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in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Water and Environmental Engineering Sharif University of Technology

Rezaee, Ehsan | 2017

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  1. Type of Document: M.Sc. Thesis
  2. Language: Farsi
  3. Document No: 50819 (09)
  4. University: Sharif University of Technology
  5. Department: Civil Engineering
  6. Advisor(s): Arhami, Mohammad; Abrishamchi, Ahmad
  7. Abstract:
  8. Oil and gas industries are always considered as one of the most polluting industries in the world. Many pollutants are emitted from the industry into the environment every year. Equipment’s leak and flaring off additional gases produced by various processes of oil and gas production are the main sources of waste in these industries. In order to control these hazardous wastes, it is necessary to provide effective solutions and make appropriate decisions so policymakers will be able to implement policies in order to reduce the emissions of air pollutants. In order to reduce the emissions, it is necessary to conduct the correct and reliable methods and have sufficient information about the emissions of pollutants. To this end, in collaboration with the research team in the study entitled "Standardizing emissions of air pollutants in the upstream Iran oil and gas industry", for the study of the propagation of flares, measurements were made of their input composition. The physical properties of the flairs were also studied and numerical modeling of the released pollutants was performed using measured data. In this study, emission factors were calculated using the emission factors obtained from the modeling results. Solutions have been made to reduce emissions, and reductions have been calculated. The effect of different parameters on flare pollutants was also investigated. Flares with higher hydrocarbon combinations showed vulnerability to emit smoke. In addition, flares with neutral compounds had a much lower combustion efficiency. Adding a certain amount of steam to flares significantly reduced the release of carbon monoxide and soot and improved the overall combustion. Installing the flare gas recovery system (FGR) will decrease the emission of pollutants up to ninety percent. In order to study the release of equipment’s leak, measurements and leakage checks of equipment were performed in four periods of an audit, and leakage cases were identified. Samples were collected from leaking equipments, samples were analyzed, and their compositions were identified. A formula was established to calculate the emission of leaking equipment such as valve and flange. The emission of leaking equipment was calculated with the established formula. The factors influencing the emission of pollutants were also examined. Emission reductions were reviewed and calculated. The pressure and gas injection units showed the highest leakage. In some pilot cases, the release of BTEX was reported more than the rest of the VOCs. Twenty-three percent of the total VOC release was made by BTEX. The release of valves also contained about sixty of the total VOC release. Assuming a sixty percent reduction in the short term and a possible ninety percent reduction in emissions from leakage equipment, in the end, there is a roadmap for achieving this level
  9. Keywords:
  10. Emission Factor ; Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) ; Potentialeometry ; Mitigation ; Emission Estimation ; Equipments Leak

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