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    Forward Osmosis Membrane Preperation for Seawater Desalination

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Haji Ghahreman Zadeh, Parisa (Author) ; Soltanieh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Mousavi, Abbas (Co-Advisor)
    One of the encouraging technologies for resolving the lack of clean water in the world is forward osmosis process (FO). Reaching to a optimized development of FO membranes is essential to make fo process commercially viable.
    This study’s aim is to develop a thin film composites (TFC) membrane with high FO performance (good water flux and high salt rejection) in order to seawater desalination.
    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), a hydrophilic polymer, is a less considered polymer in fabricating support layer for TFC FO membranes .TFC membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a support layer fabricated by non-solvent induced phase... 

    The impact of MOF feasibility to improve the desalination performance and antifouling properties of FO membranes

    , Article RSC Advances ; Volume 6, Issue 74 , 2016 , Pages 70174-70185 ; 20462069 (ISSN) Zirehpour, A ; Rahimpour, A ; Khoshhal, S ; Firouzjaei, M. D ; Ghoreyshi, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2016
    In this study, a hydrophilic metal-organic framework (MOF) was applied to improve the performance of a cellulosic membrane for forward osmosis (FO) desalination application. The characterization results confirmed that the MOF particles existed within the matrix of the modified membrane. The MOF loading led to adjustment of the membranes in terms of overall porosity, pore inter-connectivity and hydrophilicity. These features caused an improvement in the pure water permeability (72%) and reduce the structural parameter of the modified membrane to 136 μm. The FO water flux of the modified membrane enhanced by about 180% compared to an unmodified membrane, without decreasing its selectivity. FO... 

    Preparation of Polymeric Ion-Exchange Membrane for Water Desalination

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vakilzadeh Ebrahimi, Mohammad Kazem (Author) ; Musavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    In present research work, methods of preparing ion exchange membranes, especially anion exchange membranes, were studied and chemical modification of polysulfone was chosen as a safe and economical method for preparing anion exchange membranes. The chloromethylated polysulfone was characterized by HNMR spectroscopy and functionalization degree was determined according to peak area integration. Membranes were produced by mixing and amination of the chloromethylated and normal polysulfone (40-100% wt). Morphology and chemical structure of membranes were investigated by SEM images and FTIR spectroscopy.The ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity and water content of samples were measured. The... 

    Hydrodynamic Simulation of Flow in Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Seawater Disalination

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yarmohammadi, Amir Mohmamad (Author) ; Seif, Mohamad Saeed (Supervisor) ; Mehdigholi, Hamid (Supervisor)
    Water is the most essential human need and the lack of fresh water soon is one of the biggest problems of mankind. One way to deal with the lack of fresh water is desalination of seawater. Seawater desalination is done by different thermal and membrane methods. In this research, the methods and history of freshwater supply methods and the role of chains in the progress of seawater desalination, and the measures taken in the field of seawater desalination have been investigated. Among the various methods discussed and proposed in this research, it was concluded that reverse osmosis membrane is available and has an acceptable economic efficiency compared to other methods. After choosing the... 

    Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Sea Water Desalination by Reverse Osmosis Membrane

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fouladi Moghaddam, Farshad (Author) ; Mousavi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Reverse osmosis (RO) is by far the most widely used membrane desalination process worldwide. The RO process depends on the properties of semi-permeable membranes which allow the separation of water from a salt solution by applying external pressure higher than the osmotic pressure on the seawater. The main problem in membrane separation process is the fouling of the membrane walls, which decreases the permeate flux. Having spacer filaments in the feed channel has been proven to dynamically change the concentration boundary layer and preventing fouling. The impact of spacer configurations (cavity, zigzag and submerged) on the alleviation of concentration polarization and the enhancement of... 

    Polyamide/polyacrylonitrile thin film composites as forward osmosis membranes

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 133, Issue 42 , 2016 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Hajighahremanzadeh, P ; Abbaszadeh, M ; Mousavi, S. A ; Soltanieh, M ; Bakhshi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc 
    Thin film composites (TFCs) as forward osmosis (FO) membranes for seawater desalination application were prepared. For this purpose, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a moderately hydrophilic polymer was used to fabricate support membranes via nonsolvent-induced phase inversion. A selective thin polyamide (PA) film was then formed on the top of PAN membranes via interfacial polymerization reaction of m-phenylenediamine and trimesoyl chloride (TMC). The effects of PAN solution concentration, solvent mixture, and coagulation bath temperature on the morphology, water permeability, and FO performance of the membranes and composites were studied. Support membranes based on low PAN concentrations (7 wt... 

    Investigation of the Depth Effects on Desalination Plants Turbulent Dense Jet Discharge Propagation by Large Eddy Simulation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abdollahi Ashnani, Ali (Author) ; Firoozabadi, Bahar (Supervisor) ; Kazemzadeh Hanani, Siamak (Supervisor)
    The scarcity of potable water is one of the world's challenges. In the Middle East, this crisis is even worse and as a consequence, the most aggregation of desalination plants has been constructed in this area. However, brine effluent discharged from these plants entails serious environmental issues. Despite the extensive studies about the investigation of dilution and the area which faces the brine discharges as submerge jets, there are a few experimental investigations with a focus on the injecting brine discharge into the shallow environment. Whereas the Persian Gulf's coastal environment is shallow. Moreover, there is a huge construction of desalination held in this area. Accordingly,... 

    Modeling of Brine Water Discharge into the Sea from Desalination Plants and Its Impacts on Sea Environment

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nasrollahpour Shareh, Ali (Author) ; Abbaspour Tehrani, Madjid (Supervisor) ; Mehdigholi, Hamid (Supervisor)
    Recent studies have shown that almost 40% of the world's population faces a water crisis, and this amount will reach about 60% by 2025. Due to limited freshwater resources and the increasing world population, we have to use seawater desalination systems to supply water to this growing population. One of the outputs of desalination plants in addition to freshwater is saline effluent or brine water, which is the most important environmental impact of these plants. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the various factors affecting the discharge and release of saline effluent from desalination plants and observe its impact on the ecosystem and marine environment. In this... 

    An industrial application of low-grade sensible waste heat driven seawater desalination: a case study

    , Article Desalination ; Volume 470 , 2019 ; 00119164 (ISSN) Rahimi, B ; Marvi, Z ; Alamolhoda, A. A ; Abbaspour, M ; Chua, H. T ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    This paper reports on the application of low-grade sensible waste heat (liquid phase) driven multi-effect distillation (MED) technology to exploit waste heat sources that are generally abundant in the petrochemical industries especially, those located close to the Persian Gulf's coastline. For this purpose, a techno-economic feasibility study by considering local capital and operating costs for a selected petrochemical plant has been conducted. In this study, a sensible waste heat stream (practically at 80 °C in the liquid phase), which is actively cooled by the cooling process of the plant, is considered as the heat source for the proposed desalination process. This process can recover... 

    Brine elimination by hybridization of a novel brine-recycle bubble-column humidification-dehumidification system with a multiple-effect distillation system

    , Article Energy Conversion and Management ; Volume 217 , 2020 Ghofrani, I ; Moosavi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Over the past decades, drastic growth in the installed capacity of seawater desalination systems has increased the energy consumption and brine discharge to the environment. However, using renewable energies and zero liquid discharge systems for minimizing these challenges is limited due to the higher fresh water cost of the systems rather than that of the conventional systems. In this research, a bubble-column humidification-dehumidification zero liquid discharge system is coupled with a multiple-effect distillation/vapor compression system in a novel way to overcome the high water cost of conventional zero liquid discharge systems. Further, the base system and the solar-powered system is...