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    Solid-state platform for space-time engineering: The 8Pmmn borophene sheet

    , Article Physical Review B ; Volume 99, Issue 23 , 2019 ; 24699950 (ISSN) Farajollahpour, T ; Faraei, Z ; Jafari, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Physical Society  2019
    We construct the most generic Hamiltonian of the 8Pmmn structure of a borophene sheet in the presence of spin orbit, as well as background electric and magnetic fields. In addition to spin and valley Hall effects, this structure offers a framework to conveniently manipulate the resulting "tilt" of the Dirac equation by applying appropriate electric fields. Therefore, the tilt can be made space as well as time dependent. The border separating the low-field region with undertilted Dirac fermions from the high-field region with over-tilted Dirac fermions will correspond to a black-hole horizon. In this way, space-time-dependent electric fields can be used to design the metric of the resulting... 

    CLASS: Combined logic and architectural soft error sensitivity analysis

    , Article Proceedings of the Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, ASP-DAC ; 2013 , Pages 601-607 ; 9781467330299 (ISBN) Ebrahimi, M ; Chen, L ; Asadi, H ; Tahoori, M. B ; Sharif University of Technology
    With continuous technology downscaling, the rate of radiation induced soft errors is rapidly increasing. Fast and accurate soft error vulnerability analysis in early design stages plays an important role in cost-effective reliability improvement. However, existing solutions are suitable for either regular (a.k.a address-based such as memory hierarchy) or irregular (random logic such as functional units and control logic) structures, failing to provide an accurate system-level analysis. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach integrating architecture-level and logic-level techniques to accurately estimate the vulnerability of all regular and irregular structures within a microprocessor.... 

    Budgeted experiment design for causal structure learning

    , Article 35th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2018, 10 July 2018 through 15 July 2018 ; Volume 4 , 2018 , Pages 2788-2801 ; 9781510867963 (ISBN) Ghassami, A ; Salehkaleybar, S ; Kiyavash, N ; Bareinboim, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    International Machine Learning Society (IMLS)  2018
    We study the problem of causal structure learning when the experimenter is limited to perform at most k non-adaptive experiments of size 1. We formulate the problem of finding the best intervention target set as an optimization problem, which aims to maximize the average number of edges whose directions are resolved. We prove that the corresponding objective function is submodular and a greedy algorithm suffices to achieve (1 - approximation of the optimal value. We further present an accelerated variant of the greedy algorithm, which can lead to orders of magnitude performance speedup. We validate our proposed approach on synthetic and real graphs. The results show that compared to the... 

    A fast, flexible, and easy-to-develop FPGA-based fault injection technique

    , Article Microelectronics Reliability ; Volume 54, Issue 5 , May , 2014 , Pages 1000-1008 ; ISSN: 00262714 Ebrahimi, M ; Mohammadi, A ; Ejlali, A ; Miremadi, S. G ; Sharif University of Technology
    By technology down scaling in nowadays digital circuits, their sensitivity to radiation effects increases, making the occurrence of soft errors more probable. As a consequence, soft error rate estimation of complex circuits such as processors is becoming an important issue in safety- and mission-critical applications. Fault injection is a well-known and widely used approach for soft error rate estimation. Development of previous FPGA-based fault injection techniques is very time consuming mainly because they do not adequately exploit supplementary FPGA tools. This paper proposes an easy-to-develop and flexible FPGA-based fault injection technique. This technique utilizes debugging facilities... 

    Ultra-sensitive detection of leukemia by graphene

    , Article Nanoscale ; Vol. 6, issue. 24 , Dec , 2014 , p. 14810-14819 Akhavan, O ; Ghaderi, E ; Hashemi, E ; Rahighi, R ; Sharif Universit of Technology
    Graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) with extremely sharp edges (lateral dimensions ∼20-200 nm and thicknesses <2 nm) were applied in extraction of the overexpressed guanine synthesized in the cytoplasm of leukemia cells. The blood serums containing the extracted guanine were used in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with reduced graphene oxide nanowall (rGONW) electrodes to develop fast and ultra-sensitive electrochemical detection of leukemia cells at leukemia fractions (LFs) of ∼10-11 (as the lower detection limit). The stability of the DPV signals obtained by oxidation of the extracted guanine on the rGONWs was studied after 20 cycles. Without the guanine extraction, the DPV peaks... 

    Theoretical and experimental investigation of direct detection optical OFDM transmission using beat interference cancellation receiver

    , Article Optics Express ; Volume 21, Issue 13 , 2013 , Pages 15237-15246 ; 10944087 (ISSN) Nezamalhosseini, S. A ; Chen, L. R ; Zhuge, Q ; Malekiha, M ; Marvasti, F ; Plant, D. V ; Sharif University of Technology
    We theoretically and experimentally evaluate a beat interference cancellation receiver (BICR) for direct detection optical orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (DD-OFDM) systems that improves the spectral efficiency (SE) by reducing the guard band between the optical carrier and the optical OFDM signal while mitigating the impact of signal-signal mixing interference (SSMI). Experimental results show that the bit-errorrate (BER) is improved by about three orders of magnitude compared to the conventional receiver after 320 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission for 10 Gb/s data with a 4-QAM modulation using reduced guard band single-sideband OFDM (RSSB-OFDM) signal with 1.67 bits/s/Hz SE... 

    A new decoding scheme for errorless codes for overloaded CDMA with active user detection

    , Article 2011 18th International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2011, Ayia Napa, 8 May 2011 through 11 May 2011 ; 2011 , Pages 201-205 ; 9781457700248 (ISBN) Mousavi, A ; Pad, P ; Delgosha, P ; Marvasti, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Recently, a new class of binary codes for overloaded CDMA systems are proposed that not only has the ability of errorless communication but also suitable for detecting active users. These codes are called COWDA. In [1], a Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoder is proposed for this class of codes. Although the proposed scheme for coding/decoding shows impressive performance, the decoder can be significantly improved. In this paper, by assuming practical conditions for the traffic in the system, we suggest and prove an algorithm that increases the performance of the decoder several orders of magnitude (the Bit-Error-Rate (BER) is divided by a factor of about 400 in some E b/N0's). The algorithm... 

    DiskAccel: Accelerating disk-based experiments by representative sampling

    , Article Performance Evaluation Review, 15 June 2015 through 19 June 2015 ; Volume 43, Issue 1 , 2015 , Pages 297-308 ; 01635999 (ISSN) Tarihi, M ; Asadi, H ; Sarbazi Azad, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Association for Computing Machinery  2015
    Disk traces are typically used to analyze real-life workloads and for replay-based evaluations. This approach benefits from capturing important details such as varying behavior patterns, bursty activity, and diurnal patterns of system activity, which are often missing from the behavior of workload synthesis tools. However, accurate capture of such details requires recording traces containing long durations of system activity, which are difficult to use for replay-based evaluation. One way of solving the problem of long storage trace duration is the use of disk simulators. While publicly available disk simulators can greatly accelerate experiments, they have not kept up with technological... 

    Stereoelectronic effects: A simple yet powerful tool to manipulate anion affinity

    , Article Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry ; Volume 13, Issue 7 , Dec , 2015 , Pages 2170-2176 ; 14770520 (ISSN) Samet, M ; Fattahi, A ; Kass, S.R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2015
    Different strategies are employed in designing strong and selective anion receptors but stereoelectronic effects have been largely ignored. In this work, the stereo configuration of a non-interacting ether is found to have a large impact of more than two orders of magnitude on the binding of a rigid diol with tetrabutylammonium chloride in acetonitrile-d3. A favorable carbon-oxygen dipole and an intramolecular C-H⋯OH hydrogen bond in an equatorially substituted ether is found to be energetically more important than a stabilizing hydrogen bond in the corresponding axially oriented alcohol. IR spectroscopy is also used to probe the structures of the bound complexes and several binding motifs... 

    A fast analytical approach to multi-cycle soft error rate estimation of sequential circuits

    , Article Proceedings - 13th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools, DSD 2010, 1 September 2010 through 3 September 2010, Lille ; 2010 , Pages 797-800 ; 9780769541716 (ISBN) Fazeli, M ; Miremadi, S. G ; Asadi, H ; Baradaran Tahoori, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this paper, we propose a very fast analytical approach to measure the overall circuit Soft Error Rate (SER) and to identify the most vulnerable gates and flip-flops. In the proposed approach, we first compute the error propagation probability from an error site to primary outputs as well as system bistables. Then, we perform a multi-cycle error propagation analysis in the sequential circuit. The results show that the proposed approach is four to five orders of magnitude faster than the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based fault injection approach with 92% accuracy. This makes the proposed approach applicable to industrial-scale circuits  

    Crosstalk modeling to predict channel delay in Network-on-Chips

    , Article Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers and Processors, 3 October 2010 through 6 October 2010 ; October , 2010 , Pages 396-401 ; 10636404 (ISSN) ; 9781424489350 (ISBN) Patooghy, A ; Miremadi, S. G ; Shafaei, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Communication channels in Network-on-Chips (NoCs) are highly susceptible to crosstalk faults due to the use of nano-scale VLSI technologies in the fabrication of NoCs. Crosstalk faults cause variable timing delay in NoC channels based on the patterns of transitions appearing on the channels. This paper proposes an analytical model to estimate the timing delay of an NoC channel in the presence of crosstalk faults. The model calculates expected number of 4C, 3C, 2C, and 1C transition patterns to predict delay of a K-bit communication channel. The model is applicable for both non-protected channels and channels which are protected by crosstalk mitigation methods. Spice simulations are done in a... 

    Investigating the effects of process variations and system workloads on reliability of STT-RAM caches

    , Article Proceedings - 2016 12th European Dependable Computing Conference, EDCC 2016, 5 September 2016 through 9 September 2016 ; 2016 , Pages 120-129 ; 9781509015825 (ISBN) Cheshmikhani, E ; Hosseini Monazzah, A. M ; Farbeh, H ; Miremadi, S. G ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2016
    In recent years, STT-RAMs have been proposed as a promising replacement for SRAMs in on-chip caches. Although STT-RAMs benefit from high-density, non-volatility, and low-power characteristics, high rates of read disturbances and write failures are the major reliability problems in STTRAM caches. These disturbance/failure rates are directly affected not only by workload behaviors, but also by process variations. Several studies characterized the reliability of STTRAM caches just for one cell, but vulnerability of STT-RAM caches cannot be directly derived from these models. This paper extrapolates the reliability characteristics of one STTRAM cell presented in previous studies to the... 

    Influence of perovskite morphology on slow and fast charge transport and hysteresis in the perovskite solar cells

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters ; Volume 7, Issue 22 , 2016 , Pages 4614-4621 ; 19487185 (ISSN) Mohammadian, N ; Moshaii, A ; Alizadeh, A ; Gharibzadeh, S ; Mohammadpour, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2016
    We have investigated the influence of perovskite morphology on slow and fast charge transport in the perovskite solar cells. Solar cells with different perovskite cuboid sizes (50-300 nm) have been fabricated using various methylammonium iodide concentrations. Both the low-frequency capacitance and hysteresis are maximum for the cell with the largest perovskite grains (300 nm). The low-frequency capacitance is about three orders of magnitude greater than the intermediate frequency capacitance, indicating the great role of ions on the slow responses and hysteresis. The measurement of open-circuit voltage decay indicates that for the large grains of 300 nm up to 70% of Voc remains across the... 

    Evaluating impact of human errors on the availability of data storage systems

    , Article 20th Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE 2017, 27 March 2017 through 31 March 2017 ; 2017 , Pages 314-317 ; 9783981537093 (ISBN) Kishani, M ; Eftekhari, R ; Asadi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2017
    In this paper, we investigate the effect of incorrect disk replacement service on the availability of data storage systems. To this end, we first conduct Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the availability of disk subsystem by considering disk failures and incorrect disk replacement service. We also propose a Markov model that corroborates the Monte Carlo simulation results. We further extend the proposed model to consider the effect of automatic disk fail-over policy. The results obtained by the proposed model show that overlooking the impact of incorrect disk replacement can result up to three orders of magnitude unavailability underestimation. Moreover, this study suggests that by... 

    Graphene oxide in generation of nanobubbles using controllable microvortices of jet flows

    , Article Carbon ; Volume 138 , 2018 , Pages 8-17 ; 00086223 (ISSN) Jannesari, M ; Akhavan, O ; Madaah Hosseini, H. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Spontaneous generation of nanobubbles (NBs) was developed by using a controllable platform of superfast microvortices, based on turbulent jet flows in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Very high energy dissipation rates through discharging warm water into cold N2 aqueous solutions resulted in creation of micro/submicro-vortices. Shear stresses in these domains generated gas local supersaturations, leading to the formation of high concentration (∼109 mL−1) of stable NBs. Introducing GO sheets into the microvortex system resulted in effective manipulation of NBs by providing energetically favorable sites for prompt heterogeneous nucleation as well as stronger shear rate fluctuations.... 

    Investigating the effects of process variations and system workloads on endurance of non-volatile caches

    , Article 13th IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems, DFT 2017, 23 October 2017 through 25 October 2017 ; Volume 2018-January , 2018 , Pages 1-6 ; 9781538603628 (ISBN) Hosseini Monazzah, A. M ; Farbeh, H ; Miremadi, S. G ; Cadence; IEEE; IEEE Computer Society; IEEE Fault-Tolerant Computing Technical Committee; IEEE Test Technology Technical Council (TTTC) ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2018
    With the development of Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) technologies in recent years, several studies suggest using them as an alternative for SRAMs in on-chip caches. One of the main challenges in replacing SRAMs with NVMs is limited endurance of NVMs (i.e. the maximum allowed number of write operations in an NVM cell). The endurance of NVM caches is directly affected not only by workload behaviors, but also by process variations (PVs). Several studies characterized the endurance of NVM caches but they do not consider the simultaneous effects of the PVs and the workloads. In this paper, we propose a high-level framework to investigate the endurance of NVM caches affected by the per-cell endurance... 

    Ultrahigh permeable C2N-inspired graphene nanomesh membranes versus highly strained c2n for reverse osmosis desalination

    , Article Journal of Physical Chemistry B ; Volume 123, Issue 41 , 2019 , Pages 8740-8752 ; 15206106 (ISSN) Fakhraee, M ; Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    The reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capability of hydrogenated and hydroxylated graphene nanomesh membranes (GNMs) inspired by the morphology of carbon nitride (C2N) has been studied by using molecular dynamics simulation. As an advantage, water permeance of the GNMs is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that of the available RO filters and comparable with highly strained C2N (S-C2N) as follows: 6,6-H,OH > 12-H > S-C2N > 5,5-H,OH > 10-H. The reverse order is found for salt rejection, regardless of S-C2N. The hydrophilic character of the incorporated -OH functional group is believed to be responsible for linking the water molecules in feed and permeate sides via the... 

    Investigation of the transient growth in plane jet by non-modal stability analysis

    , Article Fluid Dynamics Research ; Volume 51, Issue 5 , 2019 ; 01695983 (ISSN) Gohardehi, S ; Afshin, H ; Farhanieh, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Physics Publishing  2019
    Linear stability analysis is used to characterize the dynamics of a plane jet by incorporating non-modal stability analysis besides classical global temporal stability analysis. It is explained that similar shapes of different global modes are the result of non-normal characteristics of linearized Navier Stokes equations. Optimal initial disturbances and their eigenfunctions together with transient energy growth are obtained for different time horizons and Reynolds numbers of the jet in the linear unstable configuration. These structures are localized at the upstream of the jet nozzle at the boundary layer. The transient growth of the inlet perturbation in limited time bounds is found in the... 

    Faster Algorithms for Quantitative Analysis of MCs and MDPs with Small Treewidth

    , Article 18th International Symposium on Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis, ATVA 2020, 19 October 2020 through 23 October 2020 ; Volume 12302 LNCS , 2020 , Pages 253-270 Asadi, A ; Chatterjee, K ; Kafshdar Goharshady, A ; Mohammadi, K ; Pavlogiannis, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2020
    Discrete-time Markov Chains (MCs) and Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are two standard formalisms in system analysis. Their main associated quantitative objectives are hitting probabilities, discounted sum, and mean payoff. Although there are many techniques for computing these objectives in general MCs/MDPs, they have not been thoroughly studied in terms of parameterized algorithms, particularly when treewidth is used as the parameter. This is in sharp contrast to qualitative objectives for MCs, MDPs and graph games, for which treewidth-based algorithms yield significant complexity improvements. In this work, we show that treewidth can also be used to obtain faster algorithms for the... 

    Electrically charged Andreev modes in two-dimensional tilted Dirac cone systems

    , Article Physical Review B ; Volume 101, Issue 21 , 2020 Faraei, Z ; Jafari, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Physical Society  2020
    In a graphene-based Josephson junction, the Andreev reflection can become specular, which gives rise to propagating Andreev modes. These propagating Andreev modes are essentially charge neutral and therefore they transfer energy but not electric charge. One main result of this work is that when the Dirac theory of graphene is deformed into a tilted Dirac cone, the breaking of charge conjugation symmetry of the Dirac equation renders the resulting Andreev modes electrically charged. We calculate an otherwise zero charge conductance arising solely from the tilt parameters ζâ -=(ζx,ζy). The distinguishing feature of such a form of charge transport from the charge transport caused by normal...