Search for: uncertainty-analysis
Total 332 records
Reliability of slope stability analysis using fuzzy set, Article Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering 2007: Where the Road Ends, Ingenuity Begins, Yellowknife, NT, 6 June 2007 through 9 June 2007 ; Volume 1 , 2007 , Pages 11-20 ; Sharif University of Technology
In this research, theory of fuzzy sets is used to deal with the uncertain nature of soil parameters and the inaccuracy involved in the analysis simultaneously. Soil parameters are defined using suitable fuzzy sets and the uncertainty inherent in the value of factor of safety is assessed. It is believed that this approach accounts for the uncertainty in soil parameters more realistically compared to the conventional probabilistic approaches reported in the literature. The proposed method is applied to a case study and the results are discussed subsequently
A robust multi-objective optimization model for project scheduling considering risk and sustainable development criteria, Article Environment, Development and Sustainability ; Volume 23, Issue 8 , 2021 , Pages 11494-11524 ; 1387585X (ISSN) ; Abbasianjahromi, H. R ; Sepehri, M ; Zeighami, E ; Sharif University of Technology
Springer Science and Business Media B.V 2021
There is limited research that considers the sustainability aspect of the projects’ schedule. The present study proposes a model to cover this gap by considering sustainable development criteria. A multi-objective model with four objective functions, including minimizing cost, risk, and socio-environmental impacts, has been presented to decrease the project’s delay. Since some of the parameters are considered under conditions of uncertainty for the proximity of problems to real projects, the robust programming method is used to deal with the uncertainty, and the epsilon-constraint method was applied to solve the multi-objective model. Several scenarios are also defined to analyze the...
A sustainable urban water management model under uncertainty: a case study, Article Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal ; Volume 32, Issue 2 , 2021 , Pages 376-397 ; 14777835 (ISSN) ; Shams Gharneh, N ; Akhavan Niaki, S. T ; Sharif University of Technology
Emerald Group Holdings Ltd 2021
Purpose: Tackling the challenges of water scarcity requires comprehensive management according to financial, environmental and social issues. This paper aims to develop a planning approach for systematic decision-making and pay attention to uncertainties in water demand management and supply investment. Design/methodology/approach: This study presents a multiobjective optimization model to manage water resources based on the balance of supply and demand. The objectives of the model include economic, social and environmental (sustainable development) factors. The model achieves an optimal urban water portfolio by using a scenario tree. Findings: The mathematical goal programming (GP) in a...
Error Reduction in Spatial Robots Based on the Statistical Uncertainty Analysis, Article SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing ; Volume 8, Issue 2 , 2015 ; 19463979 (ISSN) ; Hafezipour, M ; Sharif University of Technology
SAE International 2015
Kinematic accuracy of the robot end-effector is decreased by many uncertainties. In order to design and manufacture robots with high accuracy, it is essential to know the effects of these uncertainties on the motion of robots. Uncertainty analysis is a useful method which can estimate deviations from desired path in robots caused by uncertainties. This paper presents an applied formulation based on Direct Linearization Method (DLM), for 3D statistical uncertainty analysis of open- loop mechanisms and robots. The maximum normal and parallel components of the position error on the end-effector path are introduced. In this paper, uncertainty effects of both linear and angular variations in...
Cosmic neutrinos at IceCube: θ13, δ and initial flavor composition, Article Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; Volume 203 , 2010 ; 17426588 (ISSN) ; Sharif University of Technology
We discuss the prospect of extracting the values of the mixing parameters δ and θ13 through the detection of cosmic neutrinos in the planned and forthcoming neutrino telescopes. We take the ratio of the μ-track to shower-like events, R, as the realistic quantity that can be measured in the neutrino telescopes. We take into account several sources of uncertainties that enter the analysis. We then examine to what extent the deviation of the initial flavor composition from we : w μ : wτ 1 : 2 : 0 can be tested
Sliding mode control of the turning process for eliminating regenerative chatter in the presence of parametric uncertainties, Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2007, Seattle, WA, 11 November 2007 through 15 November 2007 ; Volume 3 , 2008 , Pages 449-456 ; 0791842975 (ISBN); 9780791842973 (ISBN) ; Vossoughi, G. R ; Movahhedy, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
Chatter suppression is an important topic in any type of machining process. In this paper, orthogonal cutting process is modeled as a single degree of freedom dynamic system. A nonlinear delay differential equation is presented that models flank wear of the tool. Uncertainties in cutting velocity, tool wear size and parameters of the dynamic model are included in the model of cutting process. The force provided by a piezo-actuator is taken as the control input of the system. A sliding mode control scheme is used and an effective control law is derived which suppresses the chatter vibration. Results for two distinct cases of a sharp tool and a worn tool are presented and compared which shows...
Probabilistic optimization of networked multi-carrier microgrids to enhance resilience leveraging demand response programs, Article Sustainability (Switzerland) ; Volume 13, Issue 11 , 2021 ; 20711050 (ISSN) ; Amir, V ; Habibifar, R ; Golmohamadi, H ; Sharif University of Technology
MDPI AG 2021
Microgrids have emerged as a practical solution to improve the power system resilience against unpredicted failures and power outages. Microgrids offer substantial benefits for customers through the local supply of domestic demands as well as reducing curtailment during possible disruptions. Furthermore, the interdependency of natural gas and power networks is a key factor in energy systems’ resilience during critical hours. This paper suggests a probabilistic optimization of networked multi-carrier microgrids (NMCMG), addressing the uncertainties associated with thermal and electrical demands, renewable power generation, and the electricity market. The approach aims to minimize the NMCMG...
Uncertainty analysis for seawater intrusion in fractured coastal aquifers: Effects of fracture location, aperture, density and hydrodynamic parameters, Article Journal of Hydrology ; Volume 571 , 2019 , Pages 159-177 ; 00221694 (ISSN) ; Fahs, M ; Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Belfort, B ; Simmons, C. T ; Younes, A ; Sharif University of Technology
Elsevier B.V 2019
In this study we use polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) to perform uncertainty analysis for seawater intrusion (SWI) in fractured coastal aquifers (FCAs) which is simulated using the coupled discrete fracture network (DFN) and variable-density flow (VDF) models. The DFN-VDF model requires detailed discontinuous analysis of the fractures. In real field applications, these characteristics are usually uncertain which may have a major effect on the predictive capability of the model. Thus, we perform global sensitivity analysis (GSA) to provide a preliminary assessment on how these uncertainties can affect the model outputs. As our conceptual model, we consider fractured configurations of the...
Drought Uncertainty Analysis under Climate Change Using Copula, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Abrishamchi, Ahmad
The classical approaches of drought analysis are performed using historical records and univariate statistical methods. In the use of historical records it is assumed that statistical characteristics of droughts will be exactly repeated in the future (the assumption of stationarity) and in the use of univariate methods it is assumed that drought variables (e.g. duration and severity) are independent; while on the contrary, global warming changes long-term climate patterns, which is called climate change, and also drought variables have significant correlation. Thus, results of classical approaches of drought analysis have uncertainties.The primary objective of this thesis is to propose an...
Random walk-percolation-based modeling of two-phase flow in porous media: Breakthrough time and net to gross ratio estimation, Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications ; Vol. 406, issue , July , 2014 , p. 214-221 ; ISSN: 03784371 ; Masihi, M ; Ghaedi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Fluid flow modeling in porous media has many applications in waste treatment, hydrology and petroleum engineering. In any geological model, flow behavior is controlled by multiple properties. These properties must be known in advance of common flow simulations. When uncertainties are present, deterministic modeling often produces poor results. Percolation and Random Walk (RW) methods have recently been used in flow modeling. Their stochastic basis is useful in dealing with uncertainty problems. They are also useful in finding the relationship between porous media descriptions and flow behavior. This paper employs a simple methodology based on random walk and percolation techniques. The...
Forecasting the effects of a Canada-US currency union on output and prices: A counterfactual analysis, Article Journal of Forecasting ; Volume 32, Issue 7 , 2013 , Pages 639-653 ; 02776693 (ISSN) ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper is a counterfactual analysis investigating the consequences of the formation of a currency union for Canada and the USA: whether outputs increase and prices decrease if these countries form a currency union. We use a two-country cointegrated model to conduct the counterfactual analysis, where the conditional forecasts are generated based on the Gaussian assumption. To deal with structural breaks and model uncertainty, conditional forecasts are generated from different models/estimation windows and the model-averaging technique is used to combine the forecasts. We also examine the robustness of our results to parameter uncertainty using the wild bootstrap method. The results show...
IGDT based risk-constrained strategic bidding of GenCos considering bilateral contracts, Article 2013 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, ICEE 2013 ; 2013 ; 9781467356343 (ISBN) ; Mohammadi Ivatloo, B ; Ehsan, M ; Sharif University of Technology
A new risk-constrained bidding curve construction method is presented in this paper. A Day-ahead energy market has been chosen for competition of GenCos and the Information Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) is used for modelling the Day-ahead market price uncertainty and its corresponding risk. The bilateral contracts of the GenCo are also considered in the proposed framework. A Bi-level optimization problem is incorporated in the proposed method to guarantee a pre-specified level of revenue. The proposed IGDT based method constructs the non-decreasing bidding curve while dispatching units based on the uncertain forecasted prices of the next-day market. The verification of the proposed method is...
A new Boson with a mass of 125 GeV observed with the CMS experiment at the large hadron collider, Article Science ; Volume 338, Issue 6114 , December , 2012 , Pages 1569-1575 ; 00368075 (ISSN) ; Khachatryan, V ; Sirunyan, A. M ; Tumasyan, A ; Adam, W ; Aguilo, E ; Bergauer, T ; Dragicevic, M ; Erö, J ; Fabjan, C ; Friedl, M ; Frühwirth, R ; Ghete, V. M ; Hoch, M ; Hörmann, N ; Hrubec, J ; Jeitler, M ; Kiesenhofer, W ; Knünz, V ; Krammer, M ; Krätschmer, I ; Liko, D ; Majerotto, W ; Mikulec, I ; Pernicka, M ; Rahbaran, B ; Rohringer, C ; Rohringer, H ; Schöfbeck, R ; Strauss, J ; Szoncso, F ; Taurok, A ; Waltenberger, W ; Walzel, G ; Widl, E ; Wulz, C. E ; Chekhovsky, V ; Emeliantchik, I ; Litomin, A ; Makarenko, V ; Mossolov, V ; Shumeiko, N ; Solin, A ; Stefanovitch, R ; Suarez Gonzalez, J ; Fedorov, A ; Korzhik, M ; Missevitch, O ; Zuyeuski, R ; Bansal, M ; Bansal, S ; Beaumont, W ; Cornelis, T ; De Wolf, E. A ; Druzhkin, D ; Janssen, X ; Luyckx, S ; Mucibello, L ; Ochesanu, S ; Roland, B ; Rougny, R ; Selvaggi, M ; Staykova, Z ; Van Haevermaet, H ; Van Mechelen, P ; Van Remortel, N ; Van Spilbeeck, A ; Blekman, F ; Blyweert, S ; D'Hondt, J ; Devroede, O ; Gonzalez Suarez, R ; Goorens, R ; Kalogeropoulos, A ; Maes, M ; Olbrechts, A ; Tavernier, S ; Van Doninck, W ; Van Lancker, L ; Van Mulders, P ; Van Onsem, G. P ; Villella, I ; Clerbaux, B ; De Lentdecker, G ; Dero, V ; Dewulf, J. P ; Gay, A. P. R ; Hreus, T ; Léonard, A ; Marage, P. E ; Mohammadi, A ; Reis, T ; Rugovac, S ; Thomas, L ; Vander Velde, C ; Vanlaer, P ; Wang, J ; Wickens, J ; Adler, V ; Beernaert, K ; Cimmino, A ; Costantini, S ; Garcia, G ; Grunewald, M ; Klein, B ; Lellouch, J ; Marinov, A ; Mccartin, J ; Ocampo Rios, A. A ; Ryckbosch, D ; Strobbe, N ; Thyssen, F ; Tytgat, M ; Walsh, S ; Yazgan, E ; Zaganidis, N ; Basegmez, S ; Bruno, G ; Castello, R ; Ceard, L ; De Favereau De Jeneret, J ; Delaere, C ; Demin, P ; Du Pree, T ; Favart, D ; Forthomme, L ; Giammanco, A ; Grégoire, G ; Hollar, J ; Lemaitre, V ; Liao, J ; Militaru, O ; Nuttens, C ; Pagano, D ; Pin, A ; Piotrzkowski, K ; Schul, N ; Vizan Garcia, J. M ; Beliy, N ; Caebergs, T ; Daubie, E ; Hammad, G. H ; Alves, G. A ; Brito, L ; Correa Martins, M. , Jr ; Martins, T ; Pol, M. E ; Souza, M. H. G ; Aldá, W. L., Jr ; Carvalho, W ; Custódio, A ; Da Costa, E. M ; De Jesus Damiao, D ; De Oliveira Martins, C ; Fonseca De Souza, S ; Malbouisson, H ; Malek, M ; Matos Figueiredo, D ; Mundim, L ; Nogima, H ; Oguri, V ; Prado Da Silva, W. L ; Santoro, A ; Sznajder, A ; Vilela Pereira, A ; Anjos, T.S ; Bernardes, C. A ; Dias, F.A ; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R ; Gregores, E. M ; Iope, R. L ; Lagana, C ; Lietti, S.M ; Marinho, F ; Mercadante, P. G ; Novaes, S.F ; Padula, S.S ; Dimitrov, L ; Genchev, V ; Iaydjiev, P ; Piperov, S ; Rodozov, M ; Stoykova, S ; Sultanov, G ; Tcholakov, V ; Trayanov, R ; Vankov, I ; Vutova, M ; Roumenin, C ; Uzunova, D ; Zahariev, R ; Dimitrov, A ; Hadjiiska, R ; Kozhuharov, V ; Litov, L ; Pavlov, B ; Petkov, P ; Bian, J. G ; Chen, G. M ; Chen, H. S ; He, K. L ; Jiang, C. H ; Li, W. G ; Liang, D ; Liang, S ; Meng, X ; Sun, G ; Sun, H. S ; Tao, J ; Wang, J ; Wang, X ; Wang, Z ; Xiao, H ; Xu, M ; Yang, M ; Zang, J ; Zhang, X ; Zhang, Z ; Zhang, Z ; Zhao, W. R ; Zhu, Z ; Asawatangtrakuldee, C ; Ban, Y ; Cai, J ; Guo, S ; Guo, Y ; Li, W ; Liu, H. T ; Liu, S ; Mao, Y ; Qian, S. J ; Teng, H ; Wang, D ; Ye, Y. L ; Zhang, L ; Zhu, B ; Zou, W ; Avila, C ; Gomez, J.P ; Gomez Moreno, B ; Osorio Oliveros, A. F ; Sanabria, J. C ; Godinovic, N ; Lelas, D ; Plestina, R ; Polic, D ; Puljak, I ; Antunovic, Z ; Kovac, M ; Brigljevic, V ; Duric, S ; Kadija, K ; Luetic, J ; Mekterovic, D ; Morovic, S ; Attikis, A ; Galanti, M ; Mavromanolakis, G ; Mousa, J ; Nicolaou, C ; Ptochos, F ; Razis, P.A ; Finger, M ; Finger, M., Jr ; Aly, A ; Assran, Y ; Awad, A ; Elgammal, S ; Ellithi Kamel, A ; Khalil, S ; Mahmoud, M. A ; Mahrous, A ; Radi, A ; Hektor, A ; Kadastik, M ; Kannike, K ; Müntel, M ; Raidal, M ; Rebane, L ; Strumia, A ; Tiko, A ; Eerola, P ; Fedi, G ; Voutilainen, M ; Anttila, E ; Härkönen, J ; Heikkinen, A ; Karimäki, V ; Katajisto, H. M ; Kinnunen, R ; Kortelainen, M. J ; Kotamäki, M ; Lampén, T ; Lassila-Perini, K ; Lehti, S ; Lindén, T ; Luukka, P ; Mäenpää, T ; Peltola, T ; Tuominen, E ; Tuominiemi, J ; Tuovinen, E ; Ungaro, D ; Vanhala, T.P ; Wendland, L ; Banzuzi, K ; Karjalainen, A ; Korpela, A ; Tuuva, T ; Anfreville, M ; Besancon, M ; Choudhury, S ; Dejardin, M ; Denegri, D ; Fabbro, B ; Faure, J. L ; Ferri, F ; Ganjour, S ; Gentit, F. X ; Givernaud, A ; Gras, P ; Hamel De Monchenault, G ; Jarry, P ; Kircher, F ; Lemaire, M. C ; Locci, E ; Malcles, J ; Mandjavidze, I ; Nayak, A ; Pansart, J. P ; Rander, J ; Reymond, J. M ; Rosowsky, A ; Titov, M ; Verrecchia, P ; Badier, J ; Baffioni, S ; Beaudette, F ; Becheva, E ; Benhabib, L ; Bianchini, L ; Bluj, M ; Broutin, C ; Busson, P ; Cerutti, M ; Chamont, D ; Charlot, C ; Daci, N ; Dahms, T ; Dalchenko, M ; Dobrzynski, L ; Geerebaert, Y ; Granier De Cassagnac, R ; Haguenauer, M ; Hennion, P ; Milleret, G ; Miné, P ; Mironov, C ; Naranjo, I. N ; Nguyen, M ; Ochando, C ; Paganini, P ; Romanteau, T ; Sabes, D ; Salerno, R ; Sartirana, A ; Sirois, Y ; Thiebaux, C ; Veelken, C ; Zabi, A ; Agram, J. L ; Andrea, J ; Besson, A ; Bloch, D ; Bodin, D ; Brom, J. M ; Cardaci, M ; Chabert, E. C ; Collard, C ; Conte, E ; Drouhin, F ; Fontaine, J. C ; Gelé, D ; Goerlach, U ; Goetzmann, C ; Gross, L ; Huss, D ; Juillot, P ; Kieffer, E ; Le Bihan, A. C ; Pansanel, J ; Patois, Y ; Van Hove, P ; Boutigny, D ; Mercier, D ; Baulieu, G ; Beauceron, S ; Beaupere, N ; Bedjidian, M ; Bondu, O ; Sharif University of Technology
American Association for the Advancement of Science 2012
The Higgs boson was postulated nearly five decades ago within the framework of the standard model of particle physics and has been the subject of numerous searches at accelerators around the world. Its discovery would verify the existence of a complex scalar field thought to give mass to three of the carriers of the electroweak force-the W+, W-, and Z 0 bosons-as well as to the fundamental quarks and leptons. The CMS Collaboration has observed, with a statistical significance of five standard deviations, a new particle produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The evidence is strongest in the diphoton and four-lepton (electrons and/or muons) final states,...
Reliable design of a forward/reverse logistics network under uncertainty: A robust-M/M/c queuing model, Article Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review ; Volume 48, Issue 6 , 2012 , Pages 1152-1168 ; 13665545 (ISSN) ; Tavakkoli Moghaddam, R ; Modarres, M ; Baboli, A ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper presents a novel model for designing a reliable network of facilities in closed-loop supply chain under uncertainty. For this purpose, a bi-objective mathematical programming formulation is developed which minimizes the total costs and the expected transportation costs after failures of facilities of a logistics network. To solve the model, a new hybrid solution methodology is introduced by combining robust optimization approach, queuing theory and fuzzy multi-objective programming. Computational experiments are provided for a number of test problems using a realistic network instance
Stability analysis and experimental evaluation of a control strategy for islanded operation of distributed generation units, Article IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications ; Volume 131, Issue 8 , 2011 , Pages 1013-1022 ; 09136339 (ISSN) ; Karimi, H ; Iravani, R ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper presents stability analysis of a distributed generation (DG) controller (1), in an islanded mode, based on the Mapping Theorem and the Zero Exclusion Condition, and validates the results based on a laboratory scale experimental setup. The DG unit is interfaced to the host system through a voltage-sourced converter (VSC). The control strategy regulates the load voltage at the desired value in the islanded mode, despite uncertainties in the load parameters. The frequency of the island is controlled in an open loop manner by an internal oscillator. The experimental results show that the controller provides robust voltage control for a wide range of load parameters, and even maintains...
Stability analysis and experimental validation of a control strategy for autonomous operation of distributed generation units, Article 2010 International Power Electronics Conference - ECCE Asia -, IPEC 2010, 21 June 2010 through 24 June 2010 ; June , 2010 , Pages 464-471 ; 9781424453955 (ISBN) ; Karimi, H ; Iravani, R ; IEEJ ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper presents stability analysis of a distributed generation (DG) controller , in an islanded mode, based on the Mapping Theorem and the Zero Exclusion Condition, and validates the results based on a laboratory scale experimental setup. The DG unit is interfaced to the host system through a voltage-sourced converter (VSC). The control strategy regulates the load voltage at the desired value in the islanded mode, despite uncertainties in the load parameters. The frequency of the island is controlled in an open loop manner by an internal oscillator. The experimental results show that the controller provides robust voltage control for a wide range of load parameters, and even maintains...
Robust transmission expansion planning considering private investments maximization, Article 2016 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology, POWERCON 2016, 28 September 2016 through 1 October 2016 ; 2016 ; 9781467388481 (ISBN) ; Hosseini, S. H ; Kasebahadi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc 2016
Deregulation in power systems has created new uncertainties and increased the previous ones. The presence of these uncertainties, high investment costs, and long period investment return cause the transmission network to remain monopoly and the private investors not being interested in investing in this section. This paper presents a new approach for transmission expansion planning (TEP) in order to maximize private investment absorption. The robust optimization method is used to model the inherent uncertainties associated with the estimated investment cost of candidate lines and the forecasted system load. The genetic algorithm (GA) is, also, utilized as the methodology to solve the...
Iterative sparsification-projection: Fast and robust sparse signal approximation, Article IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing ; Volume 64, Issue 21 , 2016 , Pages 5536-5548 ; 1053587X (ISSN) ; Babaie zadeh, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc
In this paper, we address recovery of sparse signals from compressed measurements, and sparse signal approximation, which have received considerable attention over the last decade. First, we revisit smoothed L0 (SL0), a well-known sparse recovery algorithm, and give some insights into it that have not been noticed previously. Specifically, we re-derive the SL0 algorithm based on proximal methods, and using recent results in solving nonconvex problems by proximal algorithms, we provide a convergence guarantee for it. In addition, inspired by this derivation, we propose a general family of algorithms, which we call iterative sparsification-projection (ISP), having SL0 as a special member. Our...
Uncertainty analysis of wind-wave predictions in Lake Michigan, Article China Ocean Engineering ; Volume 30, Issue 5 , 2016 , Pages 811-820 ; 08905487 (ISSN) ; Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Hamidi, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third-generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data are analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects are compared during a period where wind has a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small...
Operation scheduling of battery storage systems in Joint energy and ancillary services markets, Article IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy ; Volume 8, Issue 4 , 2017 , Pages 1726-1735 ; 19493029 (ISSN) ; Zareipour, H ; Amjady, N ; Rosehart, W. D ; Ehsan, M ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper presents a risk-based approach for evaluating the participation strategy of a battery storage system in multiple markets. Simultaneous offering in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets is considered in this paper. The uncertainties considered include predicted market prices as well as energy deployment in spinning reserve and regulation markets. A new nonprobabilistic model is introduced in this paper to handle the uncertain nature of spinning reserve and regulation markets. Robust optimization is implemented to model these uncertain parameters and manage their related risk. The proposed risk-based model is a max-min problem, which is converted to its...