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    Micro and nanoscale technologies in oral drug delivery

    , Article Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews ; Volume 157 , 2020 , Pages 37-62 Ahadian, S ; Finbloom, J. A ; Mofidfar, M ; Diltemiz, S. E ; Nasrollahi, F ; Davoodi, E ; Hosseini, V ; Mylonaki, I ; Sangabathuni, S ; Montazerian, H ; Fetah, K ; Nasiri, R ; Dokmeci, M. R ; Stevens, M. M ; Desai, T. A ; Khademhosseini, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    Oral administration is a pillar of the pharmaceutical industry and yet it remains challenging to administer hydrophilic therapeutics by the oral route. Smart and controlled oral drug delivery could bypass the physiological barriers that limit the oral delivery of these therapeutics. Micro- and nanoscale technologies, with an unprecedented ability to create, control, and measure micro- or nanoenvironments, have found tremendous applications in biology and medicine. In particular, significant advances have been made in using these technologies for oral drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe biological barriers to oral drug delivery and micro and nanoscale fabrication technologies....