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    Still committed to the normativity of folk psychology

    , Article Philosophical Explorations ; 2021 ; 13869795 (ISSN) Kazemi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Routledge  2021
    Abstract
    In what sense can one claim that intentional explanations are essentially normative, given that people’s actions and thinking are replete with various irrationalities, yet are still pretty well explained by this explanatory framework? This article provides a novel response to this enduring objection. First, following Brandom, it is suggested that, to understand the normativity of intentional states, we should countenance and distinguish between two normative categories of commitment and entitlement, only the former of which is argued to be essential for intentional explanations. Conflating these two normative dimensions is noted to be one of the main sources of the objections leveled against... 

    Still committed to the normativity of folk psychology

    , Article Philosophical Explorations ; Volume 25, Issue 1 , 2022 , Pages 58-74 ; 13869795 (ISSN) Kazemi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Routledge  2022
    Abstract
    In what sense can one claim that intentional explanations are essentially normative, given that people’s actions and thinking are replete with various irrationalities, yet are still pretty well explained by this explanatory framework? This article provides a novel response to this enduring objection. First, following Brandom, it is suggested that, to understand the normativity of intentional states, we should countenance and distinguish between two normative categories of commitment and entitlement, only the former of which is argued to be essential for intentional explanations. Conflating these two normative dimensions is noted to be one of the main sources of the objections leveled against... 

    Unpacking entrepreneurial alertness: How character matters for entrepreneurial thinking

    , Article Journal of Small Business Management ; 2021 ; 00472778 (ISSN) Pirhadi, H ; Soleimanof, S ; Feyzbakhsh, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    Over centuries and across cultures, scholars have consistently highlighted the role of character for achieving personal and societal good. Yet we know little about how character matters for entrepreneurship. This study builds upon the theory of character strengths to extend our knowledge about personal antecedents of entrepreneurial thinking. Specifically, we examine how character strengths of valor, industriousness, and critical thinking can affect different dimensions of entrepreneurial alertness: scanning and search, association and connection, and evaluation and judgment. We use two samples of 412 students and 145 entrepreneurs to test the study’s hypotheses. The results shed light on... 

    Physiological and psychological neural system modeling for a key-pressing test

    , Article Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Salzburg, 25 June 2003 through 27 June 2003 ; 2003 , Pages 66-70 ; 0889863539 (ISBN) Mahmudi, H ; Shahdi, S. A ; Vahdat, B. V ; IASTED ; Sharif University of Technology
    2003
    Abstract
    The model introduced in this article for neural system describes both physiological and psychological concepts of neural system and is based on the models of individual elements of the system. This model includes psychological characteristics such as; perception, prediction, learning and response planning, and physiological features such as; sensory analysis, memory and motor execution. The model is designed in such a way that it describes the performance of the neural system for a key-pressing test. The key-pressing experiment consists of a screen with numbers from 1 to 9, which is shown to the operator where one of the numbers is specified by a special color and the operator is to push the... 

    The impact of religiosity on the disability, psychological well-being, and somatic health of multiple sclerosis patients

    , Article Mental Health, Religion and Culture ; Volume 25, Issue 5 , 2022 , Pages 519-530 ; 13674676 (ISSN) Mohaghegh, F ; Eslami, M ; Dadfar, M ; Lester, D ; Ayten, A ; Rashidizadeh, A ; Shirzad, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Routledge  2022
    Abstract
    The aim of the study was to predict disability, psychological wellbeing, and somatic health in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with the mediating variable of religiosity. A sample of 128 patients was recruited, and were administered the Expanded Disability Status Scale, the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and a Self-Rating Scale of Religiosity. Religiosity did not predict disability, psychological well-being, or somatic health. Religiosity was positively associated with MS duration and disability, but only in male patients. The predictors for predicting psychological wellbeing were age, disability, and somatic health. Patients with... 

    How does psychological empowerment affect knowledge management improvement in organizations? a study of cause-and-effect relationship using the fuzzy DEMATEL method

    , Article IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management ; 2021 ; 00189391 (ISSN) Amirghodsi, S ; Mohammadi, M ; Maleki, A ; Bonyadi Naeini, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2021
    Abstract
    The present article aims to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between the employees’ psychological empowerment (PE) and dimensions of knowledge management (KM) in an oil company, using the fuzzy decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method. The study population consists of oil company experts. The sample size is determined based on the theoretical saturation limit. The present findings show that PE is the strongest causative factor with significant effects on knowledge creation (KC) and knowledge dissemination (KD). Among the KM dimensions, the most influential factors are the dimensions of KC, knowledge application, and knowledge capture (KCA). Of all KM dimensions,... 

    Possible Impacts of Telework Initiated by COVID-19 Outbreak on Teleworkers’ Psychological Well-being: A Qualitative Study

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Saki, Mana (Author) ; Alavi, Babak (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This research explores the impacts of the telework initiated by the outbreak of COVID-19, which is being called “emergent telework” in this research, on psychological well-being of teleworkers. As for the nature of emergent telework which is a new and unique phenomenon, a qualitative research is conducted. In order to do so, 15 in-depth interviews were held with employees from product teams of 11 organizations, and the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. General conditions of teleworking are identified in two categories named as “not working adjacent to coworkers” and “being away from the physical environment of the workplace”. Emergent telework, alongside the general... 

    The impact of outcome framing and psychological distance of air pollution consequences on transportation mode choice

    , Article Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment ; Volume 46 , 2016 , Pages 328-338 ; 13619209 (ISSN) Mir, H. M ; Behrang, K ; Isaai, M. T ; Nejat, P ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd 
    Abstract
    Recent years, air pollution phenomenon has become one of the crucial problems of Tehran, Iran. Due to main political and economic role of Tehran, population of this metropolis is high and increasing. Urban transportation of this highly populated city contributes more than 70% of air pollution problem in this city. Although a number of urban transport developments, policy measures and regulations have been employed, Tehran's air pollution has remained crucial thus far. Finding ways to encourage individuals to behave more sustainable can be considered as a substantial approach of tackling environmental problems such as air pollution, since it can be highly cost-effective and fast. This... 

    Leading change authentically: how authentic leaders influence follower responses to complex change

    , Article Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies ; Volume 24, Issue 2 , 2017 , Pages 157-171 ; 15480518 (ISSN) Alavi, S. B ; Gill, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Organizational change has become complex and challenging, and employee attitudes and beliefs toward change are even more important. This article proposes a theoretical framework on how authentic leadership may influence followers’ change-oriented attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through follower psychological resources including hope, trust, optimism, self-efficacy, and resilience, which influence readiness for change and change implementation. We maintain that an authentic leader’s behavior can influence his or her followers’ change-oriented behaviors in participation in decision-making processes and change initiatives, organization citizenship behavior, organizational learning processes,... 

    Impact of leadership styles on employees’ performance with moderating role of positive psychological capital

    , Article Total Quality Management and Business Excellence ; Volume 32, Issue 9-10 , 2021 , Pages 1085-1105 ; 14783363 (ISSN) Ahmad Baig, S ; Iqbal, S ; Abrar, M ; Ahmad Baig, I ; Amjad, F ; Zia-ur-Rehman, M ; Awan, M. U ; Sharif University of Technology
    Routledge  2021
    Abstract
    The study aimed to investigate the most effective leadership style that enhances the employees’ performance at the workplace and also evaluate the impact of leadership styles (Laissez-faire leadership, Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership,) on employees’ performance in the textile sector of Pakistan. The study explored the moderating role of Positive psychological capital to examine the relationship between leadership styles and employee performance. A quantitative research technique was used, and Data were collected from the lower to middle-level manager of the textile sector. The findings of this study showed that laissez-faire leadership has a significant but negative... 

    Considerations on the Empirical Adequacy of Jung’s Theory of Psychoanalysis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shirazi, Maral (Author) ; Hosseini Sarvary, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Carl Jung's analytical psychology is a psychoanalytic theory that has been established with the assumption of the existence of a collective and inheritable unconscious containing archetypes. The archetypes are psychic patterns that have evolved throughout human history and are inherited by human infants. Repressing these innate and universal properties can cause psychic problems for humans. Those repressed innate properties could emerge indirectly to keep the mental balance, but this may cause problems due to being out of conscious control of the individual. According to Jung's claim, remembering and accepting these repressed identities and then integrating the conscious and unconscious... 

    On The Foundation of Cognitive Sciences: A Critique of Neurotheology

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Solgi, Farshid (Author) ; Hosseini, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    One of the tasks of philosophy of science is to study the pre-suppositions involved in the natural sciences, to study the concepts used in scientific researches and theorizing. Hence, neglecting philosophy and even the modality of philosophical views, can have devastating effects on any science, including psychology (if it can be called science). Wittgenstein believed that in psychology we are confronted with experimental methods and conceptual confusion, and that this confusion does not go away with giving the title of young knowledge to the psychology. The emergence and dominance of behaviorism can be attributed to the effects of positivism and the uncomprehensive interpretation of physics... 

    Unpacking Entrepreneurial Alertness: How Character Matters for Opportunity Recognition

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Pirhadi, Homa (Author) ; Feyzbakhsh, Alireza (Supervisor) ; Soleimanof, Sohrab (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Over centuries and across cultures, scholars have consistently highlighted the role of character for achieving personal and societal good. Yet we know little about how character matters for entrepreneurship. This study builds upon the theory of character strengths to extend our knowledge about personal antecedents of entrepreneurial thinking. Specifically, we examine how character strengths of valor, industriousness, and critical thinking can affect different dimensions of entrepreneurial alertness: scanning and search, association and connection, and evaluation and judgment. We use sample of 412 students to test the study’s hypotheses. The results shed light on how strengths of character... 

    Attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in schizophrenia: A high-resolution EEG study

    , Article Psychophysiology ; Volume 47, Issue 4 , Jul , 2010 , Pages 706-716 ; 00485772 (ISSN) Jalili, M ; Meuli, R ; Do, K. Q ; Hasler, M ; Crow, T. J ; Knyazeva, M. G ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    The interhemispheric asymmetries that originate from connectivity-related structuring of the cortex are compromised in schizophrenia (SZ). Under the assumption that such abnormalities affect functional connectivity, we analyzed its correlate - EEG synchronization - in SZ patients and matched controls. We applied multivariate synchronization measures based on Laplacian EEG and tuned to various spatial scales. Compared to the controls who had rightward asymmetry at a local level (EEG power), rightward anterior and leftward posterior asymmetries at an intraregional level (1st and 2nd order S-estimator), and rightward global asymmetry (hemispheric S-estimator), SZ patients showed generally... 

    Active learning of causal structures with deep reinforcement learning

    , Article Neural Networks ; Volume 154 , 2022 , Pages 22-30 ; 08936080 (ISSN) Amirinezhad, A ; Salehkaleybar, S ; Hashemi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2022
    Abstract
    We study the problem of experiment design to learn causal structures from interventional data. We consider an active learning setting in which the experimenter decides to intervene on one of the variables in the system in each step and uses the results of the intervention to recover further causal relationships among the variables. The goal is to fully identify the causal structures with minimum number of interventions. We present the first deep reinforcement learning based solution for the problem of experiment design. In the proposed method, we embed input graphs to vectors using a graph neural network and feed them to another neural network which outputs a variable for performing... 

    Optimizing Landing Page by Digital Nudging Model; Case Study: Hair Clinic

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Matloubi, Mojtaba (Author) ; Isaai, Mohammad Taghi (Supervisor) ; Najmi, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Living in a digital era, more and more of businesses are going online. Sudden outbreak of covid19 pandemic accelerated the expansion of e-commerce and pushed an increasing number of businesses to go online. One of the most important issues in a world of e-commerce, is how to measure the results and improve the outputs. Focusing on the digital marketing, the process is usually called “conversion rate optimization”. While there is an extensive literature on various methods of improvement and optimization, we aim to do so using the notion of digital nudging, which is rather a novel concept. Digital nudging is a model that, by incorporating nudge techniques and cognitive biases, tries to change... 

    The Nature of Folk Psychology and Its Implications for Designing Artificial Agents and Humanoid Robots

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Safdari Sharabiani, Abootaleb (Author) ; Azadegan, Ebrahim (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    How do we enter into empathic relations with inanimate objects (IO)? Do we indirectly infer that they possess mental states, or directly perceive them as mental things? In recent years these questions have been addressed by a number of authors. Some argue in favor of an indirect approach that involves mediatory procedures; others defend a direct approach that postulates no intermediate. In this paper I argue on the side of the latter. I show that Simulation Theory (ST), one of the most elaborated versions of the indirect approach, does not have the capacity to account for our empathy with IO.Investigating ST paves the way for criticizing a special kind of indirect theory, namely Imaginative... 

    The effects of a short-term memory task on postural control of stroke patients

    , Article Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation ; Volume 22, Issue 5 , 2015 , Pages 335-341 ; 10749357 (ISSN) Mehdizadeh, H ; Taghizadeh, G ; Ghomashchi, H ; Parnianpour, M ; Khalaf, K ; Salehi, R ; Esteki, A ; Ebrahimi, I ; Sangelaji, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    Background: Many studies have been conducted on the changes in the balance capabilities of stroke patients. However, results regarding the effects of dual-task activities on postural control in these patients have been variable. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a short-term memory task on the sway characteristics of stroke patients. Method: Center of pressure (COP) fluctuations were measured in three levels of postural difficulty (rigid surface with closed and open eyes and foamsurface with closed eyes), aswell as two levels of cognitive difficulty (easy and difficult). COP parameters included mean velocity, standard deviation of velocity in both medial-lateral (M.L) and... 

    Individual differences in nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors predict development of addiction-like behavior: A computational approach

    , Article Neural Computation ; Volume 22, Issue 9 , 2010 , Pages 2334-2368 ; 08997667 (ISSN) Piray, P ; Keramati, M. M ; Dezfouli, A ; Lucas, C ; Mokri, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based on the actor-critic model of striatum. Modeling dopamine receptors in the NAc as modulators of learning rate for appetitive-but not aversive-stimuli in the critic-but not the actor-we define vulnerability to addiction as a relatively lower learning rate for the appetitive stimuli, compared to aversive stimuli, in the critic. We... 

    User assessment of traffic quality measures on freeway weaving segments

    , Article 6th International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Studies Congress 2008: Traffic and Transportation Studies Congress 2008, ICTTS 2008, Nanning, 5 August 2008 through 7 August 2008 ; Volume 322 , 2008 , Pages 827-836 ; 9780784409954 (ISBN) Dehghani Sanij, M. S ; Vaziri, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers  2008
    Abstract
    According to the Highway Capacity Manual, definitions of level of service for freeways are generally in terms of such service measures as freedom to maneuver, change in free flow speed, and drivers' physical and psychological comfort. These quality measures are inherently uncertain and are highly dependent on user perceptions. However, users' perception of traffic operational conditions has not been explicitly considered in defining LOS categories. This study attempt to evaluate freeways LOS and other quality measures describing LOS, based on user perception. Therefore, twenty 1-minute video clips of a weaving freeway segment were shown to users. For each video clip, users' perceptions of...