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    Modeling and Optimization of Respiratory-Gated Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Piruzan, Elham (Author) ; Vosoughi, Naser (Supervisor) ; Mahani, Hojjatollah (Supervisor)
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and has a growing rate. A combination of the proton beam and Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) strategy can be effective in the case of the respiratory-induced target motion for breast cancer treatment. Due to the proximity of breast tissue to the two critical organ at risks (OARs) such as the lungs and heart, breast cancer proton therapy requires special considerations. The use of proton therapy with respiratory considerations (respiratory-gated), although a powerful way to control the mobile targets in breast cancer proton therapy, but needs to be optimized and improved as much as efficiency.The simulation and modeling of the... 

    Trunk muscles strength and endurance in chronic low back pain patients with and without clinical instability

    , Article Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation ; Volume 25, Issue 2 , 2012 , Pages 123-129 ; 10538127 (ISSN) Davarian, S ; Maroufi, N ; Ebrahimi, I ; Farahmand, F ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Objectives: Previous research has shown inconsistent findings regarding muscle endurance in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Questions also remain about muscle endurance in patients with clinical instability. The aim of this study was to investigate trunk muscles strength and endurance in CLBP patients with and without clinical instability. Methods: 32 CLBP patients (15 with and 17 without clinical instability) and 39 matched healthy subjects participated in this study. The standing extension test was performed to assess the strength and endurance of the lumbar extensors while recording their electromyographic activity. The patients' disability was evaluated using the Oswestry and Roland-Morris... 

    Comparison of the trunk-pelvis and lower extremities sagittal plane inter-segmental coordination and variability during walking in persons with and without chronic low back pain

    , Article Human Movement Science ; Volume 52 , 2017 , Pages 55-66 ; 01679457 (ISSN) Ebrahimi, S ; Kamali, F ; Razeghi, M ; Haghpanah, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2017
    Inter-segmental coordination can be influenced by chronic low back pain (CLBP). The sagittal plane lower extremities inter-segmental coordination pattern and variability, in conjunction with the pelvis and trunk, were assessed in subjects with and without non-specific CLBP during free-speed walking. Kinematic data were collected from 10 non-specific CLBP and 10 non-CLBP control volunteers while the subjects were walking at their preferred speed. Sagittal plane time-normalized segmental angles and velocities were used to calculate continuous relative phase for each data point. Mean absolute relative phase (MARP) and deviation phase (DP) were derived to quantify the trunk-pelvis and bilateral... 

    Simulation of movement in three-dimensional musculoskeletal human lumbar spine using directional encoding-based neurocontrollers

    , Article Journal of Biomechanical Engineering ; Vol. 136, issue. 9 , 2014 Nasseroleslami, B ; Vossoughi, G ; Boroushaki, M ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Despite development of accurate musculoskeletal models for human lumbar spine, the methods for prediction of muscle activity patterns in movements lack proper association with corresponding sensorimotor integrations. This paper uses the directional information of the Jacobian of the musculoskeletal system to orchestrate adaptive critic-based fuzzy neural controller modules for controlling a complex nonlinear redundant musculoskeletal system. The proposed controller is used to control a 3D 3-degree of freedom (DOF) musculoskeletal model of trunk, actuated by 18 muscles. The controller is capable of learning to control from sensory information, without relying on pre-assumed model parameters.... 

    Subject-specific 2D/3D image registration and kinematics-driven musculoskeletal model of the spine

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 57 , 2017 , Pages 18-26 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Eskandari, A. H ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    An essential input to the musculoskeletal (MS) trunk models that estimate muscle and spine forces is kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae. While thorax and pelvis kinematics are usually measured via skin motion capture devices (with inherent errors on the proper identification of the underlying bony landmarks and the relative skin-sensor-bone movements), those of the intervening lumbar vertebrae are commonly approximated at fixed proportions based on the thorax-pelvis kinematics. This study proposes an image-based kinematics measurement approach to drive subject-specific (musculature, geometry, mass, and center of masses) MS models. Kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and... 

    Goal equivalent manifold analysis of task performance in non-specific LBP and healthy subjects during repetitive trunk movement; effect of load, velocity, symmetry

    , Article Human Movement Science ; Volume 51 , 2017 , Pages 72-81 ; 01679457 (ISSN) Chehrehrazi, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Jamshidi, A. A ; Maroufi, N ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Motor abundance allows reliability of motor performance despite its variability. The nature of this variability provides important information on the flexibility of control strategies. This feature of control may be affected by low back pain (LPB) and trunk flexion/extension conditions. Goal equivalent manifold (GEM) analysis was used to quantify the ability to exploit motor abundance during repeated trunk flexion/extension in healthy individuals and people with chronic non-specific LBP (CNSLBP). Kinematic data were collected from 22 healthy volunteers and 22 CNSLBP patients during metronomically timed, repeated trunk flexion/extension in three conditions of symmetry, velocity, and loading;... 

    Role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in walker-assisted paraplegic gait: a case study

    , Article Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ; Volume 24, Issue 1 , 2018 , Pages 18-27 ; 10820744 (ISSN) Baniasad, M ; Farahmand, F ; Arazpour, M ; Zohoor, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Thomas Land Publishers Inc  2018
    Background and Purpose: Understanding the role and significance of trunk and upper extremity muscles in paraplegic gait can help in designing more effective assistive devices for these patients and also provides valuable information for improving muscle strengthening programs. Methods: In a patient with a spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk independently (rating scale of ambulatory capacity, 9) with the aid of bilateral ankle-foot orthosis and a walker, the kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of 16 muscles from the trunk and upper and lower extremities were recorded during gait. The onset, cessation, and duration of the EMG signal were associated with the 4 phases... 

    Magnitude, symmetry and attenuation of upper body accelerations during walking in women: The role of age, fall history and walking surface

    , Article Maturitas ; Volume 139 , 2020 , Pages 49-56 Soleimanifar, M ; Mazaheri, M ; van Schooten, K. S ; Asgari, M ; Mosallanezhad, Z ; Salavati, M ; Sedaghat Nejad, E ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ireland Ltd  2020
    Objectives: The present experiment examined the role of age and fall history in upper body accelerations when walking on an even and on an uneven surface. Study design: An observational cross-sectional study. Main outcome measures: The magnitude (root mean square [RMS]), symmetry (harmonic ratio) and attenuation (attenuation coefficient) of upper body accelerations were quantified as primary outcomes; gait spatiotemporal parameters were measured as secondary outcomes. Methods: Twenty young adults (mean ± SD age: 29.00 ± 4.51 yrs), 20 older non-fallers (66.60 ± 5.43 yrs) and 20 older fallers (68.55 ± 4.86 yrs) walked on an even and on an uneven surface, while wearing four accelerometers... 

    Effect of intervertebral translational flexibilities on estimations of trunk muscle forces, kinematics, loads, and stability

    , Article Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering ; Volume 18, Issue 16 , Sep , 2015 , Pages 1760-1767 ; 10255842 (ISSN) Ghezelbash, F ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Taylor and Francis Ltd  2015
    Due to the complexity of the human spinal motion segments, the intervertebral joints are often simulated in the musculoskeletal trunk models as pivots thus allowing no translational degrees of freedom (DOFs). This work aims to investigate, for the first time, the effect of such widely used assumption on trunk muscle forces, spinal loads, kinematics, and stability during a number of static activities. To address this, the shear deformable beam elements used in our nonlinear finite element (OFE) musculoskeletal model of the trunk were either substantially stiffened in translational directions (SFE model) or replaced by hinge joints interconnected through rotational springs (HFE model). Results... 

    The effects of movement speed on kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk in healthy individuals and low back pain patients

    , Article Clinical Biomechanics ; Volume 30, Issue 7 , Aug , 2015 , Pages 682-688 ; 02680033 (ISSN) Asgari, M ; Sanjari, M. A ; Mokhtarinia, H. R ; Moeini Sedeh, S ; Khalaf, K ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Background: Comparison of the kinematic variability and dynamic stability of the trunk between healthy and low back pain patient groups can contribute to gaining valuable information about the movement patterns and neuromotor strategies involved in various movement tasks. Methods: Fourteen chronic low back pain patients with mild symptoms and twelve healthy male volunteers performed repeated trunk flexion-extension movements in the sagittal plane at three different speeds: 20 cycles/min, self-selected, and 40 cycles/min. Mean standard deviations, coefficient of variation and variance ratio as variability measures; maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents and maximum Floquet multipliers as... 

    Hypersensitivity of trunk biomechanical model predictions to errors in image-based kinematics when using fully displacement-control techniques

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 84 , 2019 , Pages 161-171 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Eskandari, A. H ; Arjmand, N ; Shirazi Adl, A ; Farahmand, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2019
    Recent advances in medical imaging techniques have allowed pure displacement-control trunk models to estimate spinal loads with no need to calculate muscle forces. Sensitivity of these models to the errors in post-imaging evaluation of displacements (reported to be ∼0.4–0.9° and 0.2–0.3 mm in vertebral displacements) has not yet been investigated. A Monte Carlo analysis was therefore used to assess the sensitivity of results in both musculoskeletal (MS) and passive finite element (FE) spine models to errors in measured displacements. Six static activities in upright standing, flexed, and extended postures were initially simulated using a force-control hybrid MS-FE model. Computed vertebral...