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    Evaluation of nutrient removal and biomass production through mixotrophic, heterotrophic, and photoautotrophic cultivation of chlorella in nitrate and ammonium wastewater

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Research ; Volume 12, Issue 2 , 2018 , Pages 167-178 ; 17356865 (ISSN) Babaei, A ; Mehrnia, M. R ; Shayegan, J ; Sarrafzadeh, M. H ; Amini, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer International Publishing  2018
    Abstract
    In this study, the effect of mixotrophic, heterotrophic, photoautotrophic (CO2 of air source), and photoautotrophic (bicarbonate source) cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was investigated on microalgae growth rate and nutrient removal under different kinds of nitrogen sources. The highest N–NH3 +, N–NO3 −, P–PO4 3− (in ammonium source), and P–PO4 3− (in nitrate source) removal efficiency (87.28 ± 0.89, 70.00 ± 1.20, 87.00 ± 3.10, and 78.10 ± 1.95%, respectively) was reached in the mixotrophic culture. In all cultivations, when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source, specific growth rate, biomass productivity, and specific oxygen production rate (SOPR) were higher than the one with ammonium... 

    Investigation into some parameters affecting pectin gel quality

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 14, Issue 2 , 2007 , Pages 174-179 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Ebrahimi, B ; Alemzadeh, I ; Seifkordi, S. K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2007
    Abstract
    In this research, gel production from the extracted pectin gel of shahroud sugar beet pulp has been investigated. The pectin extractions were performed in a cold alkaline solution and a hot acid solution, respectively. The effects of different parameters, such as percent of sugar, pectin concentration, calcium content and quantity of peroxidase enzyme, hardness and content of water absorbed by the gel, were studied. Optimum conditions for production of favorable gel, from extracted pectin in this research are, as follows: Percent of sugar (glucose): 15%, peroxidase enzyme content: (pectin unit) 170 pu/g of pectin, pectin concentration (if only gel water uptake is important): 10%, pectin... 

    Energy efficient cultivation of microalgae using phosphorescence materials and mirrors

    , Article Sustainable Cities and Society ; Volume 41 , 2018 , Pages 449-454 ; 22106707 (ISSN) Helali Esfahani, H ; Shafii, M. B ; Roshandel, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    In the present study, two novel annular photobioreactors (PBR) were developed to enhance microalgae growth. One of these photobioreactors used mirrors outside the PBR, while the other one utilized phosphorescence materials inside the PBR. The results of the study suggested that the use of mirrors and phosphorescence materials led to 70% and 30% increase, respectively, in the light intensity without any additional energy consumption. Further, the results revealed that when compared with the base case, the biomass concentration increased by 91% and 24% in PBR with mirrors and phosphorescence materials, respectively. In conclusion, an improvement in PBRs resulted in efficient light to biomass... 

    Anaerobic degradation of molasses stillage in a pilot UASB reactor

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 12, Issue 3 , 2005 , Pages 255-261 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Hashemian, S. J ; Torkian, A ; Hakimjavadi, M ; Azimi, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2005
    Abstract
    The feasibility of a mesophilic anaerobic treatment of an alcohol distillery wastewater (beet molasses stillage) was studied in a 1300 I Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor for a period of 180 days. The system was seeded with 600 L of mesophilic anaerobic sludge harvested from the bottom of a dairy anaerobic lagoon. Nutrients were added to acidified effluent and after adjusting the pH in an equalization tank, the system was fed with a diluted effluent containing COD in the range of 1000-11000 mg/L at 30°C. Initially, the system had an OLR of 1 kg COD m-3 d-1 and upflow velocity was maintained at 0.6 m/h (HRT= 6 h) throughout the study. A gradual increase in OLR, through increased... 

    Effect of culture age and initial inoculum size on lipid accumulation and productivity in a hybrid cultivation system of Chlorella vulgaris

    , Article Process Safety and Environmental Protection ; Volume 104 , 2016 , Pages 111-122 ; 09575820 (ISSN) Heidari, M ; Kariminia, H. R ; Shayegan, J ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institution of Chemical Engineers 
    Abstract
    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a hybrid (two-stage) system. The effect of the transferring time from nutrient-replete phase with a low light intensity (photobioreactor) to the nutrient deprivation phase (open pond) with a higher light intensity, as well as the effect of initial cell concentration in the deprivation phase, on the growth rate and lipid content of the microalgae was investigated. The microalgae were transferred to the nutrient deprived medium at different intervals with various initial cell concentrations. Transferring the cultivated medium of the 4th day with the initial cell concentration of 66 mg L−1 into the deprivation phase resulted in a highest lipid productivity... 

    Treatment of beet sugar wastewater by UAFB bioprocess

    , Article Bioresource Technology ; Volume 98, Issue 16 , 2007 , Pages 3080-3083 ; 09608524 (ISSN) Farhadian, M ; Borghei, M ; Umrania, V. V ; Sharif University of Technology
    2007
    Abstract
    The aim of this work was to study the treatment of strong beet sugar wastewater by an upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UAFB) at pilot plant scale. Three fixed bed bioreactors (each 60 L) were filled with standard industrial packing, inoculated with anaerobic culture (chicken manure, cow manure, anaerobic sludge digested from domestic wastewater) and operated at 32-34 °C with 20 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent COD ranging between 2000-8000 mg/L. Under these conditions the maximum efficiency of organic content reduction in the reactor ranged from 75% to 93%. The reactor filled with standard pall rings made of polypropylene with an effective surface area of 206 m2/m3 performed best in... 

    Characterization of chlorella vulgaris and chlorella protothecoides using multi-pixel photon counters in a 3D focusing optofluidic system

    , Article RSC Advances ; Volume 7, Issue 8 , 2017 , Pages 4402-4408 ; 20462069 (ISSN) Vander Wiel, J. B ; Mikulicz, J. D ; Boysen, M. R ; Hashemi, N ; Kalgren, P ; Nauman, L ; Baetzold, S. J ; Powell, G. G ; He, Q ; Hashemi, N. N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2017
    Abstract
    Analysis of microparticle size and fluorescence intensity can be used to classify microparticles. We designed and fabricated an optofluidic system that characterizes microparticles, including fluorescent microparticles and microalgae. A new type of multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) was employed to miniaturize the device, lower its power consumption, and make it insensitive to magnetic fields. The system uses a 635 nm laser for excitation of the microparticles' fluorescence. The scattered light from the fluorescent microparticles, as well as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella protothecoides, were measured. Additionally, we analyzed the width and height of the measured signals generated as a... 

    Study of epithelial differentiation and protein expression of keratinocyte-mesenchyme stem cell co-cultivation on electrospun nylon/B. vulgaris extract composite scaffold

    , Article Materials Science and Engineering C ; Volume 75 , 2017 , Pages 653-662 ; 09284931 (ISSN) Hosseinzadeh, S ; Soleimani, M ; Vossoughi, M ; Ranjbarvan, P ; Hamedi, S ; Zamanlui, S ; Mahmoudifard, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage. In vitro biocompatibility was examined through MTT assay and epithelial differentiation checked by real-time PCR and... 

    Natural compounds for skin tissue engineering by electrospinning of nylon-Beta vulgaris

    , Article ASAIO Journal ; Volume 64, Issue 2 , 2018 , Pages 261-269 ; 10582916 (ISSN) Ranjbarvan, P ; Mahmoudifard, M ; Kehtari, M ; Babaie, A ; Hamedi, S ; Mirzaei, S ; Soleimani, M ; Hosseinzadeh, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lippincott Williams and Wilkins  2018
    Abstract
    Natural compounds containing polysaccharide ingredients have been employed as candidates for treatment of skin tissue. Herein, for the first time, electrospinning setup was proposed to fabricate an efficient composite nanofibrous structure of Beta vulgaris (obtained from Beet [Chenopodiaceae or Amaranthaceae]) belonged to polysaccharides and an elastic polymer named nylon 66 for skin tissue engineering. Both prepared scaffolds including noncomposite and composite types were studied by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical assay, and contact angle. Scanning electron microscope examinations have approved the uniform and homogeneous... 

    Comparative analysis of agricultural water pricing between Azarbaijan Provinces in Iran and the state of California in the US: A hydro-economic approach

    , Article Agricultural Water Management ; Volume 223 , 2019 ; 03783774 (ISSN) Momeni, M ; Zakeri, Z ; Esfandiari, M ; Behzadian, K ; Zahedi, S ; Razavi, V ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2019
    Abstract
    Iranian water authority has recently announced that one of the effective ways to avoid unprecedented high water consumption in Iran's agriculture sector is to increase water price. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this policy by using a hydro-economic approach with the aim to consider the role of water pricing in agricultural water management. Such an analysis was conducted through comparing price of water consumed for producing selected agricultural crops (i.e. wheat, sugar beets, onion, tomato, barley, potato, corn, alfalfa hay and watermelon) in a case study on two provinces (East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan) in Iran to that in the state of California (CA) in the USA. According... 

    Lipid production in mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater

    , Article Renewable Energy ; Vol. 71 , November , 2014 , pp. 502-508 ; ISSN: 09601481 Ebrahimian, A ; Kariminia, H. R ; Vosoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Microalgae's biomass productivity and oil content depend heavily on the method of its cultivation. In this study, nutrient removal from municipal wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris in batch culture was investigated. Carbon dioxide was supplied from sodium hydrogen carbonate. Effect of parameters including light intensity, sodium hydrogen carbonate concentration, and daily illumination time on the productivity of biomass and lipid was investigated. Lipid and biomass production of C.vulgaris increased at higher concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate concentration and higher light intensity until a certain value and then decreased, but longer daily illumination time, increased both biomass... 

    The effect of conventional immunosuppressive therapy on cytokine serum levels in pemphigus vulgaris patients

    , Article Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology ; Vol. 13, issue. 3 , June , 2014 , p. 174-183 ; 17351502 Mortazavi, H ; Esmaili, N ; Khezri, S ; Khamesipour, A ; Farahani, I. V ; Daneshpazhooh, M ; Rezaei N ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease, in which the role of Th17 cytokines needs to be further explored. This study was performed to assess serum levels of three interleukins (IL) required for Th17 differentiation (IL-β, IL-6 and IL-23) and two specific Th17 cytokines (IL- 17 and IL-22) in a group of patients with pemphigus vulgaris, at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months after of treatment. Correlations between anti-desmogleins and cytokines with disease severity as well as the influence of therapy on the above factors were assessed. Forty-three first-admitted pemphigus vulgaris patients with the active disease entered the study, but only 31 completed the study. Forty-five healthy... 

    Pemphigus vulgaris and infections: A retrospective study on 155 patients

    , Article Autoimmune Diseases ; Volume 2013 , 2013 ; 20900430 (ISSN) Esmaili, N ; Mortazavi, H ; Noormohammadpour, P ; Boreiri, M ; Soori, T ; Vasheghani Farahani, I ; Mohit, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired... 

    Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris

    , Article Bioresource Technology ; Volume 201 , 2016 , Pages 304-311 ; 09608524 (ISSN) Malekzadeh, M ; Abedini Najafabadi, H ; Hakim, M ; Feilizadeh, M ; Vossoughi, M ; Rashtchian, D ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd 
    Abstract
    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6... 

    Electricity generation, desalination and microalgae cultivation in a biocathode-microbial desalination cell

    , Article Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; Volume 5, Issue 1 , 2017 , Pages 843-848 ; 22133437 (ISSN) Khazraee Zamanpour, M ; Kariminia, H. R ; Vosoughi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2017
    Abstract
    Recently, microalgae has received a high attention for application in bioelectrochemical systems due to its potential to be used for oxygen generation and biodiesel production. In this study performance of algal biocathode in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was evaluated against air cathode and biocathode microbial fuel cell (MFC). Effluent of a dairy wastewater treatment plant with COD of 1000 mg l-1 was utilized as substrate in the anode and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was inoculated in the cathode using a synthetic culture media. Experiments were conducted using two different saline water concentrations including 15 g l-1 (MDC-1) and 35 g l-1 (MDC-2) in a desalination cell and... 

    Direct transesterification of wet microalgae to biodiesel using phosphonium carboxylate ionic liquid catalysts

    , Article Biomass and Bioenergy ; Volume 150 , 2021 ; 09619534 (ISSN) Malekghasemi, S ; Kariminia, H. R ; Plechkova, N. K ; Ward, V. C. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2021
    Abstract
    In this study, four types of tetrabutylphosphonium carboxylate ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized and used for a one-pot transesterification of wet Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalgae into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the presence of methanol, as well as refined oils (sunflower, canola, and corn oil). The resulting process removed the need for complete drying and lipid extraction steps typically needed for biodiesel production from microalgae. The leading candidate ionic liquid catalyst, tetrabutylphosphonium formate ([P4444][For]), was further optimized using response surface methodology to minimize material consumption, increase water compatibility, reduce processing time... 

    Light harvesting and photocurrent generation by nanostructured photoelectrodes sensitized with a photosynthetic pigment: A new application for microalgae

    , Article Bioresource Technology ; Volume 163 , July , 2014 , Pages 1-5 ; ISSN: 09608524 Mohammadpour, R ; Janfaza, S ; Abbaspour Aghdam, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Here in this study, successful conversion of visible light into electricity has been achieved through utilizing microalgal pigments as a sensitizer of nanostructured photo-electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For the first time, photosynthetic pigments extracted from microalgae grown in wastewater is employed to imitate photosynthesis process in bio-molecule-sensitized solar cells. Two designs of photoanode were employed: 10μm nanoparticular TiO2 electrode and 20μm long self-ordered, vertically oriented nanotube arrays of titanium dioxide films. Microalgal photosynthetic pigments are loaded on nanostructured electrodes and their photovoltaic performances have been investigated.... 

    Effect of various carbon sources on biomass and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris during nutrient sufficient and nitrogen starvation conditions

    , Article Bioresource Technology ; Volume 180 , 2015 , Pages 311-317 ; 09608524 (ISSN) Abedini Najafabadi, H ; Malekzadeh, M ; Jalilian, F ; Vossoughi, M ; Pazuki, G ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    In this research, a two-stage process consisting of cultivation in nutrient rich and nitrogen starvation conditions was employed to enhance lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris algal biomass. The effect of supplying different organic and inorganic carbon sources on cultivation behavior was investigated. During nutrient sufficient condition (stage I), the highest biomass productivity of 0.158. ±. 0.011. g/L/d was achieved by using sodium bicarbonate followed by 0.130. ±. 0.013, 0.111. ±. 0.005 and 0.098. ±. 0.003. g/L/d for sodium acetate, carbon dioxide and molasses, respectively. Cultivation under nitrogen starvation process (stage II) indicated that the lipid and fatty acid content... 

    Intralesional immunotherapy compared to cryotherapy in the treatment of warts

    , Article International Journal of Dermatology ; Volume 56, Issue 4 , 2017 , Pages 474-478 ; 00119059 (ISSN) Khozeimeh, F ; Jabbari Azad, F ; Mahboubi Oskouei, Y ; Jafari, M ; Tehranian, S ; Alizadehsani, R ; Layegh, P ; Sharif University of Technology
    Blackwell Publishing Ltd  2017
    Abstract
    Background: Warts are the most common clinical manifestation of the human papilloma-virus infection in the skin and mucous membranes. In spite of the various therapeutic modalities for nongenital skin warts, there is still no single method to be used as an approved treatment. In this study, we compared the efficacy of immunotherapy and cryotherapy on wart lesions. Methods: Sixty patients with verruca vulgaris and plantar warts were randomly divided into two groups. One group received intralesional injection of candida antigen repeated every 3 weeks until complete improvement of all warts or for a maximum of three sessions. The second group was treated by cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen for... 

    Inhibitory effects of functionalized indium doped ZnO nanoparticles on algal growth for preservation of adobe mud and earthen-made artworks under humid conditions

    , Article International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation ; Volume 127 , Febraury , 2018 , Pages 209-216 ; 09648305 (ISSN) Shariati, M ; Mallakin, A ; Malekmohammady, F ; Khosravi Nejad, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2018
    Abstract
    In this article, indium doped ZnO nanoparticles (alloy nanoparticles) were investigated as inhibitors against algae growth on adobe mud and earthen artworks for surface preservation from destruction caused by micro-organisms under humid conditions, through surface modification and activation run off. Nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by physical vapor deposition (PVD) growth mechanism. The fabricated NPs were approximately 20 nm in size. The Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda were tested by application of indium doped ZnO nanoparticles (In/ZnO NPs) as inhibitors. As concentrations of NPs increased, the negative impacts of NPs on the algal growth were enhanced and physical...