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    Analysis of Factors Influencing Driving Accidents Severity by Driver’s Gender

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohammadyari Sohrabi, Siamak (Author) ; Kermanshah, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Traffic accidents are one of the most important issues of traffic which impose high costs to societies. Regardless of accidents material costs, disabilities and deaths are very considerable. Iran statistics show that death rates caused by driving accidents are two times more than world statistics and each 25 minutes one dies because of driving accidents. Researchers classify factors influencing driving accidents in four categories: human factors, factors related to the environmental conditions, factors related to the vehicles and factors related to the roads. Driver behavior and characteristics are the main human factors that influence his or her behavior. The aim of this study is analyzing... 

    Biomechanical Modeling of Human Eye in Car Airbag Blunt Impacts During Accident: an Empirical Test and Finite Element Study

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Shirzadi, Hooman (Author) ; Zohour, Hassan (Supervisor)
    Eye and vision are the most important tools and the perceptual sense of human. This important vital member is one of the most vulnerable organs of human body. For example in the United States 1.9 million eye surgery are being done yearly which include 9 thousand globe rupture and 30 thousand blindness due to impacts on the eye. Eye traumas could have occurred as mechanical, radiation, thermal, chemical, etc. among these, the damages related to the airbag impact which is subset of mechanical damages, take a significant percentage. Presenting a model of human eye in car airbag blunt impacts during accident could be effective for receiving helpful information from damage of the internal parts... 

    The Relationship between Indicators of Safe Driving Behavior for Iranian Heavy Vehicle Drivers (Case Study: Parvizxan Customs)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naderi, Hossein (Author) ; Nasiri, Habibollah (Supervisor)
    Traffic accidents are becoming one of the most important challenges threatening global public health. Yearly about 25000 persons die beacause of traffic accident in Iran. While trucks account for around 8.3% of the total number of vehicles in Iran’s roads, they were involved in 20.5% of all fatal crashes in the year 2014. This shows the importance of addressing the problem the truck drivers’ safety. This study aims to obtain an understanding of the relationship between the effective variables on safe heavy vehicles driving and develop a new structural equation model by this variables. For this purpose, data were collected using Driver Behavior Questionnaire, Attention-Related Driving... 

    Is Driving More Dangerous in Holidays than Normal Days?Investigating the Effect of Holidays on Road Accidents in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kushkbaghi, Maryam (Author) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death in Iran. Between 2005 to 2019, 20,000 people were killed and 300,000 were injured on average annually. About 65 percent of all traffic fatalities over the past seven years has been on intercity roads. Finding patterns of accidents on specific days, such as holidays, would help the planners prevent traffic accidents. In this study, using police accident data, traffic counts of Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization, and meteorological data of Iran Meteorological Organization during 2011 to 2018, we study the effect of official holidays, and the days before, after and between two holidays on the rate and severity of road accidents... 

    Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009

    , Article International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion ; Volume 20, Issue 2 , 2013 , Pages 121-133 ; 17457300 (ISSN) Zangooei Dovom, H ; Shafahi, Y ; Zangooei Dovom, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest... 

    Predicting crash frequency for multi-vehicle collision types using multivariate poisson-lognormal spatial model: a comparative analysis

    , Article Accident Analysis and Prevention ; Volume 118 , 2018 , Pages 277-288 ; 00014575 (ISSN) Hosseinpour, M ; Sahebi, S ; Zamzuri, Z. H ; Shukri Yahaya, A ; Ismail, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    According to crash configuration and pre-crash conditions, traffic crashes are classified into different collision types. Based on the literature, multi-vehicle crashes, such as head-on, rear-end, and angle crashes, are more frequent than single-vehicle crashes, and most often result in serious consequences. From a methodological point of view, the majority of prior studies focused on multivehicle collisions have employed univariate count models to estimate crash counts separately by collision type. However, univariate models fail to account for correlations which may exist between different collision types. Among others, multivariate Poisson lognormal (MVPLN) model with spatial correlation... 

    Biomechanical simulation of eye-airbag impacts during vehicle accidents

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 232, Issue 7 , 2018 , Pages 699-707 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Shirzadi, H ; Zohoor, H ; Naserkhaki, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE Publications Ltd  2018
    Airbags are safety devices in vehicles effectively suppressing passengers’ injuries during accidents. Although there are still many cases of eye injuries reported due to eye-airbag impacts in recent years. Biomechanical approaches are now feasible and can considerably help experts to investigate the issue without ethical concerns. The eye-airbag impact–induced stresses/strains in various components of the eye were found to investigate the risk of injury in different conditions (impact velocity and airbag pressure). Three-dimensional geometry of the eyeball, fat and bony socket as well as the airbag were developed and meshed to develop a finite element model. Nonlinear material properties of... 

    Assessment of lumbar spinal disc injury in frontal crashes

    , Article Computers in Biology and Medicine ; Volume 123 , 2020 Amiri, S ; Naserkhaki, S ; Parnianpour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Frontal vehicle crashes have been a leading cause of spinal injuries in recent years. Reconstruction of frontal crashes using computational models and spinal load analysis helps us understand the patterns of injury and load propagation during frontal crashes. By reconstructing a real crash test and using a viscoelastic crash dummy model, spinal injury patterns were analyzed. The results indicated that a moderate crash with an impact speed of 56 km/h leads to injuries in L1-L2 and L5-S1 levels (L for lumbar and S for sacral vertebrae). The largest spinal loads and injuries were mainly observed immediately after the airbag deployment when the peak of the crash acceleration transpires. Also,... 

    Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a developing country

    , Article Accident Analysis and Prevention ; Volume 137 , 2020 Rahimi, E ; Shamshiripour, A ; Samimi, A ; Mohammadian, A. K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Trucking plays a vital role in economic development in every country, especially countries where it serves as the backbone of the economy. The fast growth of economy in Iran as a developing country has also been accompanied by an alarming situation in terms of fatalities in truck-involved crashes, among the drivers and passengers of the trucks as well as the other vehicles involved. Despite the sizable efforts to investigate the truck-involved crashes, very little is known about the safety of truck movements in developing countries, and about the single-truck crashes worldwide. Thus, this study aims to uncover significant factors associated with injury severities sustained by truck drivers... 

    Interaction analysis of a pregnant female uterus and fetus in a vehicle passing a speed bump

    , Article Journal of Biomechanics ; Volume 118 , March , 2021 ; 00219290 (ISSN) Irannejad Parizi, M ; Ahmadian, M. T ; Mohammadi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Pregnant vehicle occupants experience relatively large acceleration when the vehicle passes a speed-bump. In this paper, the effect of such sudden acceleration on a pregnant uterus is investigated. A biomechanical model representing the fundamental dynamic behaviors of a pregnant uterus has been developed. The model relates to the 32nd week of gestation when the fetus is in head-down, occipito-anterior position. Considering the drag and squeeze effects of the amniotic fluid, we derive a comprehensive differential equation that represents the interaction of the uterus and fetus. Solving the governing equation, we obtain the system response to different speed-bump excitations. Using the fetal... 

    Iran in transition

    , Article The Lancet ; Volume 393, Issue 10184 , 2019 , Pages 1984-2005 ; 01406736 (ISSN) Danaei, G ; Farzadfar, F ; Kelishadi, R ; Rashidian, A ; Rouhani, O. M ; Ahmadnia, S ; Ahmadvand, A ; Arabi, M ; Ardalan, A ; Arhami, M ; Azizi, M. H ; Bahadori, M ; Baumgartner, J ; Beheshtian, A ; Djalalinia, S ; Doshmangir, L ; Haghdoost, A. A ; Haghshenas, R ; Hosseinpoor, A. R ; Islami, F ; Kamangar, F ; Khalili, D ; Madani, K ; Masoumi Asl, H ; Mazyaki, A ; Mirchi, A ; Moradi, E ; Nayernouri, T ; Niemeier, D ; Houshang Omidvari, A ; Peykari, N ; Pishgar, F ; Qorbani, M ; Rahimi, K ; Rahimi Movaghar, A ; Ramezani Tehrani, F ; Rezaei, N ; Shahraz, S ; Takian, A ; Tootee, A ; Ezzati, M ; Jamshidi, H. R ; Larijani, B ; Majdzadeh, R ; Malekzadeh, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lancet Publishing Group  2019
    Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the...