Steganographic schemes with multiple q-ary changes per block of pixels

Gholampour, I ; Sharif University of Technology

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2014.09.008
  3. Abstract:
  4. A family of matrix embedding steganographic schemes for digital images is investigated. The target schemes are applied to blocks of n pixels in a cover image. In every block, at most m pixels are allowed to change with q-ary steps. We have derived some upper bounds on the embedding efficiency of these schemes for different values on m. It is also shown that these upper bounds approach the general upper bound on the embedding efficiency of q-ary steganography. For the case of q=3, we have shown that there is no feasible optimum member of the family for m=2, although for m=1, a well-known example exists. Instead, for m=2, a new close-to-bound scheme in the family is presented which exploits difference sets and wet paper coding in two separate channels. The proposed scheme outperforms other known members of the family, including the original Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD), several improved EMD versions, and two-change Sum and Difference Covering Set (SDCS) constructions. Some experiments are also conducted on an image dataset to compare the proposed scheme with other state-of-the-art Matrix embedding schemes. According to the experimental results, the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the state-of-the-arts at various embedding rates
  5. Keywords:
  6. Difference sets ; Embedding efficiency ; Embedding rate ; Sum and Difference Covering Sets ; Wet paper coding
  7. Source: Signal Processing ; Vol. 108, issue , 2014 , pp. 206-219
  8. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165168414004186