A comparison of light-duty vehicles' high emitters fractions obtained from an emission remote sensing campaign and emission inspection program for policy recommendation

Hassani, A ; Sharif University of Technology | 2021

364 Viewed
  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117396
  3. Publisher: Elsevier Ltd , 2021
  4. Abstract:
  5. Urban transportation is one of the leading causes of air pollution in big cities. In-use emissions of vehicles are higher than the emission control certification levels. The current study uses a roadside remote sensing emission monitoring campaign to investigate (a) fraction of high emitters in the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet and their contributions to the total emissions, (b) emission inspection (I/M) programs' effectiveness, and (c) alternate fuel (natural gas) encouragement policy. LDVs consist of passenger or freight transport vehicles with four wheels equivalent to classes M1 and N1 of European union vehicle classifications. The motivation is to assess the current emission inspection program's success rate and study the impact of the increased natural gas vehicle market share policy. It is also meant to present and validate remote sensing as a possible backup method to the current I/M program. The emission remote sensing campaign was conducted to measure emissions of CO, HC, and NO of the LDV fleet. Fleet age, engine size, and fuel type (gasoline or natural gas) were extracted and correlated with emissions. It was found that CO and HC emissions are five times higher for cars more than fifteen years old of age compared to those less than five years old. Analyses of high-emitters showed that almost 20% of the fleet were high-emitters and responsible for roughly half of CO, HC, and NO emissions. The correlation between the I/M program and the remote sensing to identify high-emitters was weak. Which indicates the need for an improved I/M program. It shows that even a limited remote sensing campaign is beneficial as a complementary monitoring tool to the I/M program. The study showed the same fraction of high-emitters in natural gas (methane) vehicles, despite the national policies to increase natural gas vehicle fraction in the market for reduced emissions. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd
  6. Keywords:
  7. Air pollution ; C (programming language) ; Commerce ; Emission control ; Fleet operations ; Freight transportation ; Gas emissions ; Natural gas ; 'current ; CO emissions ; Comparison of lights ; HC emissions ; High emitter ; Inspection programs ; Light-duty vehicle emissions ; Light-duty vehicle fleet ; Remote sensing campaigns ; Remote-sensing ; Remote sensing ; Carbon monoxide ; Fuel ; Hydrocarbon ; Methane ; Nitrous oxide ; Atmospheric pollution ; Comparative study ; Pollution policy ; Source apportionment ; Traffic emission ; Urban transport ; Air monitoring ; Controlled study ; Correlation analysis ; Engine size ; Environmental impact ; Environmental parameters ; Environmental policy ; European Union ; Exhaust gas ; Fleet age ; Highway ; Light duty vehicle ; Market ; Motivation ; Motor vehicle ; Pollution and pollution related phenomena ; Traffic and transport ; Air pollutant ; Air Pollutants ; Environmental Monitoring ; Gasoline ; Motor Vehicles ; Policy ; Remote Sensing Technology ; Vehicle Emissions
  8. Source: Environmental Pollution ; Volume 286 , 2021 ; 02697491 (ISSN)
  9. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0269749121009787