Error propagation analysis using FPGA-based SEU-fault injection

Ejlali, A ; Sharif University of Technology | 2008

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2007.04.003
  3. Publisher: 2008
  4. Abstract:
  5. Error propagation analysis is one of the main objectives of fault injection experiments. This analysis helps designers to detect design mistakes and to provide effective mechanisms for fault tolerant systems. However, error propagation analysis requires that the chosen fault injection technique provides a high degree of observability (i.e., the ability to observe the internal values and events of a circuit after a fault is injected). Simulation-based fault injection provides a high observability adequate for error propagation analysis. However, the performance of the simulation-based technique is inadequate to handle today's hardware complexity. As an alternative, FPGA-based fault injection can be used to accelerate the fault injection experiments, but the communication time needed for observing the circuit behavior from outside of the FPGA imposes severe limitations on the observability. In this paper, an observation technique for FPGA-based fault injection is proposed which significantly reduces the communication time as compared with previous scan-based observation techniques. Furthermore, this paper describes a SEU-fault injection technique based on a chain of parallel registers which reduces the time needed for injecting SEU faults as compared to the previous scan-based fault-injection techniques. As a case study, a 32-bit pipelined processor has been used in the fault injection experiments. The experimental results show that when a high degree of observability is required (e.g., error propagation analysis), the proposed fault injection technique is over 1166 times faster than simulation-based fault injection, whereas the traditional scan-based technique can achieve only a speedup of about 2-3 - which means that the proposed technique is about 500 times faster than the traditional scan-based technique. Such results are supported by theoretical performance analysis. This speed increase has been achieved without excessive increase in FPGA resource overhead, for example, the FPGA overhead of the proposed technique is only 2 ∼ 3% higher than that of the traditional scan-based technique. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
  6. Keywords:
  7. Computer simulation ; Error analysis ; Fault detection ; Microelectronics ; Problem solving ; Error propagation analysis ; Fault injection ; Fault tolerant systems ; Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
  8. Source: Microelectronics Reliability ; Volume 48, Issue 2 , 2008 , Pages 319-328 ; 00262714 (ISSN)
  9. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0026271407001746