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    The autonomy of science as a civilian casualty of economic warfare: inadvertent censorship of science resulting from unilateral economic sanctions

    , Article Science and Engineering Ethics ; Volume 27, Issue 4 , 2021 ; 13533452 (ISSN) Esmaeili, H ; Ataie Ashtiani, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media B.V  2021
    Unilateral coercive international political, diplomatic, and economic sanctions are regular events of international relations and international law within the landscape of foreign affairs. However, while they may be prescribed by international law, or national legal systems, for peace and security reasons they have also been imposed for political grounds by powerful States such as the United States. The US sanctions are now targeting science, academic and university domains. When applied in this way, these sanctions violate international law, principles of human rights, ethics, the autonomy of scientific institutions, and the norm of universalism in science. All of which protect and promote... 

    Empathetic space on screen : constructing powerful place and setting

    , Book D'Adamo, Amedeo
    The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s)  2018

    A Comparative Study of the University-industry Collaboration and Networks in China and United States, According to their Artificial Intelligence (AI) Articles by Using Bibliometrics

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Setayesh Valipour, Raheleh (Author) ; Souzanchi Kashani, Ebrahim (Supervisor)
    After several decades, artificial intelligence has been able to turn a science fiction dream into a reality and enter the arenas of international competition. Given the capacity of artificial intelligence to bring about change in society and the economy, experts refer to it as a new industrial revolution that can also affect national power and bring about change at the international level. Due to the growing importance of this technology, the world's powerful countries are seeking to achieve this knowledge and progress in it. But among the countries worldwide, the main competition in the field of artificial intelligence is between China and the United States. China has grown significantly... 

    Fertilizer, landscape features and climate regulate phosphorus retention and river export in diverse Midwestern watersheds

    , Article Biogeochemistry ; Volume 146, Issue 3 , 2019 , Pages 293-309 ; 01682563 (ISSN) Boardman, E ; Danesh Yazdi, M ; Foufoula Georgiou, E ; Dolph, C. L ; Finlay, J. C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2019
    Non-point source pollution of phosphorus (P) is a primary cause of eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems, and poses a persistent management challenge due to the dynamic and poorly understood processes controlling the transport and transformation of P at the watershed scale. We examined phosphorus inputs, retention, and riverine losses in 62 diverse watersheds that included a wide range of land cover and use (minimally disturbed to human dominated) and human P inputs in Minnesota, USA. Fertilizer inputs from row crop cultivation were the dominant source of P to agricultural watersheds. A large majority of P inputs was retained in watershed soils or removed in agricultural products. However,... 

    Equity or equality? Which approach brings more satisfaction in a kidney-exchange chain?

    , Article Journal of Personalized Medicine ; Volume 11, Issue 12 , 2021 ; 20754426 (ISSN) Hosseinzadeh, A ; Najafi, M ; Cheungpasitporn, W ; Thongprayoon, C ; Fathi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI  2021
    In United States (U.S.), government-funded organizations, such as NLDAC, reimburse travel and subsistence expenses incurred during living-organ donation process. However, in Iran, there is a non-governmental organization called Iranian Kidney Foundation (IKF) that funds the direct and indirect costs of donors through charitable donations and contributions from participants in the exchange program. In this article, for countries outside the U.S. that currently use an equality approach, we propose a potential new compensation-apportionment approach (equitable approach) for kidney-exchange chains and compare it with the currently available system (equality approach) in terms of the... 

    Optimal feature selection for SAR image classification using biogeography-based optimization (BBO), artificial bee colony (ABC) and support vector machine (SVM): a combined approach of optimization and machine learning

    , Article Computational Geosciences ; Volume 25, Issue 3 , 2021 , Pages 911-930 ; 14200597 (ISSN) Rostami, O ; Kaveh, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH  2021
    Land cover classification is one of the most important applications of POLSAR images. In this paper, a hybrid biogeography-based optimization support vector machine (HBBOSVM) has been introduced to classify POLSAR images of RADARSAT 2 in band C acquired from San Francisco, USA. The main purpose of this classification is to minimize the number of features and maximize classification accuracy. The proposed method consists of three main steps: preprocessing, feature selection and classification. As preprocessing, radiometric calibration, speckle reduction and feature extraction have been performed. In the proposed HBBO, the combination of onlooker bee of artificial bee colony (ABC) and... 

    Modeling and Forecasting the U.S. Presidential Elections Using Learning Algorithms

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zolghadr, Mohammad (Author) ; Akhavan Niaki, Taghi (Supervisor)
    In this project, we intend to use intelligent and learning algorithms to forecast the U.S. presidential elections. First, we considered some economic and political variables in our model. Then by using stepwise regression, we found the most significant variables. After that, we used three data mining techniques on these data. In the next step, we used support vector regression and neural networks to predict the elections. Then we compared these two algorithms with each other. Eventually, we realized how strong and accurate these methods are to predict the U.S. presidential elections. We have, also, proved that using data mining techniques is beneficial to make models more accurate  

    Sustainable transport indicators: Definition and integration

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 2, Issue 1 , 2005 , Pages 83-96 ; 17351472 (ISSN) Rassafi, A. A ; Vaziri, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    CEERS  2005
    In this paper, a different interpretation of sustainable transportation, is introduced, in which sustainability with respect to transportation sector for the selected countries is evaluated. This interpretation characterizes "sustainable development" through "harmonic development". It means sustainable development with special focus on transportation can be measured by the degree of conformity between environment, economy, and social aspects on one hand, and transportation on the other hand. The best indicator to perform such a measurement is elasticity. The database used for the study encompasses a series of national indicators for each country Seventy nine countries were initially selected... 

    Economic Consequences of SEC Regulation for Iran-related Disclosure

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zare Bidaki, Mohsen (Author) ; Fatemi Ardestani, Farshad (Supervisor) ; Rastad, Mahdi (Supervisor)
    We examine the economic implications of the SEC disclosure rules for companies doing business with Iran on their riskiness of debt. We exploit Section 219 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act (ITRA), which requires companies listed on U.S exchanges to disclose their activities and transactions with Iranian institutions. We analyze the impact of the first ITRA disclosure on the cost of capital for both American and foreign companies listed on the US exchanges. Using a difference-in-difference approach, we document a negative impact of ITRA disclosures on loan spread and credit rating of foreign companies. Further, using textual analysis, we identify the elements in the... 

    Seismic responses of arch dams due to non-uniform ground motions

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 19, Issue 6 , December , 2012 , Pages 1431-1436 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Ghaemian, M ; Sohrabi Gilani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In the present paper, spatially variation input effects on seismic responses of arch dams have been studied. Recorded ground accelerations at the dam foundation interface of Pacoima dam during January 13, 2001 were used for the purpose of this investigation. A numerical finite element model was developed for dynamic analysis of the dam reservoir system. The modified version of NSAD-DRI finite element program was used for the analysis and the ground acceleration time histories were interpolated at all dam foundation interface nodal points. Total and pseudo static displacements as well as developed stresses due to uniform and non uniform excitations are obtained. The results reveal that... 

    A behavioral analysis of freight mode choice decisions

    , Article Transportation Planning and Technology ; Volume 34, Issue 8 , 2011 , Pages 857-869 ; 03081060 (ISSN) Samimi, A ; Kawamura, K ; Mohammadian, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    This paper develops a behavioral analysis of freight mode choice decisions that could provide a basis for an acceptable analytical tool for policy assessment. The paper specifically examines the way that truck and rail compete for commodity movement in the US. Two binary mode choice models are introduced in which some shipment-specific variables (e.g. distance, weight and value) and mode-specific variables (e.g. haul time and cost) are found to be determinants. The specifications of the non-selected choice are imputed in a machine learning module. Shipping cost is found to be a central factor for rail shipments, while road shipments are found to be more sensitive to haul time. Sensitivity of... 

    Electrocardiographic ST-segment depression and exposure to traffic-related aerosols in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease

    , Article Environmental Health Perspectives ; Volume 119, Issue 2 , Feb , 2011 , Pages 196-202 ; 00916765 (ISSN) Delfino, R. J ; Gillen, D. L ; Tjoa, T ; Staimer, N ; Polidori, A ; Arhami, M ; Sioutas, C ; Longhurst, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Background: Air pollutants have not been associated with ambulatory electrocardiographic evidence of ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm (probable cardiac ischemia). We previously found that markers of primary (combustion-related) organic aerosols and gases were positively associated with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and ambulatory blood pressure in the present cohort panel study of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Objectives: We specifically aimed to evaluate whether exposure markers of primary organic aerosols and ultrafine particles were more strongly associated with ST-segment depression of ≥ 1 mm than were secondary organic aerosols or PM 2.5 (particulate matter with... 

    Organic compound characterization and source apportionment of indoor and outdoor quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin

    , Article Indoor Air ; Volume 20, Issue 1 , 2010 , Pages 17-30 ; 09056947 (ISSN) Arhami, M ; Minguillón, M. C ; Polidori, A ; Schauer, J. J ; Delfino, R. J ; Sioutas, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    Quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UF) particulate matter (PM0.25) and its components were measured in indoor and outdoor environments at four retirement communities in Los Angeles Basin, California, as part of the Cardiovascular Health and Air Pollution Study (CHAPS). The present paper focuses on the characterization of the sources, organic constituents and indoor and outdoor relationships of quasi-UF PM. The average indoor/outdoor ratios of most of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were close to or slightly lower than 1, and the corresponding indoor-outdoor correlation coefficients (R) were always positive and, for the most part, moderately strong (median R... 

    Evolution of pore-scale morphology of oil shale during pyrolysis: a quantitative analysis

    , Article Transport in Porous Media ; Volume 119, Issue 1 , 2017 , Pages 143-162 ; 01693913 (ISSN) Rabbani, A ; Baychev, T. G ; Ayatollahi, S ; Jivkov, A. P ; Sharif University of Technology
    Changes of morphological parameters of oil shale under thermal conditions are investigated. Analyses are based on 26 micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images of Green River immature shale rock available under creative commons license. Several image processing and characterization algorithms are applied to sequential high-resolution micro-CT images of oil shale samples undergoing pyrolysis. Pore-scale morphology is extracted and quantified, providing results for pore size, throat size, grain size, specific surface, coordination number, and fracture aperture. The results demonstrate critical increases of porosity, coordination number and fracture aperture in the temperature range from 390... 

    Phosphorus transport in intensively managed watersheds

    , Article Water Resources Research ; Volume 55, Issue 11 , 2019 , Pages 9148-9172 ; 00431397 (ISSN) Dolph, C. L ; Boardman, E ; Danesh Yazdi, M ; Finlay, J. C ; Hansen, A. T ; Baker, A. C ; Dalzell, B ; Sharif University of Technology]
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd  2019
    Understanding controls of P movement through watersheds are essential for improved landscape management in intensively managed regions. Here, we analyze observational data from 104 gaged river sites and 176 nongaged river sites within agriculturally dominated watersheds of Minnesota, USA, to understand the role of landscape features, land use practices, climate variability, and biogeochemical processes in total, dissolved and particulate P dynamics at daily to annual scales. Our analyses demonstrate that factors mediating P concentration-discharge relationships varied greatly across watersheds and included near-channel sediment sources, lake and wetland interception, assimilation by algal P,... 

    The power of environmental observatories for advancing multidisciplinary research, outreach, and decision support: the case of the minnesota river basin

    , Article Water Resources Research ; Volume 55, Issue 4 , 2019 , Pages 3576-3592 ; 00431397 (ISSN) Gran, K. B ; Dolph, C ; Baker, A ; Bevis, M ; Cho, S. J ; Czuba, J. A ; Dalzell, B ; Danesh Yazdi, M ; Hansen, A. T ; Kelly, S ; Lang, Z ; Schwenk, J ; Belmont, P ; Finlay, J. C ; Kumar, P ; Rabotyagov, S ; Roehrig, G ; Wilcock, P ; Foufoula Georgiou, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd  2019
    Observatory-scale data collection efforts allow unprecedented opportunities for integrative, multidisciplinary investigations in large, complex watersheds, which can affect management decisions and policy. Through the National Science Foundation-funded REACH (REsilience under Accelerated CHange) project, in collaboration with the Intensively Managed Landscapes-Critical Zone Observatory, we have collected a series of multidisciplinary data sets throughout the Minnesota River Basin in south-central Minnesota, USA, a 43,400-km2 tributary to the Upper Mississippi River. Postglacial incision within the Minnesota River valley created an erosional landscape highly responsive to hydrologic change,... 

    The global, regional, and national burden of inflammatory bowel disease in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

    , Article The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; Volume 5, Issue 1 , 2020 , Pages 17-30 Alatab, S ; Sepanlou, S. G ; Ikuta, K ; Vahedi, H ; Bisignano, C ; Safiri, S ; Sadeghi, A ; Nixon, M. R ; Abdoli, A ; Abolhassani, H ; Alipour, V ; Almadi, M. A. H ; Almasi Hashiani, A ; Anushiravani, A ; Arabloo, J ; Atique, S ; Awasthi, A ; Badawi, A ; Baig, A. A. A ; Bhala, N ; Bijani, A ; Biondi, A ; Borzì, A. M ; Burke, K. E ; Carvalho, F ; Daryani, A ; Dubey, M ; Eftekhari, A ; Fernandes, E ; Fernandes, J. C ; Fischer, F ; Haj Mirzaian, A ; Hasanzadeh, A ; Hashemian, M ; Hay, S. I ; Hoang, C. L ; Househ, M ; Ilesanmi, O. S ; Balalami, N. J ; James, S. L ; Kengne, A. P ; Malekzadeh, M. M ; Merat, S ; Meretoja, T. J ; Mestrovic, T ; Mirrakhimov, E. M ; Mirzaei, H ; Mohammad, K. A ; Mokdad, A. H ; Monasta, L ; Negoi, I ; Nguyen, T. H ; Nguyen, C. T ; Pourshams, A ; Poustchi, H ; Rabiee, M ; Rabiee, N ; Ramezanzadeh, K ; Rawaf, D. L ; Rawaf, S ; Rezaei, N ; Robinson, S. R ; Ronfani, L ; Saxena, S ; Sepehrimanesh, M ; Shaikh, M. A ; Sharafi, Z ; Sharif, M ; Siabani, S ; Sima, A. R ; Singh, J. A ; Soheili, A ; Sotoudehmanesh, R ; Suleria, H. A. R ; Tesfay, B. E ; Tran, B ; Tsoi, D ; Vacante, M ; Wondmieneh, A. B ; Zarghi, A ; Zhang, Z. J ; Dirac, M ; Malekzadeh, R ; Naghavi, M ; GBD 2017 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Collaborators ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Background: The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising globally, with substantial variation in levels and trends of disease in different countries and regions. Understanding these geographical differences is crucial for formulating effective strategies for preventing and treating IBD. We report the prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of IBD in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. Methods: We modelled mortality due to IBD using a standard Cause of Death Ensemble model including data mainly from vital registrations. To estimate the non-fatal burden, we used data... 

    Comparison and Evaluation of Flood Simulation Under Different Scenarios in Kashkan River and Missouri Basins Using Hec-Ras and Lisflood-Fp, and Development of a Method for Downscaling of Flood Discharge

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ahmadi, Mohammad (Author) ; Moghim, Sanaz (Supervisor)
    This study consists of two parts. In the first part, the performance of the LISFLOOD-FP model, which is raster-based, and the HEC-RAS model, are compared and evaluated. This work studied different scenarios under various digital models in two study areas, the Kashkan study basin with mountainous topography and the basin in Nebraska, which has a plain surface. The flood events are among the most severe floods in both study areas that occurred in March and April 2019. This study showed that in mountain topography, the performance of both models is good even with the 30 m high digital models. Although two models perform well, in the Nebraska basin, the performance of the two models in the... 

    Three-dimensional nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete faced rockfill dams subjected to scattered P, SV, and SH waves considering the dam-foundation interaction effects

    , Article Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering ; Volume 31, Issue 5-6 , 2011 , Pages 792-804 ; 02677261 (ISSN) Seiphoori, A ; Mohsen Haeri, S ; Karimi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this study, the nonlinear seismic analysis of a typical three-dimensional concrete faced rockfill dam is reported. Three components of the Loma Prieta (Gilroy 1 station) earthquake acceleration time history are used as input excitation. The dam under study is considered as if it were located in a prismatic canyon with a trapezoidal cross-section. A nonlinear model for the rockfill material is used, and contact elements with Coulomb friction law are utilized at the slab-rockfill interface. Vertical joints in the face slab are also considered in the finite element model. A substructure method, in which the unbounded soil is modelled by the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), is... 

    Chemometric-based determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples using ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    , Article Journal of Chromatography A ; Volume 1413 , September , 2015 , Pages 117-126 ; 00219673 (ISSN) Ahmadvand, M ; Sereshti, H ; Parastar, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2015
    In the present research, ultrasonic-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been proposed for analysis of thirteen environmental protection agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Tetrachloroethylene was selected as extraction solvent. The main parameters of USAEME affecting the efficiency of the method were modeled and optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions (9 μL for extraction solvent, 1.15% (w/v) NaCl (salt concentration) and 10min for ultrasonication time), preconcentration factor (PF) of the PAHs was in the range of 500-950. In order to have a...