Accelerated differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons on ginseng-reduced graphene oxide sheets

Akhavan, O ; Sharif University of Technology

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.09.015
  3. Abstract:
  4. Asian red ginseng was used for green reduction of chemically exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) into reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The reduction level and electrical conductivity of the ginseng-rGO sheets were comparable to those of hydrazine-rGO ones. Reduction by ginseng resulted in repairing the sp 2 graphitic structure of the rGO, while hydrazine-rGO showed more defects and/or smaller aromatic domains. The ginseng-rGO sheets presented a better stability against aggregation than the hydrazine-rGO ones in an aqueous suspension. Whilst the hydrophobic hydrazine-rGO films exhibited no toxicity against human neural stem cells (hNSCs), the hydrophilic GO and ginseng-rGO films (as more biocompatible films) showed proliferation of the stem cells after 3 days. On the other hand, the hydrazine-rGO and especially the ginseng-rGO films exhibited more differentiation of hNSCs into neurons (rather than glia) than the GO film, after 3 weeks. The accelerated differentiation on the rGO films was assigned to their higher capability for electron transfer. Meanwhile, the better differentiation on the ginseng-rGO film (as compared to the hydrazine-rGO film) was attributed to its higher biocompatibility, more hydrophilicity and the π-π attachment of ginsenoside molecules (as powerful antioxidants) on surface of the reduced sheets
  5. Keywords:
  6. Aqueous suspensions ; Biocompatible films ; Electrical conductivity ; Electron transfer ; Exfoliated graphene ; Graphitic structures ; Neural stem cell ; Reduced graphene oxides (RGO) ; Biocompatibility ; Graphene ; Hydrophilicity ; Repair ; Stem cells ; Hydrazine
  7. Source: Carbon ; Volume 66 , January , 2014 , Pages 395-406
  8. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622313008543