through 28 November 2019 ; 2019 , Pages 213-217 ; 9781728156637 (ISBN) Amirkhani, A ; Maheri, J ; Behroozi, H ; Kolahdoozi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2019
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancies among children, caused by uncontrolled growth of leukocytes. Since the main hallmarks of the disease is not specific, a considerable number of patients have been being misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis of the disease is usually made by morphological investigation of leukocytes under microscope. In light of the facts that decrease in cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio is one of the main indicators of cancerous cells, and an accurate segmentation phase will lead to extraction of representative features, segmentation step is acknowledged as being crucial in design of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD). Previous researches have... 

    Experimental and numerical study on the effect of aluminum foil wrapping on penetration resistance of ceramic tiles

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 24, Issue 3 , 2017 , Pages 1126-1135 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Mazaheri, H ; Naghdabadi, R ; Arghavani, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this work, energy absorption of ceramic tiles wrapped by aluminum foil on its impact face is experimentally and numerically studied. Penetration tests as well as numerical simulations are employed to obtain Ballistic Limit Velocity (BLV) of the tiles. Experimental and numerical results yield BLV of bare tiles as 145 ± 2 and 141.5 m/s, respectively. For the wrapped tiles, these values are increased to 168 ± 2 and 162 m/s, respectively. Therefore, 13% increase in BLV of the ceramic tiles is obtained by just 2.4% increase in its weight. Moreover, it is shown that energy absorption of the wrapped tiles is at least 11% greater than that of the bare ones. Based on the results, the increase in... 

    Fuzzy support vector machine: An efficient rule-based classification technique for microarrays

    , Article BMC Bioinformatics ; Volume 14, Issue SUPPL13 , 2013 ; 14712105 (ISSN) Hajiloo, M ; Rabiee, H. R ; Anooshahpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Background: The abundance of gene expression microarray data has led to the development of machine learning algorithms applicable for tackling disease diagnosis, disease prognosis, and treatment selection problems. However, these algorithms often produce classifiers with weaknesses in terms of accuracy, robustness, and interpretability. This paper introduces fuzzy support vector machine which is a learning algorithm based on combination of fuzzy classifiers and kernel machines for microarray classification.Results: Experimental results on public leukemia, prostate, and colon cancer datasets show that fuzzy support vector machine applied in combination with filter or wrapper feature selection... 

    Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in ectopic and eutopic of endometrial tissues

    , Article Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics ; Volume 36, Issue 8 , 2019 , Pages 1743-1752 ; 10580468 (ISSN) Barjaste, N ; Shahhoseini, M ; Afsharian, P ; Sharifi Zarchi, A ; Masoudi Nejad, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York LLC  2019
    Purpose: Endometriosis is a gynecological disease that causes the uterine lining to appear in other organs outside the uterus. As DNA methylation has an important role in this disorder, its profiling can reveal new information to improve the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis patients. Methods: We conducted a genome-wide methylation profiling of ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues from women with and without endometriosis using Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip arrays. DNA methylation samples were collected from nine ectopic and nine eutopic endometrial tissues of endometriosis and six endometrial tissues of healthy controls. Results: Correlation heatmaps and the principal... 

    Cell "vision": Complementary factor of protein corona in nanotoxicology

    , Article Nanoscale ; Volume 4, Issue 17 , 2012 , Pages 5461-5468 ; 20403364 (ISSN) Mahmoudi, M ; Saeedi-Eslami, S. N ; Shokrgozar, M. A ; Azadmanesh, K ; Hassanlou, M ; Kalhor, H. R ; Burtea, C ; Rothen Rutishauser, B ; Laurent, S ; Sheibani, S ; Vali, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    RSC  2012
    Engineered nanoparticles are increasingly being considered for use as biosensors, imaging agents and drug delivery vehicles. Their versatility in design and applications make them an attractive proposition for new biological and biomedical approaches. Despite the remarkable speed of development in nanoscience, relatively little is known about the interaction of nanoscale objects with living systems. In a biological fluid, proteins associate with nanoparticles, and the amount and the presentation of the proteins on their surface could lead to a different in vivo response than an uncoated particle. Here, in addition to protein adsorption, we are going to introduce concept of cell "vision",... 

    Multiphysics flow modeling and in vitro toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly(vinyl alcohol)

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C ; Volume 113, Issue 6 , 2009 , Pages 2322-2331 ; 19327447 (ISSN) Mahmoudi, M ; Shokrgozar, M. A ; Simchi, A ; Imani, M ; Milani, A. S ; Stroeve, P ; Vali, H ; Häfeli, U. O ; Bonakdar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    This study investigated the behavior of ferrofluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) of various compositions for potential applications in drug delivery and imaging. To ensure biocompatibility, the interaction of these SPION with two cell lines (adhesive and suspended) was also investigated using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cell lines studied were primary mouse connective tissue cells (adhesive) and human leukemia cells (suspended). SPION were synthesized with a co-precipitation method under different stirring rates and NaOH molarities. The SPION demonstrated a range of magnetic saturations due to their...