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    Comparison of furfural degradation by different photooxidation methods

    , Article Chemical Engineering Journal ; Volume 139, Issue 3 , 2008 , Pages 482-488 ; 13858947 (ISSN) Borghei, S. M ; Hosseini, S. N ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    In this paper, the degradation of C5H4O2 "Furfural" in aqueous solution by photooxidation technology using UV, UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/O2, UV/H2O2/Fe2+, UV/O2/Fe2+, O3, UV/O3 process and also oxidation by sodium hypochlorite was investigated in a lab-scale batch photo-reactor. To evaluate the performance of different processes, the efficiency of furfural degradation was studied by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) throughout the experimentation. Results show that compare to other reactions studied in this research, the UV/H2O2 is a simple and effective process for furfural degradation and presence of Fe2+ ions (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) enhanced removal of furfural in solution. The influence of... 

    Water adsorption in the organic phase for the D2EHPA-kerosene/water and aqueous Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ sulphate systems

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 88, Issue 1-4 , 2007 , Pages 92-97 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Darvishi, D ; Haghshenas, D. F ; Etemadi, S ; Keshavarz Alamdari, E ; Sadrnezhaad, Kh ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    Water adsorption by bis-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) during the extraction of zinc, cobalt and nickel using a D2EHPA-kerosene/H2O mixture is investigated. Based on the experimental results, about 1 mol of water is adsorbed by 2 mol of D2EHPA (which exists in the form of a dimer), irrespective of the pH. Water adsorption decreases with presence of zinc, cobalt and nickel. The stoichiometric coefficients of D2EHPA in water adsorption reactions are determined with and without zinc, cobalt and nickel by applying the slope-analysis method. It is experimentally confirmed that 1.0, 1.8 and 1.2 mol of adsorbed water will be rejected from the organic phase when zinc, cobalt and nickel are... 

    Synthesis and properties of biodegradable hydrogels of κ-carrageenan grafted acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid as candidates for drug delivery systems

    , Article Reactive and Functional Polymers ; Volume 67, Issue 7 , 2007 , Pages 644-654 ; 13815148 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Barzegar, Sh ; Zeidabadi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    Novel types of highly swelling hydrogels were prepared by grafting crosslinked polyacrylic acid-co-poly-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (PAA-co-PAMPS) chains onto κ-carrageenan through a free radical polymerization method. Here, we propose a mechanism for κ-carrageenan-g-PAA-co-PAMPS formation and confirm the hydrogel structure using FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables (i.e. concentration of methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), acrylic acid/-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AA/AMPS) weight ratio, ammonium persulfate (APS), κ-carrageenan, neutralization percent and reaction temperature) were systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with a maximum swelling... 

    Partially hydrolyzed kappa carrageenan - polyacrylonitrile as a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel: synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors

    , Article Polymer Engineering and Science ; Volume 46, Issue 12 , 2006 , Pages 1778-1786 ; 00323888 (ISSN) Savoji, M. T ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    In this paper, synthesis and swelling behavior of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel based on kappa carrageenan (κC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was investigated. To achieve partially hydrolyzed κC-PAN hydrogel, physical mixture of κC and PAN was hydrolyzed by NaOH solution. During alkaline hydrolysis, the nitrile groups of PAN are converted to a mixture of hydrophilic carboxamide and carboxylate groups follow by in situ crosslinking of the grafted PAN chains. The reaction variables affecting on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel were systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with swelling capacity as high as possible. Under the optimized conditions concluded, super swelling hydrogel... 

    Salt- and pH-resisting collagen-based highly porous hydrogel

    , Article Polymer Journal ; Volume 40, Issue 2 , 2008 , Pages 94-103 ; 00323896 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Kurdtabar, M ; Ghasemzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    A novel approach was developed to prepare a highly porous hydrogel with superior salt- and pH-resisting properties. According to this method, synthetic comonomers, i.e. acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS), were polymerized and crosslinked in the presence of hydrolyzed collagen as a natural backbone. The characterizations of hydrogels were investigated by swelling experiment, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, acid-base titration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that the hydrogel has an absorbency of 360 and 73-82 g/g for distilled... 

    Leaching of an oxide gold ore with chloride/hypochlorite solutions

    , Article International Journal of Mineral Processing ; Volume 82, Issue 4 , 2007 , Pages 178-186 ; 03017516 (ISSN) Baghalha, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    An oxide gold ore was subjected to chloride/hypochlorite leaching at room temperature. The effects of three factors, including Ca(OCl)2 vs. NaOCl, OCl- concentration, and HCl concentration on gold leaching performance were investigated. Due to formation of CaOCl+ complex in solution and hence less reactivity, calcium hypochlorite produces a sluggish gold leaching kinetics, taking twice the time (46 h) to achieve maximum gold recovery of 58% compared to sodium hypochlorite. 10 g/L of total initial hypochlorite species in solution produces reasonable gold recoveries. The amount of added HCl and hence the initial pH was found to have a major effect on gold leaching kinetics and maximum gold... 

    Bacterial leaching of low-grade ZnS concentrate using indigenous mesophilic and thermophilic strains

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 85, Issue 1 , 2007 , Pages 59-65 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Mousavi, S. M ; Yaghmaei, S ; Vossoughi, M ; Jafari, A ; Roostaazad, R ; Turunen, I ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    In this study low-grade sphalerite has been treated by the bioleaching process using native cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Sulfobacillus thermosulfido-oxidans in order to determine the ability of these bacteria to the leaching of zinc. The effects of bacterial strain, pH, temperature, pulp density, iron precipitation, and initial concentration of ferric iron on the zinc leaching were evaluated. The bioleaching experiments were carried out in shake flasks at pH 1.5, 180 rpm, 33 °C and 60 °C for mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, respectively. Compared with the use of laboratory reference strains or control conditions, zinc recovery from the respective concentrate was... 

    Thermal control of the size and crystalline phase of CdS nanoparticles

    , Article Nanotechnology ; Volume 17, Issue 15 , 2006 , Pages 3812-3816 ; 09574484 (ISSN) Sedaghat, Z ; Taghavinia, N ; Marandi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    CdS nanoparticles were grown using CdSO4 and Na 2S2O3 as the precursors and thioglycerol (TG) as the capping agent. TG was shown to exhibit a catalytic role in the reaction and also acted as a capping agent. It was demonstrated that size growth is linearly related to the temperature of the reaction, i.e.the sizes can be controllably adjusted by temperature. The crystalline phase of the nanocrystals was also dependent on the temperature of growth: higher temperature favours the cubic phase. The pH also plays an important role in nanoparticle growth, as lower pH leads to a higher release rate of sulfur species. At pH as high as 10, the growth rate remains slow even at boiling temperature. This... 

    Highly porous TiO2 nanofibres with a fractal structure

    , Article Nanotechnology ; Volume 17, Issue 2 , 2006 , Pages 520-525 ; 09574484 (ISSN) Aminian, M. Kh ; Taghavinia, N ; Iraji Zad, A ; Mahdavi, S. M ; Chavoshi, M ; Ahmadian, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using a templating method with tetraisopropylorthotitanate (TiPT) as a precursor. The preparation comprises liquid phase deposition on cellulose fibres followed by thermal removal of the cellulose template. The obtained TiO2 fibrous substance consists of micron-size fibres with a microstructure of nanofibres. It was demonstrated that nanofibres are basically formed through the aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanorods into chain structures during the thermal treatment process. The measured surface area of the TiO2 fibres was about 250 m2 g-1. It was shown that the pore size distribution is multi-scale and a fractal morphology was demonstrated with two... 

    Comparison of bioleaching ability of two native mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria on copper recovery from chalcopyrite concentrate in an airlift bioreactor

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 80, Issue 1-2 , 2005 , Pages 139-144 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Mousavi, S. M ; Yaghmaei, S ; Vossoughi, M ; Jafari, A ; Hoseini, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    A mesophilic iron oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, has been isolated (33 °C) from a typical chalcopyrite copper concentrate of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in the region of Kerman located in the south of Iran. In addition, a thermophilic iron oxidizing bacterium, Sulfobacillus, has been isolated (60 °C) from the Kooshk lead and zinc mine near the city of Yazd in central Iran. Effects of some variable parameters such as solids concentration, temperature and pH on the bioleaching of chalcopyrite obtained from Sarcheshmeh copper mine were investigated. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in two batch airlift bioreactors with a recycling stream. The results indicate that... 

    Modified carrageenan. 4. Synthesis and swelling behavior of crosslinked ΚC-g-AMPS superabsorbent hydrogel with antisalt and pH-responsiveness properties

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 98, Issue 1 , 2005 , Pages 255-263 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Mazidi, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    To synthesize a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) was grafted onto kappa-carrageenan (ΚC) backbones. The graft copolymerization reaction was carried out in a homogeneous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator, N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TMEDA) as an accelerator, and N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for ΚC-g-AMPS formation was suggested and the hydrogel structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The affecting variables on swelling capacity, i.e., the initiator, the crosslinker, and the monomer concentration, as well as reaction temperature,... 

    Thermodynamics of extraction of RE O4 - from aqueous sulfuric acid media with Tri-n-butyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene

    , Article Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science ; Volume 32, Issue 1 , 2001 , Pages 5-10 ; 10735615 (ISSN) Sadrnezhaad, S. K ; Keshavarz Alamdari, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    2001
    Abstract
    Rhenium distribution between Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in kerosene and sulfuric aqueous media is investigated under different temperatures, acidities, and TBP concentrations. Results show an exothermic extraction reaction with a distribution factor that decreases with the increase of the temperature and increases with the increase of the acidity and the TBP concentration. The stoichiometry of the reaction indicates neutralization of 1 mole of H+ with 1 mole of ReO4- and solvating of a neutral molecule with four molecules of TBP. The structure of the complexes formed is, therefore, 4TBP · HReO4. The apparent Gibbs free energy of the formation of 4TBP · HReO4 from TBP, ReO4-, and... 

    Performance of a single chamber microbial fuel cell at different organic loads and pH values using purified terephthalic acid wastewater

    , Article Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering ; Volume 13, Issue 1 , April , 2015 ; 2052336X (ISSN) Marashi, S. K. F ; Kariminia, H. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    BioMed Central Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Background: Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater from a petrochemical complex was utilized as a fuel in the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Effects of two important parameters including different dilutions of the PTA wastewater and pH on the performance of the MFC were investigated. Methods: The MFC used was a membrane-less single chamber consisted of a stainless steel mesh as anode electrode and a carbon cloth as cathode electrode. Both power density and current density were calculated based on the projected surface area of the cathode electrode. Power density curve method was used to specify maximum power density and internal resistance of the MFC. Results: Using 10-times,... 

    Interaction between TBP and D2EHPA during Zn, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co and Ni solvent extraction: A thermodynamic and empirical approach

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 98, Issue 1-2 , 2009 , Pages 143-147 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Haghshenas Fatmehsari, D ; Darvishi, D ; Etemadi, S ; Eivazi Hollagh, A. R ; Keshavarz Alamdari, E ; Salardini, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    The objective of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of TBP on the system D2EHPA/kerosense/M2+ with respect to the extraction of some transitional metals. Although the presence of M2EHPA as an impurity in D2EHPA shifts the extraction curves to lower pH, empirical results show that the extraction curves shift to the right due to the addition of TBP and the counterbalance effect of M2EHPA. The results indicate that the equivalent concentration of D2EHPA decreases as a function of concentration of TBP because of the formation of hydrogen bonds between TBP and D2EHPA. Based on this finding, the D2EHPA equivalent concentration was determined by using a modifying factor for TBP... 

    Optimization of ferrous biooxidation rate in a packed bed bioreactor using Taguchi approach

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification ; Volume 46, Issue 10 , 2007 , Pages 935-940 ; 02552701 (ISSN) Mousavi, S. M ; Yaghmaei, S ; Jafari, A ; Vossoughi, M ; Ghobadi, Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    The biological oxidation of ferrous ion by iron-oxidizing bacteria is potentially a useful industrial process for removal of H2S from industrial gases, desulphurization of coal, removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas, treatment of acid mine drainage and regeneration of an oxidant agent in hydrometallurgical leaching operations. The main purpose of this study was to find optimum values of the process parameters on the ferrous biooxidation rate by immobilization of a native Sulfobacillus species on the surface of low density polyethylene (LDPE) particles in a packed-bed bioreactor using Taguchi method. Five control factors, including temperature, initial pH of feed solution, dilution rate,... 

    Zinc extraction from Iranian low-grade complex zinc-lead ore by two native microorganisms: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Sulfobacillus

    , Article International Journal of Mineral Processing ; Volume 80, Issue 2-4 , 2006 , Pages 238-243 ; 03017516 (ISSN) Mousavi, S. M ; Yaghmaei, S ; Vossoughi, M ; Jafari, A ; Roostaazad, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    A mesophilic iron oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, has been isolated (33 °C) from a typical, chalcopyrite concentrate of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in the region of Kerman located in the south of Iran. In addition, a thermophilic iron oxidizing bacterium, Sulfobacillus, has been isolated (60 °C) from the sphalerite concentrate of Kooshk lead and zinc mine near the city of Yazd in the center point of Iran. Variation of pH, ferrous and ferric concentration on time and effects of some factors such as temperature, cell growth, initial ferrous concentration and pH on bioleaching of low-grade complex zinc-lead ore were investigated. The results obtained from bioleaching... 

    Synthesis and absorbency of gelatin-graft-poly(sodium acrylate-co- acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel with saltand pH-responsiveness properties

    , Article E-Polymers ; 2006 , Pages 1-15 ; 16187229 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Sadeghi, M ; Mahmodi Hashemi, M ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    European Polymer Federation  2006
    Abstract
    In this article, we synthesize a novel gelatin-based superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of mixtures of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AAm) onto gelatin backbones. The polymerization reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The hydrogel structures were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables, i.e. concentration of MBA and APS, AA/AAm weight ratio, and reaction time and temperature, was systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with swelling capacity as high as possible. The swelling behavior of these absorbent polymers... 

    Study and optimization of Amino Acid Extraction by emulsion Liquid Membrane

    , Article CHISA 2006 - 17th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering, Prague, 27 August 2006 through 31 August 2006 ; 2006 ; 8086059456 (ISBN); 9788086059457 (ISBN) Mohagheghe, E ; Vosoughi, M ; Alemzadeh, I ; Hexion Specialty Chemicals; Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation; CS Cabot; Zentiva; BorsodChem MCHZ ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    A batch extraction of an essential amino acid, Phenylalanine, from an aqueous solution of different concentrations by an Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) was developed using D2EHPA as a cationic carrier, Span 80 as the surfactant, paraffin and kerosene as the diluents, and HCl as the internal electrolyte. All effective parameters such as pH of initial aqueous external phase, electrolyte concentration in aqueous internal phase, carrier and surfactant concentration in emulsion, volume ratio of the organic to aqueous internal phase (Roi), volume ratio of the W/O emulsion to aqueous external phase (Rew) and time were examined and optimized using Taguchi method which was the first time of... 

    Treatment of olive mill wastewater by rotating biological contactor reactor

    , Article CHISA 2006 - 17th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering, Prague, 27 August 2006 through 31 August 2006 ; 2006 ; 8086059456 (ISBN); 9788086059457 (ISBN) Alemzadeh, I ; Nazemi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    The removal performance of total poly phenols and orthodiphenols (o-diphenols) content in olive mill waste (OMW) was investigated with a three stages cross flow laboratory scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) in the present study. Due to high COD and other pollutant existed in the original OMW, before biological treatment of OMW by the RBC system, physico-chemical treatment was effected for COD and other pollutant reduction. Inoculation of RBC was effected by sludge from olive oil factory, and microbial acclimation was continued to 49 days and the system was adapted to about 300ppm of OMW poly phenols and o-diphenols. In biological treatment, effect of operating parameters such as... 

    The separation of cadmium from zinc with a synergistic mixture of nonylsalicylic acid and triisobutylphosphine sulphide

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 78, Issue 1-2 SPEC. ISS , 2005 , Pages 129-136 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Moradkhani, D ; Urbani, M ; Cheng, C. Y ; Askari, M ; Bastani, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    2005
    Abstract
    Metal pH50 and ΔpH50 values were determined and compared for a number of organic systems to select a synergistic system for the separation of Cd from Zn. The largest ΔpH50(Zn-Cd) value was obtained with HRJ-4277 (nonylsalicylic acid)/Cyanex 471X (triisobutyl phosphine sulphide or TIBPS) system and reached 1.53 pH units, indicating excellent separation of Cd from Zn with this system. Shellsol 2046 was chosen as the diluent of the system due to its larger ΔpH50(Zn-Cd) and excellent phase separation compared with other diluents. Distribution isotherms and subsequent McCabe-Thiele diagrams indicate that 99% Cd could be extracted in two stages at pH 3.80 and A / O ratio of 1.5 : 1. The extraction...