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    Modified carrageenan. 5. Preparation, swelling behavior, salt- and pH-sensitivity of partially hydrolyzed crosslinked carrageenan-graft-polymethacrylamide superabsorbent hydrogel [electronic resource]

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 11, pages 645–653, November 2004 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Sadeghi, M ; Hosseinzadeh, H
    Abstract
    The polysaccharide, kappa-carrageenan (κC) was chemically modified to achieve a novel superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of methacrylamide (MAM) onto the substrate followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) were used as a free-radical initiator and a crosslinker, respectively. The saponification reaction was carried out using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Either κC-g-PMAM or hydrolyzed κC-g-PMAM (PMAM: polymethacrylamide) was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables (i.e. concentration of MBA, MAM, and APS) and alkaline hydrolysis conditions (i.e. NaOH concentration, hydrolysis time and... 

    Modified carrageenan. 5. Preparation, swelling behavior, salt- and pH-sensitivity of partially hydrolyzed crosslinked carrageenan-graft-polymethacrylamide superabsorbent hydrogel

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 11 , 2004 , Pages 645-653 ; 10427147 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Sadeghi, M ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2004
    Abstract
    The polysaccharide, kappa-carrageenan (kC) was chemically modified to achieve a novel superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of methacrylamide (MAM) onto the substrate followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) were used as a free-radical initiator and a crosslinker, respectively. The saponification reaction was carried out using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. Either kC-g-PMAM or hydrolyzed kC-g-PMAM (PMAM: polymethacrylamide) was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables (i.e.concentration of MBA, MAM, and APS) and alkaline hydrolysis conditions (i.e. NaOH concentration, hydrolysis time and... 

    Modified Chitosan. 2. H-chitoPAN, a novel pH-responsive superabsorbent hydrogel [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 90, Issue 11, pages 3115–3121, 9 December 2003 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J
    Abstract
    Chitosan was modified with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) through ceric-initiated graft copolymerization. The chitosan-g-PAN product was saponified using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to prepare a novel superabsorbent hydrogel, H-chitoPAN. Duration of completing the saponification reaction as well as the water absorbency capacity of the hydrogel was decreased with increasing the alkaline concentration. Either chitosan-g-PAN or H-chitoPAN was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC, TGA, and DTG thermal methods. According to FTIR, all the nitrile groups were converted to carboxylate and carboxamide groups. Both modified chitosans exhibited enhanced thermal stability over chitosan. The... 

    Modified Chitosan. 3. Superabsorbency, Salt- and pH-Sensivity of Smart Ampholitic hydrogels from Chitosan-g-PAN [electronic resource]

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 173–180, April 2004 Mahdavinia, G. R. (Golam Reza) ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, M. J
    Abstract
    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted chitosan was prepared by ceric-initiated graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan in a homogenous medium. The copolymer chitosan-g-PAN product was then hydrolyzed to yield a novel smart hydrogel (H-chitoPAN) with superabsorbing properties. The influence of add-on values as well as temperature and time of hydrolysis of the initial chitosan-g-PAN on swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in water and various salt solutions. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbing hydrogel was studied as well. The hydrogels exhibited ampholytic and pH-sensitivity characteristics. Several sharp swelling changes were observed in lieu of pH variations in a... 

    Modified carrageenan. 1. H-carragPAM, a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers ; September 2005 Vol. 20 no. 5 475-490 Hosseinzadeh, H. (Hossein) ; Pourjavadi, A ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan-Mehr, , M. J
    Abstract
    A novel kappa-carrageenan (C)-based superabsorbing hydrogel was synthesized through graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto a C substrate in the presence of a crosslinking agent. The crosslinked C-poly(AAm) polymer graft was partially hydrolyzed in alkaline medium to yield a superabsorbent resin, H-carragPAM. The resin structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The variables of graft copolymerization (monomer, initiator, polysaccharide and crosslinker concentration, reaction temperature and time as well as stirrer speed) that affected on the ultimate water-swelling capacity were optimized. The time-temperature variation of the copolymerization was investigated in terms of the... 

    Modified carrageenan. 4. Synthesis and swelling behavior of crosslinked kappa C-g-AMPS superabsorbent hydrogel with antisalt and pH-responsiveness properties [electronic resource]

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Vol.98, No.1, 255-263, 2005 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Mazidi, R
    Abstract
    To synthesize a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) was grafted onto kappa-carrageenan (KC) backbones. The graft copolymerization reaction was carried out in a homogeneous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TMEDA) as an accelerator, and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for KC-g-AMPS formation was suggested and the hydrogel structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The affecting variables on swelling capacity, i.e., the initiator, the crosslinker, and the monomer concentration, as well as reaction temperature,... 

    Partially hydrolyzed crosslinked alginate-graft-polymethacrylamide as a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel having pH-responsive Properties [electronic resource]

    , Article Macromolecular Research ; January 2005, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 45-53 Pourjavadi, A. (Ali) ; Aminfazl, M. S ; Hosseinzadeh, H
    Abstract
    In this study, a series of highly swelling hydrogels based on sodium alginate (NaAlg) and polymethacrylamide (PMAM) was prepared through free radical polymerization. The graft copolymerization reaction was performed in a homogeneous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator andN,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The crosslinked graft copolymer, alginate-graft-polymethacrylamide (Alg-g-PMAM), was then partially hydrolyzed by NaOH solution to yield a hydrogel, hydrolyzed alginate-graft-polymethacrylamide (H-Alg-g-PMAM). During alkaline hydrolysis, the carboxamide groups of Alg-g-PMAM were converted into hydrophilic carboxylate anions. Either the... 

    Modified carrageenan. 6. Crosslinked graft copolymer of methacrylic acid and kappa-carrageenan as a novel superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt- and high pH-sensitivity

    , Article Macromolecular Research ; Volume 13, Issue 6 , 2005 , Pages 483-490 ; 15985032 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Harzandi, A. M ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Polymer Society of Korea  2005
    Abstract
    A novel, polysaccharide-based, superabsorbent hydrogel was synthesized through crosslinking graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) onto kappa-carrageenan (κC), using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for κC-g-polymethacrylic acid (κC-g-PMAA) formation was suggested and the hydrogel structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables, including MBA, MAA, and APS concentration, was systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with the maximum possible swelling capacity. The swelling kinetics in distilled water and various salt solutions were... 

    Modified chitosan III, superabsorbency, salt- and pH-sensitivity of smart ampholytic hydrogels from chitosan-g-PAN

    , Article Polymers for Advanced Technologies ; Volume 15, Issue 4 , 2004 , Pages 173-180 ; 10427147 (ISSN) Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Ltd  2004
    Abstract
    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted chitosan was prepared by ceric-initiated graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto chitosan in a homogenous medium. The copolymer chitosan-g-PAN product was then hydrolyzed to yield a novel smart hydrogel (H-chitoPAN) with superabsorbing properties. The influence of add-on values as well as temperature and time of hydrolysis of the initial chitosan-g-PAN on swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in water and various salt solutions. The swelling kinetics of the superabsorbing hydrogel was studied as well. The hydrogels exhibited ampholytic and pH-sensitivity characteristics. Several sharp swelling changes were observed in lieu of pH variations in a... 

    Modified chitosan. II. H-chitoPAN, a novel pH-responsive superabsorbent hydrogel

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 90, Issue 11 , 2003 , Pages 3115- ; 00218995 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Mahdavinia, G. R ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2003
    Abstract
    Chitosan was modified with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) through ceric-initiated graft copolymerization. The chitosan-g-PAN product was saponified using sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to prepare a novel superabsorbent hydrogel, H-chitoPAN. Duration of completing the saponification reaction as well as the water absorbency capacity of the hydrogel was decreased with increasing the alkaline concentration. Either chitosan-g-PAN or H-chitoPAN was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC, TGA, and DTG thermal methods. According to FTIR, all the nitrile groups were converted to carboxylate and carboxamide groups. Both modified chitosans exhibited enhanced thermal stability over chitosan. The... 

    New insight on dynamic behavior of swelling and bond number of light and heavy crude oil during carbonated water flooding

    , Article European Physical Journal Plus ; Volume 135, Issue 1 , January , 2020 Lashkarbolooki, M ; Zeinolabedini Hezave, A ; Riazi, M ; Ayatollahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2020
    Abstract
    Improving oil recovery and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions are two important attractive features of CO2-enriched water injection into oil reservoirs. Regarding these unique features, the main objective of this study was concentrated to evaluate the swelling behavior of crude oil as a fundamental mechanism of carbonated water (CW) flooding. To achieve these goals, the swelling and Bond number of light and heavy crude oils (namely LCO and HCO, respectively) are measured and compared to each other. The results obtained from the measured swelling factors of crude oil/CW show some complicated behaviors. That is, as temperature increases the swelling factor decreases at low pressure... 

    Constitutive Modeling for Transient Swelling Behavior of Polymeric Hydrogel with Large Deformations

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mazaheri, Hashem (Author) ; Naghdabadi, Reza (Supervisor) ; Sohrabpour, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Baghani, Mostafa (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    In this work, the mechanical behavior of smart hydrogels is studied for temperature sensitive and, pH and temperature sensitive ones. First, an equilibrium model is presented for the temperature sensitive hydrogles which is continuous and numerically stable especially in the vicinity of the phase transition temperature. The model results are validated through comparing them with the experimental data available in the literature. The model results are in good agreement with those of experiments especially for hydrogels with high cross-linking density. Then, the model is implemented in a finite element framework by which some homogeneous and inhomogeneous problems are numerically solved.... 

    Synthesis and investigation of swelling behavior of new agar based superabsorbent hydrogel as a candidate for agrochemical delivery

    , Article Journal of Polymer Research ; Volume 16, Issue 6 , 2009 , Pages 655-665 ; 10229760 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Farhadpour, B ; Seidi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    In this investigation a new type of superabsorbent hydrogel based on agar was prepared, and the effect of the feed ratio of some components (acrylic acid, MBA, APS and agar) on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel was systematically studied. Maximum water absorbency of the optimized final product was found to be 1,100∈g/g in distilled water. The structure of the hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR method and morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Swelling properties of optimized hydrogel sample in different swelling mediums were investigated. The optimum hydrogel were also loaded with potassium nitrate and its potential for controlled release of... 

    Kinetics of swelling of cylindrical functionally graded temperature-responsive hydrogels

    , Article Journal of Computational Applied Mechanics ; Volume 51, Issue 2 , December , 2020 , Pages 464-471 Namdar, A. H ; Sharif University of Technology
    University of Tehran  2020
    Abstract
    Cylindrical hydrogels have a wide variety of applications in microfluidics; for example, they serve as micro-valves, micro-mixers, and micro-lenses. The main advantages of them can be mentioned as their autonomous functionality due to their responses to environmental stimuli and simple geometry. Furthermore, functionally graded hydrogels have recently found applications in hydrogel actuators. Therefore, in this work, the kinetics of swelling, shrinking, and force generation of cylindrical functionally graded temperature-responsive hydrogels are investigated. Kinetics of cylindrical structure is investigated analytically by developing a mathematical model based on available constitutive... 

    Superabsorbency, pH-sensitivity and swelling kinetics of partially hydrolyzed chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) hydrogels

    , Article Turkish Journal of Chemistry ; Volume 30, Issue 5 , 2006 , Pages 595-608 ; 13000527 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Mahdavinia, G.R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    Acrylamide (AAm) monomer was directly grafted onto chitosan using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent under an inert atmosphere. Two factors affecting the swelling capacity of the obtained hydrogel, AAm and MBA concentrations, were studied. The polymer structures were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Water absorbencies of the hydrogels were compared between before and after the alkaline hydrolysis treatment. Saponification of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) (chitosan-g-PAAm) with a hot sodium hydroxide solution gave rise to a high water absorbency. Swelling of the hydrogel samples in saline solution (0.15 mol/L NaCl, CaCl2 and... 

    Full-polysaccharide superabsorbent hydrogels based on carboxymethylcellulose and sodium alginate

    , Article Journal of Polymer Materials ; Volume 23, Issue 1 , 2006 , Pages 61-69 ; 09738622 (ISSN) Hosseinzadeh, H ; Pourjavadi, A ; Madhavinia, G. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    A novel full-polysaccharide superabsorbent hydrogel was synthesized via chemical crosslinking of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (Alg) using epichlorohydrine (ECH) as a crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for hydrogel formation was suggested and the structure of the product was established using FTIR spectroscopy. The influence of ECH concentration and Alg/CMC weight ratio as well as reaction time and temperature on water and saline (0.9 wt% NaCl) absorbency of the hydrogels were systematically investigated. Meanwhile, the overall activation energy for the crosslinking reaction between CMC and Alg polysaccharides was estimated to be 11.6 kj/mol. Under the optimised conditions... 

    Synthesis and swelling behavior of a novel protein-based superabsorbent hydrogel composite: Collagen-g-poly (sodium acrylate)/kaolin

    , Article Journal of Polymer Materials ; Volume 23, Issue 3 , 2006 , Pages 331-339 ; 09738622 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Feizabadi, Kh ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    This article describes the synthesis and swelling properties of a superabsorbing hydrogel composite based on collagen. The composite have been prepared via graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. The certain variables of the graft copolymerization (i.e. the monomer, the initiator, and the crosslinker concentration as well as kaolin/collagen weight ratio) affected on the ultimate water-swelling capacity were optimized. Evidence of grafting and kaolin interaction was obtained by comparison of FTIR spectra of initial substrates and superabsorbent... 

    Modified carrageenan. 2. Hydrolyzed crosslinked κ -carrageenan-g-PAAm as a novel smart superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt sensitivity

    , Article Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition ; Volume 15, Issue 12 , 2004 , Pages 1499-1511 ; 09205063 (ISSN) Hosseinzadeh, H ; Pourjavavdi, A ; Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2004
    Abstract
    A novel pH-responsive superabsorbing hydrogel based on κ-carrageenan (κC) was prepared through polyacrylamide crosslinking grafting followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The hydrogel structure was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The hydrolysis conditions were systematically optimized to obtain a hydrogel with maximum swelling capacity. Thus, the reaction variables, including the hydrolysis time and temperature, concentration of sodium hydroxide, amount of hydrogel hydrolyzed and post-neutralization pH, were optimized. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in 0.15 M aqueous solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3. As observed for the hydrolyzed hydrogel (H-carragPAM),... 

    Modified carrageenan 3. Synthesis of a novel polysaccharide-based superabsorbent hydrogel via graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto kappa-carrageenan in air

    , Article European Polymer Journal ; Volume 40, Issue 7 , 2004 , Pages 1363-1370 ; 00143057 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Harzandi, A. M ; Hosseinzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2004
    Abstract
    A novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel was synthesized through chemically crosslinking graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan (κC), in the presence of a crosslinking agent and a free radical initiator. A proposed mechanism for κC-g-polyacrylic acid was suggested and the affecting variables onto graft polymerization (i.e. the crosslinker, the monomer and the initiator concentration, the neutralization percent and reaction temperature) were systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with swelling capacity as high as possible. Maximum water absorbency of the optimized final product was found to be 789 g/g. The swelling capacity of the synthesized... 

    Superabsorbent hydrogels from starch-g-PAN: Effect of some reaction variables on swelling behavior

    , Article Journal of Polymer Materials ; Volume 20, Issue 1 , 2003 , Pages 113-120 ; 09700838 (ISSN) Zohuriaan Mehr, M. J ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2003
    Abstract
    Two series of alkali hydrolyzed starch-g-polyacrylonitrile (H-SPAN) superabsorbents were prepared from granular and gelatinized corn starches. The grafting parameters of SPAN copolymers were determined and the polymers were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. A combination of three influencing factors (i.e. thermal pre-treatment of the initial starch, presence or absence of oxygen in the stage of ceric-initiated PAN grafting, and neutralization after alkali treatment) on swelling characteristics of the final hydrogel was evaluated in a practical viewpoint. The superabsorbents were discriminated according to their swelling behavior in water and different aqueous salt solutions. The swelling...