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    Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke in Aluminium Industry

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Askari, Hadis (Author) ; Khorasheh, Farhad (Supervisor) ; Soltanali, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Baghalha, Morteza (Co-Advisor) ; Tayebi, Shokufeh (Co-Advisor)
    In this study, desulfurization of petroleum coke has been investigated for use in aluminum industry. To reduce sulfur content in petroleum coke, desulfurization has been investigated by two methods of solvent extraction and molten caustic leaching. The method of molten caustic leaching at temperatures of 400-600 °C has been investigated. Other effective parameters on the desulfurization of petroleum coke are the mass ratio of alkali to feed (petroleum coke) in the range of 0.5-1.5 and the time of 1-3 hour and the mesh size of 200-600 micron. In this study, the conditions of desulfurization of petroleum coke using potassium hydroxide have been investigated. Results show that by using the... 

    Experimental Studies for Construction of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) in Continuous Flow Mode

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sadeghi Haskoo, Mohammad Amin (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Aalemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    In this research performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in continuous flow mode was studied. Different anodic chambers were tested and it was found that granular activated carbons (GACs) produced the highest power density (1228 mW/m3) in comparison with multiple anodes (731 mW/m3), single anode (294 mW/m3) and polymeric packings (40 mW/m3). It was also shown that in a plug-anodic chamber (PAC) the power output is reduced by reducing agitation of anodic volume. Adding more GACs to anodic chamber results in power increase, however by increasing occupied volume from 80% to 100% the power increase was negligible in result of cathodic reactions limitations. Feed flowrate was increased from... 

    Modeling and Simulation of Semi Fuel Cells

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amiri, Morteza (Author) ; Pishvaei, Mahmoud Reza (Supervisor)
    The usages of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are limited due to the lack of suitable portable energy sources. Researches show that chargeable batteries and fuel cells are the most appropriate energy source for AUVs in near future. The main purpose of thesis is the modeling and obtaining the governing equations for Aluminum/Air batteries containing seawater, the so-called semi fuel cell. The steady state governing equations include Navier-Stocks equations (Hydraulic-Boundary layer), chemical ionic species mass balance at boundary layer velocity field, electrochemical equations in the electrolyte and the electrode surface, equations of motion of the hydrogen bubbles and equations for the... 

    Analysis of Ratcheting in Elastic-plastic Behavior of Li-ion Battery Electrodes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemi, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Naghdabadi, Reza (Supervisor)
    Among the various materials, silicon anodes have the highest lithium absorption in lithium-ion batteries. But this high lithium absorption capacity can cause 300 percent volume expansion and large stresses. Experimental observations show that charge and discharge cycles may cause plastic deformation in some parts of the electrode particle. On the other hand, there is a possibility of a ratcheting phenomenon due to changing in elastic properties of the electrode material during the charging and discharging processes. However, this phenomenon has not been reported for silicon spherical electrode particles yet.This study aims to model the elastic-plastic behavior of silicon spherical electrode... 

    Electrophoretic Deposition of Functionally Graded NiO/YSZ for SOFC Anode Fabrication

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zarabian, Mina (Author) ; Faghihi Sani, Mohammad Ali (Supervisor) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Supervisor)
    The future crisis and environmental pollution led to increasing interest in alternative energy conversion systems such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). One of the main obstacles in using SOFCs is their relatively high fabrication cost compared with their low amount of produced energy .Therefore, in the present study, fabrication of a more cost-efficient functionally graded NiO-YSZ composite for SOFC anode by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was investigated. In this research, the effect of different chemical parameters such as media, additives, particle size distribution and nano NiO addition were initially investigated on the stability of NiO-YSZ suspension by Zetasizer and turbidity... 

    Design and Manufacture of Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite coated Foamy core@compact Shell Ti-6Al-4V Nanocomposite

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ahmadi Seyedkhani, Shahab (Author) ; Sadrnezhad, Khatiboleslam (Supervisor)
    The main purpose of this research is design and manufacture of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated foamy core@compact shell Ti-6Al-4V bone-like composites for utilization as substitutive implant for cortical bone having porous core. The production procedure consist of two steps; (a) fabrication of foamy core@compact shell Ti-6Al-4V alloy using powder metallurgy-space holder technique, (b) precipitation of hydroxyapatite on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy specimens via pulse electrodeposition process. The bone-like structures were designed to reduce the stress shielding which ensures long-term stabilization of implants. It is while that, the hydroxyapatite coating improve the biological response of... 

    The Impedimetric Human Papiloma Virous DNA Biosensor Fabrication Based on Gold Nanotubes

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Shariati, Mohsen (Author) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Sasanpour, Pezhman (Supervisor)
    An impedimetric human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA biosensor based on gold nanotubes (AuNTs) in label free detection was materialized. The AuNTs decorated nanoporous polycarbonate (AuNTs-PC) template as biosensor electrode was fabricated by electrodeposition method. The single strand DNA (ss-DNA) probe was covalently immobilized onto the AuNTs-PC electrode. The hybridization of target sequences with the ss-DNA probe was observed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The biosensor showed high selectivity and could differentiate between the complementary, mismatch and non-complementary DNA sequences. The EIS measurements were matched to Randle's equivalent circuit. The... 

    Kineticts of formation of Titania Nanotubes and Silk Fibroin on Titanium-based Metal for Investigating the Drug Release Behavior

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Goudarzi, Arghavan (Author) ; Sadrnezhad, Khatiboleslam (Supervisor)
    In recent decades, due to the significant growth of implants’ application and considering the infection of the implants as the most momentous factor in implantation failure, study on the controlled drug release and other biologically active agents in modern drug delivery systems has attracted many kinds of research throughout the world and efforts are being made to use regulated drug delivery systems for implantation which is also the purpose of this current scientific work.To achieve this, the anodizing process was used to fabricate titanium oxide nanotubes (TNTs) to increase the absorption capacity of the drug in the implants and these TNTs were formed regularly and uniformly in an organic... 

    Synthesis of Graphene and its Application for Adsorption of Cobalt and Strontium Ions, and as an Electrode in Electrochemical Cells (Battery)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jalilzadeh, Hassan (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Hosseinpour, Morteza (Co-Supervisor)
    Although much progress has been made in eliminating, conserving, and reducing migration and emissions of radioactive materials, the risk of radioactive material release into the environment is still one of the most important hazards in the use of nuclear energy. In this study, graphene compounds have been used as adsorbents for the removal of radioactive materials due to their high level, cost-effectiveness and simplicity of the synthesis process of various composites. In this regard, the removal of strontium and cobalt by graphene compounds has been investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were anchored on the surface of graphene by sol-gel method and adsorption in batch mode was investigated.... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of CdS Modified TiO2 Nanotubes for Studying of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Properties

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Qorbani, Mohammad (Author) ; Moshfegh, Alireza (Supervisor) ; Azimirad, Rouhollah (Supervisor)
    In this research, first thin films with nanostructures of titanium nanotube arrays (TNAs) synthesized by anodization under different applied voltage (20- 60 V) and different reaction times (120 and 200 min). The electrolyte solution for synthesizing the samples contained 90% ethylene glycol (EG), 10% DI water, 0.1 M NHR4RF and a little HR3RPOR4R to reach the pH to 5.6. The synthesized samples crystallized under annealing treatment at 500 °C (with heating rate of 9.5 °CminP -1 P). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was indicate that the length and the inner diameter of the nanotubes have increased from 1.6 μm and 67 nm (for 30 V anodization and for 2h) to 4.2 μm and 125 nm (for... 

    Lithium Extraction with TiO2 Nanotube Synthesized by Anodizing Method

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Taghvaei, Nastaran (Author) ; Askari, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Due to the technology advancement and the large-scale application of lithium-ion batteries in recent years, the market demand for lithium is growing rapidly and the availability of land lithium resources is decreasing significantly. As such, the focus of lithium extraction technologies has shifted to water lithium resources involving salt-lake brines and sea water. The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. Among various aqueous recovery technologies, the lithium ion-sieve (LIS) technology is considered the most promising one. This is because LISs are excellent adsorbents with high lithium uptake... 

    Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Ordered Nanotube Arrays of TiO2 for Solar Cell Application

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mohammadpour, Raheleh (Author) ; Iraji zad, Aazam (Supervisor) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor) ; Taghavinia, Neima (Co-Advisor)
    In this research we focus on study and fabrication of ordered nanotube arrays of titanium oxide and their applications in photoelectrochemical cell. Nanotubular films of titanium oxide have been fabricated using anodization method. Short-length nanotubes, less than one micrometer, have been synthesized in aqueous electrolyte containing deionized water, hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid. To get Micron-length nanotubes, we have employed organic electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, deionized water and fluoride ammonium. After fabrication, the photo-catalytic activity of nanotubular structures was evaluated by measuring the rate of degradation of in methylene blue aqueous solution. The... 

    Fabrication of a Sensor, Based on TiO2 Nanotubes Modified with Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon and its Application for Detection of Dopamine in Presence of Uric Acid and Ascorbic Acid

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mahshid, Sara (Author) ; Askari, Masoud (Supervisor) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    The present work describes sensing application of modified TiO2 nanotubes towards detection of dopamine. The TiO2 nanotubes electrode was prepared using anodizing method at different conditions, among which NaF/ NaHSO4 solution and voltage of 15 V was chosen as the optimum condition. In order to improve the performance, surface modification with metal nanoparticles (Pd, Pt and Au) and carbon is required using “pulse electrodeposition” and “decomposition of polyethylene glycol at 600 °C” respectively. Carbon was deposited by decomposition of polyethylene glycol in a tube furnace to improve the conductivity. In this regard two type of electrodes were proposed: Pd-Pt-Au-TiO2 and C-Ni(Pt)-TiO2.... 

    Fabrication of Dental Implant from Ti-6Al-4V With Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite Coating

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rahnamaee, Yahya (Author) ; Sadrnezhad, Khatiboleslam (Supervisor)
    The use of dental implants has grown considerably in recent years in Iran but this piece is the industrial imported parts that are not yet produced in Iran. So the main purpose of this research was to fabricate a dental implant from Ti-6Al-4V alloy by CNC machining techniques. On the other hand, the poor bonding strength of bioactive coatings and low cell growth on the surface of uncoated implants are the common problems in the use of dental implants. So another aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nanoscale surface topography and nanostructured coatings on the surface modification of titanium implant in order to improve Osseointegration and the bonding strength of bioactive... 

    Cathodic Protection of Concrete by Zinc Sacrificial Anode in Persian Gulf Sea Water

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Cheraghali, Behrouz (Author) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    Many of the major structure over coastal waters in the Kish Island due to the aggressive condition are showing signs of reinforcement corrosion. Recent advances in the development of anodes make it practical to use zinc galvanic cathodic protection to protect this structure in this area. Five anode systems were tested on several samples as, (1) zinc metal spray applied by arc-spraying on the concrete, (2) a zinc foil with conductive adhesive backing, (3) a system of zinc mesh and grout jacket, (4) a system of zinc mesh and compression panels, and (5) a bulk zinc. These anodes are set up to comparison the effects of potential and current over the zinc galvanic cathodic protection during 4... 

    Repeatability of Lithium Adsorption and Desorption on TiO2 Nanotubes from Brines

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safarzadeh, Amin (Author) ; Askari, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Today, recycling lithium as a valuable metal from brine plays an important role in various applications such as battery manufacturing, computers, aerospace and automobiles. Among the aqueous methods available for the extraction of the lithium element in brines, ion exchange by TiO2 nanosorbents is one of the most efficient methods. In this study, first the titanium dioxide nanotubes were well synthesized by anodizing method and the nanograss created after the anodizing process were completely eliminated. Then, the effect of three cathodes of aluminum, graphite and stainless steel in order to select the best cathode and achieve a regular morphology as well as their replacement with platinum... 

    Synthesis of Doped Titania Nanotube Arrays by Anodizing of Titanium and Surveying of their band Gap

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Meftahi, Mohammad (Author) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In recent decade, photocatalystic properties of titania nanotube and its mechanisms has been considered greatly in many researches. One of the major ways to increase photocatalystic properties and extending the usage of TNTs is doping them with various elements and modifying their band structure. In present research doped TNTs were prepared by doping of Molybdenum, Nitrogen, and Carbon elements by anodizing method in about of 35 degrees of centigrade and constant voltage of 20V on the surface of titanium sheet. Structural and photocatalystic properties of as-prepared TNTs were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive... 

    Aluminum Production by Alumina Electrolysis Method with Using Inconel 617 Inert Anode

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vakil, Mohammad Mahdi (Author) ; Halali, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In this study, the performance of Inconel 617 anode as an inert anode in aluminum electrolysis process was studied. To carry out the research, first, an electrolyte was produced using NaF, KF, AlF3 and Al2O3 with a molar ratio of sodium and potassium fluoride to aluminum fluoride of 1.33. Next, aluminum electrolysis cell was made using Inconel 617 anode and cathode and the aforementioned electrolyte. To evaluate the Inconel 617 anode, the performance of the electrolysis cell in different conditions of temperature, anode-cathode distance, and excess potential was investigated in a period of one hour. Using anode mass measurements, cell potential and current density and scanning electron... 

    Fabrication of Vertically Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Using Organic Electrolytes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hamedi, Mojtaba (Author) ; Askari, Masoud (Supervisor) ; Hakim, Manochehr (Supervisor)
    Titanium dioxide, due to its specific semiconductive properties, has been a highly investigated material for a variety of applications including gas sensors, hydrogen generation by water photoelectrolysis, photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells and purification of water and air. Several recent studies have indicated that titania nanotubes have improved properties compared to any other form of titania for mentioned application. Titania nanotubes have been produced by a variety of methods including deposition into a template and hydrothermal processes. Anodic oxidation of titanium foil in a fluoride-based solution is one of the best methods to produce of titania nanotube arrays. Highly... 

    Preparation and Characterization of Ternary Mixed Oxide Containing IrO2,RuO2,TiO2 on Platinum Coated Titanium Anode

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ali Asghari, Sepideh (Author) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Davami, Parviz (Supervisor)
    Ruthenium based-oxide coatings on Titanium anodes are widely used as DSA (Dimensionally Stable Anode) for chlorine and chlorate production. Coatings consisting of composition of highly conductive oxide of noble metals (Ru, Ir and Pt) make them as long lasting anodes in chlor-alkali technology.In this work, a newly anode by a ternary coating of IrO2, RuO2, and TiO2 on the Pt-coated Ti was developed through thermal decomposition of iridium and titanium and ruthenium inorganic salts dissolved in n-pentane. The effect of deposition parameters such as current density, time, different condition of baking, heating, mole ratio and pulling up the samples was investigated to find out reasonable...