Use of surfactants in cellulose nanowhisker/epoxy nanocomposites: effect on filler dispersion and system properties

Emami, Z ; Sharif University of Technology | 2015

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1007/s10570-015-0728-6
  3. Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2015
  4. Abstract:
  5. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) prepared via TEMPO mediated oxidation are used as biodegradable filler in an epoxy matrix. Since CNWs are hydrophilic and epoxy is hydrophobic, amphiphilic block copolymer surfactants are employed to improve the interactions between the filler and the matrix. The surfactants used are Pluronics, a family of triblock copolymers containing two poly(ethylene oxide) blocks and one poly(propylene oxide) block. In this study, Pluronic L61 and L121 with molecular weight of 2000 and 4400 g/mol and hydrophilic to lipophilic balance of 3 and 1 respectively, are used and their effect on the dispersion of CNWs in epoxy is discussed. The hydrophilic tails of Pluronics interact with the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups on the CNW surface and then these surfactant-treated CNWs are directly incorporated into epoxy by high speed mixing. The dispersion state of the surfactant-treated CNWs in epoxy is assessed by rheological measurements and the mechanical properties of the resulting composites are characterized by tensile test and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The Pluronic L61 treated CNW/epoxy composites show the highest storage modulus at high temperatures (about 77 % increases) indicative of improved interfacial interactions between the CNWs and the epoxy matrix. Also, an increase of around 10 °C in the glass–rubbery transition temperature of the L61 treated CNW/epoxy composite leads to potential application at higher service temperatures
  6. Keywords:
  7. Block copolymers ; Cellulose ; Dynamic mechanical analysis ; Epoxy resins ; Ethylene ; Fillers ; Glass transition ; High temperature properties ; Hydrophilicity ; Nanocomposites ; Nanowhiskers ; Polyethylene oxides ; Propylene ; Surface active agents ; Tensile testing ; Thermoanalysis ; Amphiphilic block copolymers ; Block copolymer surfactant ; Cellulose nanowhisker (CNWs) ; Cellulose nanowhiskers ; Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis ; Interfacial interaction ; Rheological measurements ; TEMPO-mediated oxidation ; Dispersions
  8. Source: Cellulose ; Volume 22, Issue 5 , 2015 , Pages 3161-3176 ; 09690239 (ISSN)
  9. URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10570-015-0728-6