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    Low Grade Heat Driven Multi-Effect Distillation and Desalination

    , Book Rahimi, Bijan ; Chua, Hui Tong
    Elsevier  2017
    Low Grade Heat Driven Multi-effect Distillation and Desalination describes the development of advanced multi-effect evaporation technologies that are driven by low grade sensible heat, including process waste heat in refineries, heat rejection from diesel generators or microturbines, and solar and geothermal energy. The technologies discussed can be applied to desalination in remote areas, purifying produced water in oil-and-gas industries, and to re-concentrate process liquor in refineries.
    This book is ideal for researchers, engineering scientists, graduate students, and industrial practitioners working in the desalination, petrochemical, and mineral refining sectors, helping them... 

    Effect of water salinity on oil/brine interfacial behaviour during low salinity waterflooding: A mechanistic study

    , Article Petroleum ; Volume 5, Issue 4 , 2019 , Pages 367-374 ; 24056561 (ISSN) Rostami, P ; Fattahi Mehraban, M ; Sharifi, M ; Dejam, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    KeAi Communications Co  2019
    In recent years, controlling the salinity and composition of the injected water has become an emerging enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique, often described as low salinity (LS) waterflooding. This work is done with the intention to contribute to the ongoing discussions about LS waterflooding mechanism(s). For this purpose, a series of different experiments were conducted. At first, the effect of salinity on the interfacial tension (IFT) and the contact angle was evaluated with a crude oil sample. Then to achieve more accurate results in observing oil/water interface, similar IFT experiments were also carried out on a synthetic oil containing asphaltenes. Thereafter, microscopic... 

    Biological removal of phenol from saline wastewater using a moving bed biofilm reactor containing acclimated mixed consortia

    , Article SpringerPlus ; Vol. 3, issue. 1 , 2014 , pp. 1-10 ; ISSN: 21931801 Nakhli, S. A. A ; Ahmadizadeh, K ; Fereshtehnejad, M ; Rostami, M. H ; Safari, M ; Borghei, S. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this study, the performance of an aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was assessed for the removal of phenol as the sole substrate from saline wastewater. The effect of several parameters namely inlet phenol concentration (200-1200 mg/L), hydraulic retention time (8-24 h), inlet salt content (10-70 g/L), phenol shock loading, hydraulic shock loading and salt shock loading on the performance of the 10 L MBBR inoculated with a mixed culture of active biomass gradually acclimated to phenol and salt were evaluated in terms of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies. The results indicated that phenol and COD removal efficiencies are affected by HRT, phenol and salt... 

    Optimum design of R.O. membrane by using simulation techniques

    , Article Desalination and Water Treatment ; Volume 9, Issue 1-3 , 2009 , Pages 189-194 ; 19443994 (ISSN) Afrasiabi, N ; Ehteshami, M ; Ardakanian, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Increasing demand of fresh water, and limitation water resources, with respect to world economic growth brings up the importance of utilization of saline water. At the current research the sensitivity analysis of ROSA was conducted. For this analysis, a single stage reverse osmosis is designed for well water specifi cation in southern Tehran under following condition: Feed fl ow: 40 m3/h and membrane Element: BW30–400 FR. The sensitivity analyses for all chemical element of base water were performed. As a result of sensitivity analysis shortest sensitivity gap, belongs to boron, and longest sensitivity gap, belongs to calcium. Which refl ects, under the same conditions, the least element to... 

    The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands

    , Article International Journal of Phytoremediation ; Volume 19, Issue 7 , 2017 , Pages 643-650 ; 15226514 (ISSN) Farzi, A ; Borghei, S. M ; Vossoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2017
    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels [electrical conductivity (EC)~2, 6, 10 dS/m]. EC and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week. The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this... 

    Mercury ion adsorption on AC@Fe3O4-NH2-COOH from saline solutions: Experimental studies and artificial neural network modeling

    , Article Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering ; Volume 35, Issue 3 , 2018 , Pages 671-683 ; 02561115 (ISSN) Pazouki, M ; Zabihi, M ; Shayegan, J ; Fatehi, M. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer New York LLC  2018
    An efficient, novel functionalized supported magnetic nanoparticle (AC@Fe3O4-NH2-COOH) has been synthesized by co-precipitation method for removal of mercury ions from saline solutions. High dispersed supported magnetic nanoparticles with particle sizes less than 30 nm were formed over activated carbon derived from local walnut shell. Surface characterizations of supported magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated by Boehm test, Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) code... 

    Obtaining the effect of sewage network on groundwater quality using MT3DMS code: Case study on Bojnourd plain

    , Article Groundwater for Sustainable Development ; Volume 11 , October , 2020 Kheirandish, M ; Rahimi, H ; Kamaliardakani, M ; Salim, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B. V  2020
    Groundwater contamination is a significant problem related strongly to both the protection of the environment and the need for water. In the present study, groundwater quality was investigated in the Bojnourd watershed. The Bojnourd watershed is located in the northeast of Iran, which covers 65.5 km2 of the North Khorasan province area. There are 11 extracting wells in the region. Annual water extraction from the alluvial aquifer in the area is used for agriculture, drinking, sanitary and industrial consumptions. In this research, groundwater quantity modeling, including calibration and verification by GMS software, had been performed. In the quality modeling stage, pollution contours for... 

    Effect of SO4 −2 ion exchanges and initial water saturation on low salinity water flooding (LSWF) in the dolomite reservoir rocks

    , Article Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology ; Volume 41, Issue 6 , 2020 , Pages 841-855 Safavi, M. S ; Masihi, M ; Safekordi, A. A ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sadeghnejad, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Inc  2020
    The low salinity water injection has become one of the most important studies in the oil industry for improving oil recovery compared to conventional seawater injection. Thus, extensive studies have been conducted in carbonate and sandstone reservoirs to investigate how the physical properties of rocks and the chemical composition of fluids influence low salinity effect, while, the carbonate reservoir rocks requires more investigation of the effect of molecular and/or ionic interactions. In this experimental work, the effectiveness of various water flooding schemes in carbonate reservoir rock samples is investigated. In this regard, the oil recovery potential of seawater (SW), reservoir... 

    De novo RNA sequencing analysis of Aeluropus littoralis halophyte plant under salinity stress

    , Article Scientific Reports ; Volume 10, Issue 1 , 4 June , 2020 Younesi Melerdi, E ; Nematzadeh, G. A ; Pakdin Parizi, A ; Bakhtiarizadeh, M. R ; Motahari, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Nature Research  2020
    The study of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophyte plants can provide valuable information for crop breeding and plant engineering programs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whole transcriptome analysis of Aeluropus littoralis in response to salinity stress (200 and 400 mM NaCl) by de novo RNA-sequencing. To assemble the transcriptome, Trinity v2.4.0 and Bridger tools, were comparatively used with two k-mer sizes (25 and 32 bp). The de novo assembled transcriptome by Bridger (k-mer 32) was chosen as final assembly for subsequent analysis. In general, 103290 transcripts were obtained. The differential expression analysis (log2 FC > 1 and FDR < 0.01) showed that 1861... 

    Experimental study on enhanced oil recovery by low salinity water flooding on the fractured dolomite reservoir

    , Article Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering ; Volume 40, Issue 5 , 2021 , Pages 1703-1719 ; 10219986 (ISSN) Ebrahimzadeh Rajaee, S ; Gerami, S ; Safekordi, A. A ; Bahramian, A. R ; Ganjeh Ghazvini, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Iranian Institute of Research and Development in Chemical Industries  2021
    Enhanced Oil Recovery from carbonate reservoirs is a major challenge especially in naturally fractured formations where spontaneous imbibition is a main driving force. The Low Salinity Water Injection (LSWI) method has been suggested as one of the promising methods for enhanced oil recovery. However, the literature suggests that LSWI method, due to high dependence on rock mineralogy, injected and formation water salt concentration, and complexity of reactions is not a well-established technology in oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs. The underlying mechanism of LSWI is still not fully understood. Due to lack of LSWI study in free clay dolomite fractured reservoir, and to investigate of... 

    The impact of the electrical behavior of oil-brine-rock interfaces on the ionic transport rate in a thin film, hydrodynamic pressure, and low salinity waterflooding effect

    , Article Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects ; Volume 620 , 2021 ; 09277757 (ISSN) Pourakaberian, A ; Mahani, H ; Niasar, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2021
    Wettability alteration is the principal low-salinity-effect (LSE) in many oil-brine-rock (OBR) systems. Our recent experimental results have demonstrated that wettability alteration by low salinity is slow. It is expected that the electrical behavior of oil/brine and rock/brine interfaces and the water film geometry control both the transient hydrodynamic pressure, and the time-scale of ionic transport in the film, thus the kinetics and degree of wettability alteration. In this paper, the electro-diffusion process induced by the imposed ionic strength gradient is simulated by solving Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations in a water film bound between two charged surfaces, using a finite... 

    Improved salinity tolerance in early growth stage of maize through salicylic acid foliar application

    , Article Italian Journal of Agronomy ; Volume 16, Issue 3 , 2021 ; 11254718 (ISSN) Sultan, I ; Khan, I ; Chattha, M. U ; Hassan, M. U ; Barbanti, L ; Calone, R ; Ali, M ; Majeed, S ; Ghani, M. A ; Batool, M ; Izzat, W ; Usman, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Page Press Publications  2021
    Soil salinity threatens agricultural production worldwide by constraining plant growth and final crop yield. The early stages are most sensitive to salinity, in response to which salicylic acid (SA) has demonstrated beneficial effects in various plant species. Based on this, a maize (Zea mays L.) pot experiment was set up combining three levels of soil salinity (0, 6 and 12 dS m–1), obtained through NaCl addition, with three levels of SA (0, 300 and 600 mM), applied by leaf spraying 20 days after seedling emergence. Fifteen days later, the following traits were assessed: morphology (plant height, leaf number), growth (root and shoot dry weight), leaf water status [relative water content... 

    Microscopic Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation during Water flooding Process at Laboratory Condition

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Arastuian, Nahid (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin (Supervisor) ; Ghazanfari, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor)
    The study of low-salinity water flooding or smart water flooding as secondary or tertiary oil recovery methods started in 1960 and many researchers have studied the effect of ions types on asphaltene precipitation/deposition during the injecting water into the oil reservoirs. To reduce the asphaltene challenges, one needs to properly investigate this phenomenon and better understanding of the cause of precipitation. It is already known that the amount of asphaltene deposition can be reduced by controlling the deposition criteria. For example, water microemulsion in the oil phase would cause the asphaltenes to be adsorbed on the water oil interface by hydrogen bonds due to heteroatom... 

    Investigation of Interface Phenomena in Low Salinity/Smart Waterflooding by Applying Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Badizad, Mohammad Hassan (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahab (Supervisor) ; Ghazanfari, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Koleini, Mhammad Mehdi (Co-Supervisor)
    Low salinity/smart waterflooding is simple to apply and a promising enhanced oil recovery method in which ion-tuned saltwater is injected into subsurface oil reservoirs. Many aspects of this operation, in particular those pertaining to nano-scale, are not yet fully understood. The present dissertation is an attempt to shed light on the microscopic properties and behavior of rock/brine/oil interfaces throughout low salinity/smart waterflooding. Several simulations were carried out for oil/brine and calcite/brine categories each containing various ions and hydrocarbons compounds. The surface contribution of non-functional oil compounds (aromatics and aliphatics) near brine medium was... 

    Low Salinity Water Assisted by Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Mechanistic Study and Spontaneous Imbibition Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Heidari, Mehdi (Author) ; Ayatollahi, Shahabodin (Supervisor) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques have become of the main priorities of the oil industry during the high oil price era. It is interesting to note that the common method to increase production from reservoirs is the water injection method, which recovers a very low amount of oil from the oil-wet matrices due to the lack of water imbibition. Previous studies have shown that changing the wettability of rock would critically increase the oil recovery efficiency. This could be achieved by the low-salinity water injection method. In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on this technique to evaluate its effectiveness for various types of oil reservoirs. Simultaneous injection... 

    Evaluation of the Impact of Rock Heterogeneity on the Efficiency of Engineered Salinity Water Flooding

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Toupchian, Amin (Author) ; Mahani, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin (Supervisor)
    Low salinity water flooding (LSWF) is one of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods that can be applied in both secondary and tertiary recovery techniques. Some reports indicate no incremental oil recovery associated with this method, and the reason can be associated with the binary and tertiary interactions between oil-brine-rock (OBR) systems. In some OBRs, the initial conditions are not favourable in terms of initial wettability. One of the key factors is the local rock heterogeneities in permeability and mineralogy which can affect LSWF performance because the microscopic and macroscopic heterogeneities can impact the flow pattern of the injected water, oil displacement efficiency, and... 

    Treatment of oilfield produced water by dissolved air precipitation/solvent sublation

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 80, Issue 1 , 2011 , Pages 26-31 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Bayati, F ; Shayegan, J ; Noorjahan, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Dissolved air precipitation/solvent sublation (DAP/SS) was used for treatment of simulated and real oilfield produced water to generate very fine bubbles which are necessary for effective separation. In this method micro bubbles produced by saturation of air in a pressurized packed column were released in an atmospheric column leading the bubbles to raise resulting trapped contaminants in the Gibbs layer around them to be removed by a layer of immiscible solvent at the top of column. The method was conducted to solutions including Benzene, Toluene and Chlorobenzene (ClB) as part of BTEX contaminants in produced water, mixture of them as simulated produced water and real oilfield produced... 

    Low salinity water injectionat different reservoir rocks: Similarities and differences

    , Article Special Topics and Reviews in Porous Media ; Volume 7, Issue 1 , 2016 , Pages 87-97 ; 21514798 (ISSN) Hassani, K ; Rostami, B ; Ayatollahi, S ; Yassin, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Begell House Inc  2016
    A literature review of laboratory and field scale studies on low salinity water (LSW) injection showed that the salinity and composition of injected water can have a significant impact on oil recovery. Historically, extensive research has been completed to understand the mechanisms and factors affecting LSW injection. However, although numerous mechanisms have been proposed to describe the interactions in the target process, none have been widely accepted. In this study, waterflooding tests were used to investigate the advantages, disadvantages, and effect of LSW injection. In laboratory tests, two different brines and crude oil of one of Iran's southern reservoirs were used to assess the... 

    Investigation of streaming potential coupling coefficients and zeta potential at low and high salinity conditions: Experimental and modeling approaches

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 145 , 2016 , Pages 137-147 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Esmaeili, S ; Rahbar, M ; Pahlavanzadeh, H ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Streaming potential measurement is one of the electrokinetic techniques used to determine the average zeta potential of porous rock which can provide reliable information on reservoir flow behavior and wettability state of the rock surface. Streaming potential measurement using electrodes has recently been introduced in the oil reservoirs applications and there are still significant uncertainties during the measurements and interpretation of streaming potential results. The primary purpose of this work is to establish a setup to measure the streaming potential of porous media with low scattering and evaluate voltage measurements based on the paired stabilization and pressure ramping methods.... 

    Statistical studies of fading in underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubble, temperature, and salinity random variations

    , Article IEEE Transactions on Communications ; Volume 66, Issue 10 , 2018 , Pages 4706-4723 ; 00906778 (ISSN) Jamali, M. V ; Mirani, A ; Parsay, A ; Abolhassani, B ; Nabavi, P ; Chizari, A ; Khorramshahi, P ; Abdollahramezani, S ; Salehi, J. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2018
    Optical signal propagation through underwater channels is affected by three main degrading phenomena, namely, absorption, scattering, and fading. In this paper, we experimentally study the statistical distribution of intensity fluctuations in underwater wireless optical channels with random temperature and salinity variations, as well as the presence of air bubbles. In particular, we define different scenarios to produce random fluctuations on the water refractive index across the propagation path and, then, examine the accuracy of various statistical distributions in terms of their goodness of fit to the experimental data. We also obtain the channel coherence time to address the average...