Fabrication of Composite Scaffold Composed of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix/Chitosan with High Mechanical Strength for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Khozaei Ravari, Mojtaba | 2017

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  1. Type of Document: M.Sc. Thesis
  2. Language: Farsi
  3. Document No: 49786 (06)
  4. University: Sharif University of Technology
  5. Department: Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
  6. Advisor(s): Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Baghban Eslami Nejad, Mohammad Reza
  7. Abstract:
  8. Methods that has been used for articular defects are faced with many limitations, so new therapies based on tissue engineering were taken into consideration in recent years. However, tissue engineering also encounters challenges regarding optimal scaffold construction and suitable cell source selection. Mature harvested chondrocytes are limited in number and may lose their chondrogenic potential in several cultures, leading to dedifferentiation. In addition, using stem cells also presents unique challenges associated with them, among which hypertrophic differentiation is the most substantial problem. Choosing the appropriate biomaterial similar to the cartilage structure with sufficient strength is still under investigation. In the present study, a composite injectable scaffold based on Chitosan and extracellular matrix (ECM) of human cartilage was fabricated, which mechanical properties were reinforced with porous micro-carriers built of the same material. The cartilage extracellular matrix was provided from the decellulariztion of human articular cartilage through a combination of physical, chemical, and enzymatic factors. In order to study the effect of micro-carrier content on the mechanical properties of the composite scaffold, different ratios (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/v) were considered. The results show that, the storage modulus of the structure increased along with the increase of the micro-carrier content. The storage modulus of composite scaffold with 10% micro-carrier was enhanced up to about 100-folds. Furthermore, the ability of the composite scaffold to maintain viability of the cells was evaluated. To do so, human chondrocytes as well as human mesenchymal stem cells were distinctly encapsulated in the scaffold. It was shown that, the proliferation rate of both cells was increased up to day 7, which is an indication of non-toxicity of fabricated composite scaffold. We conclude that utilizing porous micro-carriers is a promising way to increase the mechanical properties of injectable scaffolds. Moreover, the extracellular matrix of native cartilage could provide a nutritious environment properly interacting with cells and supporting their survival
  9. Keywords:
  10. Decellularization ; Chitosan ; Mechanical Properties ; Cartilage Scaffold ; Extracellular Matrix ; Cartilage Tissue Engineering ; Hydrogel Scaffold ; Injectable Hydrogel

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