Diatoms with invaluable applications in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and biomedicine: Recent advances

Rabiee, N ; Sharif University of Technology | 2021

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  1. Type of Document: Article
  2. DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00475
  3. Publisher: American Chemical Society , 2021
  4. Abstract:
  5. Diatoms are unicellular microalga found in soil and almost every aquatic environment (marine and fresh water). Biogenic silica and diatoms are attractive for biotechnological and industrial applications, especially in the field of biomedicine, industrial/synthetic manufacturing processes, and biomedical/pharmaceutical sciences. Deposition of silica by diatoms allows them to create micro- or nanoscale structures which may be utilized in nanomedicine and especially in drug/gene delivery. Diatoms with their unique architectures, good thermal stability, suitable surface area, simple chemical functionalization/modification procedures, ease of genetic manipulations, optical/photonic characteristics, mechanical resistance, and eco-friendliness, can be utilized as smart delivery platforms. The micro- to nanoscale properties of the diatom frustules have garnered a great deal of attention for their application in diverse areas of nanotechnology and biotechnology, such as bioimaging/biosensing, biosensors, drug/gene delivery, photodynamic therapy, microfluidics, biophotonics, solar cells, and molecular filtrations. Additionally, the genetically engineered diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica have enabled the targeted anticancer drug delivery to neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells as well as the mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. In this perspective, current trends and recent advances related to the applications of diatoms for the synthesis of nanoparticles, gene/drug delivery, biosensing determinations, biofuel production, and remediation of heavy metals are deliberated, including the underlying significant challenges and future perspectives. © 2021 American Chemical Society
  6. Keywords:
  7. Chemical stability ; Controlled drug delivery ; Heavy metals ; Medical nanotechnology ; Metal nanoparticles ; Photodynamic therapy ; Photonics ; Phytoplankton ; Silica ; Synthesis (chemical) ; Anti-cancer drug delivery ; Chemical functionalization ; Gene/drug deliveries ; Genetic manipulations ; Manufacturing process ; Mechanical resistance ; Nanoscale properties ; Unicellular microalga ; Targeted drug delivery ; Bioimaging ; Biomedicine ; Biophotonics ; Diatom ; Gene delivery system ; Imaging ; Microfluidics ; Nonhuman ; Review ; Animal ; Mouse ; Animals ; Biotechnology ; Diatoms ; Mice ; Nanomedicine ; Nanotechnology ; Silicon Dioxide
  8. Source: ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering ; Volume 7, Issue 7 , 2021 , Pages 3053-3068 ; 23739878 (ISSN)
  9. URL: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00475