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    Experimental and Modeling Study of Controlled Salinity Water Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery from one of Iranial Oil Reservoirs

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shojaei, Mohammad Javad (Author) ; Ghazanfari, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Masihi, Mohsen (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    From previous years, water injection was considered as one of the most common methods for enhanced oil recovery. But recently much attention has been paid on the use of low salinity water (LSW) as an enhanced oil recovery fluid. The main mechanism that causes improve oil recovery is wettability alteration to a more water wet state. The change observed in recovery factor during LSW flooding induced from changes in relative permeability and capillary pressure when different levels of salinity are used. However, a few researchers tried to evaluate how macroscopic flow functions depend on the salinity of injected water. To this end, a series oil displacements by water performed on sandstone rock... 

    Experimental Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation and Deposition in Enhanced Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Waterflooding

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hosseini, Ali (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabadin (Supervisor) ; Fatemi, Mobin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Asphaltenes are a polydisperse mixture of the heaviest and most polarizable fractions of the crude oil. They are defined according to their solubility properties as being soluble in aromatic solvents but insoluble in light paraffin solvents. Asphaltenes are usually responsible for many problems like wettability changes of the reservoir rock, pore clogging in the reservoir porous matrix and fouling in wellbore tubing and production surface facilities. Most of the studies in the literature, addressing the asphaltene precipitation and deposition (APD), are investigating natural depletion or gas injection process such as CO2 flooding. These studies show that asphaltene deposition and... 

    Pore-Scale Investigation of the Roles of Oil Types and Pore Structure in Low Salinity Waterfloogin Using Glass Micromodel

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammadi, Saheb (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabodin (Supervisor) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Oil composition plays an undeniable role on the low salinity water flooding (LSWF) efficiency. This property directly affects the kinetics of wettability alteration through electrostatic interactions and interfacial tension (IFT). For instance, mixing in stagnant zones through a thin water film is considered as one of the most important diffusion controlled phenomenon which is goverened by Non-Fickian solute transport model. The major two potentials controlling the solute transport in thin film are salinity gradient and electrostatic potentials, which can be affected by oil composition and surface charges. This study aims to investigate the effect of oil composition on low salinity... 

    Coupling Flow and Geochemistry for Numerical Simulation of Low Salinity/Smart Waterflooding in Carbonates

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Alipour, Sina (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahab (Supervisor) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Due to the decrease in oil reserves in the world, increasing population and the growing demands for oil consumption in the world, increasing the oil recovery from oil reservoirs has become more important. Increasing the amount of oil production efficiency by using low salinity water/modified salinity water has been highly appreciated during the last two decades. Low-salt water is a new method, due to its advantages such as low cost, simplicity of operation and low environmental hazards. It is believed that low salinity water can alter the rock wettability from a more oil-wetting state to a more water-wetting state. In order to be able to predict the performance of low salinity water... 

    Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Fluid/Fluid and Fluid/Rock Interactions on the Pore Scale Displacement Mechanisms of Oil by Lswi

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Siadatifar, Emad (Author) ; Fatemi, Mobeen (Supervisor) ; Masihi, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Visual investigation of the low salinity water injection into micromodel is the goal of this research. Although many researches have been performed to realize the dominating mechanism behind the increased oil recovery after low salinity water injection, many contradictions exist among the studies. Mechanisms are generally divided into two classes. One class is due to fluid/fluid interactions and the other one is due to fluid/rock interactions. A comprehensive set of experiments are conducted in this study to find out the dominating mechanism behind low salinity water injection under the existing conditions of the experiments. Effect of different wettability condition and presence and absence... 

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Nonorganic Scale Formation in Porous Media at Microscopic Scale

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mirzaalian Dastjerdi, Ali (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabodin (Supervisor) ; Taghikhani, Vahid (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Inorganic scale deposition has been found to affect many industrial processes,including water injection into the oil reservoirs. Major formation damage because of incompatibility of high sulfate ion content of seawater with formation water containing calcium ion results in formation damage and production decline.In this study, several simultaneous techniques are utilized for qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium sulfate scale to get more insight into the damage of formation during smart water flooding at micro and Nano scales. In the experimental section, calcium sulfate deposition due to the mixing of the formation water and seawater samples was investigated using the dynamic... 

    Mechanistically Investigation of Residual Oil Saturation in Heterogeneous Glass Micromodel during Low Salinity Water Injection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safdari, Mojtaba (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin (Supervisor) ; Masihi, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Oil and gas reservoirs in various parts of the world have declined over time, despite a high percentage of oil. Due to the increasing need for hydrocarbon resources, the need for more cost-efficient harvesting methods and less environmental damage is felt. Injection of saline water is one of the most cost-effective ways of harvesting due to the need for no expensive additives. On the other hand, microscopic glass modeling can be used to better understand and understand the performance of saline water at the microscopic scale. In this study we have been able to visualize the effective factors in infusion of saline water. Improved interfacial tensile and particle migration in kaolin-coated... 

    Experimental Study of LSW Injection in Fractured Porous Media: Fracture Geometrical Properties at Pore Scale

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mahmoudzadeh Zarandi, Atena (Author) ; Masihi, Mohsen (Supervisor) ; Fatemi, Mobeen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Enhancing oil production from fractured reservoirs is challenging. The flow characteristics observed in naturally fractured reservoirs are complicated due to interaction between the two different flow domains: fracture and matrix. Spontaneous imbibition is one of the most important recovery processes in water-wet fractured reservoirs. Oil cannot be spontaneously produced from oil-wet rocks, unless the capillary pressure barrier between fracture conduits and matrix is overcome. The flow characteristics in fractured systems thus relate to the wettability of the rocks. Low salinity water injection has been widely studied as a method of enhancing oil recovery in recent years. However, its impact... 

    Pore-scale Modeling and Simulation of Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSWF) with OpenPNM

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abdollahi, Saeed (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabodin (Supervisor) ; Sadegh Nejad, Saeid (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The Low salinity water flooding is one of the important methods of secondary and tertiary oil production in which many expert petroleum-production engineering working on it in recent two decades. There are some basis mechanisms for low salinity method presented in the literatures including fine migrations, alkaline flooding, multicomponent ionic exchange, electrical double-layer expansion and pH-driven wettability alteration. The main approach is generating low salinity mechanism especially wettability alteration in OpenPNM framework. OpenPNM is a python base framework developed by Jeff Gostick for porous media modeling. OpenPNM has paved the way for extracting pore network models (PNM) from... 

    Investigation of Interface Phenomena in Low Salinity/Smart Waterflooding by Applying Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Badizad, Mohammad Hassan (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahab (Supervisor) ; Ghazanfari, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Koleini, Mhammad Mehdi (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Low salinity/smart waterflooding is simple to apply and a promising enhanced oil recovery method in which ion-tuned saltwater is injected into subsurface oil reservoirs. Many aspects of this operation, in particular those pertaining to nano-scale, are not yet fully understood. The present dissertation is an attempt to shed light on the microscopic properties and behavior of rock/brine/oil interfaces throughout low salinity/smart waterflooding. Several simulations were carried out for oil/brine and calcite/brine categories each containing various ions and hydrocarbons compounds. The surface contribution of non-functional oil compounds (aromatics and aliphatics) near brine medium was... 

    Investigation of Low Salinity Waterflooding Predictive Capability and the Development of a Tool for Screening Candidates

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Golmohammadi, Meysam (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Ayatollahi, Shahab (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Among different enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, low salinity waterflooding (LSWF) has been attractive to researchers because of its relative simplicity and lower environmental problems compared to other conventional EOR methods. Numerous researchers have attempted to find the main cause of the low salinity effect (LSE). According to previous studies, several experimental techniques have been proposed for predicting LSE and screening potential field candidates. However, there is a lack of a systematic investigation of all (or even some of) the methods to compare and determine their LSE predictive capability. Predictive capability development is essential because it saves costs and time... 

    Dynamic Simulation of Wettability Alteration Induced by Low-Salinity-Effect: Study of Phenomena within Thin Water Film

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pourakaberian, Arash (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Joekar Niasar, Vahid (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that the lowering of brine could alter the wettability of the oil-brine-rock systems from an oil-wetting state toward a more water-wetting state. This so-called “Low-salinity effect” (LSE) is one of the main effects of the enhanced oil recovery technology based on low-salinity waterflooding. “Double layer expansion” (DLE) in the thin brine film is proposed as the principal mechanism of this phenomenon. Nonetheless, the role of the electrical behavior of the oil/brine and rock/brine interfaces on the kinetics and dynamics of this process is not well understood. Moreover, since most of the previous works have either dealt with a thin film at... 

    Pore-Scale Investigation of Polymer Enhanced Low Salinity Water flooding EOR

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Posht Panah, Mohammad Reza (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Rostami, Behzad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Low salinity water flooding (LSWF) is a relatively new EOR method in which low salinity or modified ionic composition water is injected into the reservoir to alter its wettability toward a more water-wettable state to accelerate oil recovery. Ease of field deployment and relatively low cost, as well as laboratory results confirming the positive effect of this method in improving the oil recovery factor, have made this technique attractive in the oil industry.Despite the many advantages of this method, overcoming the mixing between low and high salinity water which occurs due to a high mobility ratio between these two fluids is essential because it negatively affects the efficiency of LSWF.... 

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Flow ّunction Variation in Enhanced oil Recovery Using Low Salinity/Smart Water Injection in a Carbonate Reservoir

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Farhadi, Hamed (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin (Supervisor) ; Fatemi, Mobin (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Low salinity water flooding (LSWF) as an efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique is proved to affect both, fluid-fluid and rock-fluid interactions to potentially release the trapped oil from the porous rock. Despite more than one decade of extensive research works on the low salinity water effect (LSWE), there are still many parameters to be studied for very complex cases. Therefore, in the first part of the experimental study of the dissertation, a systematic investigation on the effect of the initial wetting state (water-wet or oil-wet) of pure calcite is conducted to study the importance of fluid/fluid and fluid/rock interactions for LSWE investigation. In the case of initially... 

    Pore-scale Simulation of the Effect of Fluid/fluid and Rock/fluid Interactions During Water Injection on the Residual Oil Distribution and Hysteresis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ebrahimi Nejad, Mehdi (Author) ; Fatemi, Mobeen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Low salinity water injection is one of the new and important methods of enhancing oil recovery. Experimental studies show the fact that the change in water salinity affects the interfacial properties of water-oil (Fluid-fluid interactions) And the change in wettability that represents the porous media (Rock-fluid interactions) is effective for Oil-recovery. Recently, progress have been made in simulating the process of injecting low-salinity water into the field or core dimensions. However, the simulation of the low salinity water injection process has been much less studied considering the fluid / fluid and fluid / rock interactions at the pore scale. The purpose of this study is to... 

    Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves for low salinity water flooding in sandstone rocks

    , Article Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering ; Volume 25 , July , 2015 , Pages 30-38 ; 18755100 (ISSN) Shojaei, M. J ; Ghazanfari, M. H ; Masihi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    Abstract
    Recently much attention has been paid to the use of low salinity water (LSW) as an enhanced oil recovery fluid. The change observed in recovery factor during LSW flooding is induced from changes in relative permeability and capillary pressure when different levels of salinity are used. However, a few researchers tried to evaluate how macroscopic flow functions depend on the salinity of the injected water. To this end, a series of oil displacement by water was performed on a sandstone rock aged with crude oil in the presence of connate water. The capillary pressure and relative permeability curves are evaluated from inverse modeling of the obtained pressure drop and oil production data. Then,... 

    Performance of sea water dilution on the surface free energies of the crude oils in water-flooded carbonate rock

    , Article Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology ; 2017 , Pages 1-10 ; 01694243 (ISSN) Lashkarbolooki, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Although several investigations have studied the low-salinity water injection (LSWI) performance during the past decades, the effect of crude oil type on the interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability alteration is still in dark. In this regard, this study is aimed to obtain the thermodynamic energies including adhesion, cohesion and spreading coefficient during LSWI. To achieve this goal, IFT and static contact angle values of three different crude oils (i.e. light, medium and heavy) are measured as a function of sea water salinity. The obtained results revealed that the dilution of sea water can change the wettability of reservoir rock from oil wet state towards water wet state, while crude... 

    Performance of sea water dilution on the surface free energies of the crude oils in water-flooded carbonate rock

    , Article Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology ; Volume 32, Issue 12 , 2018 , Pages 1359-1368 ; 01694243 (ISSN) Lashkarbolooki, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    Although several investigations have studied the low-salinity water injection (LSWI) performance during the past decades, the effect of crude oil type on the interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability alteration is still in dark. In this regard, this study is aimed to obtain the thermodynamic energies including adhesion, cohesion and spreading coefficient during LSWI. To achieve this goal, IFT and static contact angle values of three different crude oils (i.e. light, medium and heavy) are measured as a function of sea water salinity. The obtained results revealed that the dilution of sea water can change the wettability of reservoir rock from oil wet state towards water wet state, while crude... 

    Experimental investigation of the influence of fluid-fluid interactions on oil recovery during low salinity water flooding

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 182 , 2019 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Mokhtari, R ; Ayatollahi, S ; Fatemi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    This study aims to investigate the role of fluid-fluid interactions during low salinity water flooding, using crude oil from an Iranian oil reservoir. To minimize the effects of mineral heterogeneity and wettability alteration, a synthetic sintered glass core was utilized and all coreflooding experiments were performed at low temperatures without any aging process. The effect of fluid-fluid interactions were investigated in both secondary and tertiary injection modes. pH measurements as well as UV-Vis spectroscopy and interfacial tension (IFT) analysis were performed on the effluent brine samples. Results: show that fluid-fluid interactions, mainly the dissolution of crude oil polar...