3RSeT: Read disturbance rate reduction in STT-mram caches by selective tag comparison

Cheshmikhani, E ; Sharif University of Technology | 2021

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1109/TC.2021.3082004
  3. Publisher: IEEE Computer Society , 2021
  4. Abstract:
  5. Recent development in memory technologies has introduced Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM (STT-MRAM) as the most promising replacement for SRAMs in on-chip cache memories. Besides its lower leakage power, higher density, immunity to radiation-induced particles, and non-volatility, an unintentional bit flip during read operation, referred to as read disturbance error, is a severe reliability challenge in STT-MRAM caches. One major source of read disturbance error in STT-MRAM caches is simultaneous accesses to all tags for parallel comparison operation in a cache set, which has not been addressed in previous work. This paper first demonstrates that high read accesses to tag arrays extremely increase the read disturbance rate and then proposes a low-cost scheme, so-called Read Disturbance Rate Reduction in STT-MRAM Caches by Selective Tag Comparison (3RSeT), to reduce the error rate by eliminating a significant portion of tag reads. 3RSeT proactively disables the tags that have no chance for hit, using low significant bits of the tags on each access request. Our evaluations using gem5 full-system cycle-accurate simulator show that 3RSeT reduces the read disturbance rate in the tag array by 71.8%, which results in 3.6x improvement in Mean Time To Failure. In addition, the energy consumption is reduced by 62.1% without compromising performance and with less than 0.4% area overhead. IEEE
  6. Keywords:
  7. Cache memory ; Cost reduction ; Energy utilization ; Errors ; Magnetic recording ; Static random access storage ; Time-to-failure ; Magnetic rams ; Memory technology ; Parallel comparisons ; Radiation-induced ; Rate reduction ; Read operation ; Simultaneous access ; Spin transfer torque ; MRAM devices
  8. Source: IEEE Transactions on Computers ; 2021 ; 00189340 (ISSN)
  9. URL: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9439871