Search for: cardiovascular-system
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    Healthy and diseasedin vitromodels of vascular systems

    , Article Lab on a Chip ; Volume 21, Issue 4 , 2021 , Pages 641-659 ; 14730197 (ISSN) Hosseini, V ; Mallone, A ; Nasrollahi, F ; Ostrovidov, S ; Nasiri, R ; Mahmoodi, M ; Haghniaz, R ; Baidya, A ; Salek, M. M ; Darabi, M. A ; Orive, G ; Shamloo, A ; Dokmeci, M. R ; Ahadian, S ; Khademhosseini, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Royal Society of Chemistry  2021
    Irregular hemodynamics affects the progression of various vascular diseases, such atherosclerosis or aneurysms. Despite the extensive hemodynamics studies on animal models, the inter-species differences between humans and animals hamper the translation of such findings. Recent advances in vascular tissue engineering and the suitability ofin vitromodels for interim analysis have increased the use ofin vitrohuman vascular tissue models. Although the effect of flow on endothelial cell (EC) pathophysiology and EC-flow interactions have been vastly studied in two-dimensional systems, they cannot be used to understand the effect of other micro- and macro-environmental parameters associated with... 

    Early cancer detection in blood vessels using mobile nanosensors

    , Article IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience ; Volume 18, Issue 2 , 2019 , Pages 103-116 ; 15361241 (ISSN) Mosayebi, R ; Ahmadzadeh, A ; Wicke, W ; Jamali, V ; Schober, R ; Nasiri Kenari, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2019
    In this paper, we propose using mobile nanosensors (MNSs) for early stage anomaly detection. For concreteness, we focus on the detection of cancer cells located in a particular region of a blood vessel. These cancer cells produce and emit special molecules, so-called biomarkers, which are symptomatic for the presence of anomaly, into the cardiovascular system. Detection of cancer biomarkers with conventional blood tests is difficult in the early stages of a cancer due to the very low concentration of the biomarkers in the samples taken. However, close to the cancer cells, the concentration of the cancer biomarkers is high. Hence, detection is possible if a sensor with the ability to detect... 

    Robust control of LVAD based on the sub-regional modeling of the heart

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 23, Issue 6 , 2016 , Pages 2934-2943 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Ravanshadi, S ; Jahed, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2016
    Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVAD) have received renewed interest as a bridge-to-transplantation as well as a bridge-to-recovery device. Ironically, reports of malfunction and complications have hindered the growth of this device. In particular, the main concern is LVAD's susceptibility to excessive backlash and suction as a result of ows that are either too low or high, respectively. This study utilizes a well-established physiological model of the cardiovascular system as a reliable platform to study a proposed adaptive robust controller for a rotary motor based LVAD which overcomes such shortcomings. Proposed controller performance is evaluated by comparing simulated natural heart... 

    Functional analyses of recombinant mouse hepcidin-1 in cell culture and animal model

    , Article Biotechnology Letters ; Volume 35, Issue 8 , August , 2013 , Pages 1191-1197 ; 01415492 (ISSN) Yazdani, Y ; Keyhanvar, N ; Kalhor, H. R ; Rezaei, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that plays an important role in iron metabolism. We have produced a recombinant mouse hepcidin-1 by using baculovirus expression system. Its expression yield was 25 μg/ml when cell culture media were supplemented with a protease inhibitor cocktail. The recombinant mouse hepcidin-1 and synthetic human hepcidin-25 had similar effects on reducing ferroportin expression in J774A cell line and in peritoneal macrophages. However, synthetic human hepcidin-25 was more efficient than recombinant mouse hepcidin-1 in reducing iron concentration in blood circulation (p < 0.01)  

    A novel distributed model of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 227, Issue 4 , 2013 , Pages 362-372 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Ravanshadi, S ; Jahed, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison... 

    Modeling of photoplethysmography signal for quantitative analysis of endothelial cells during reactive hyperemia

    , Article 2012 19th Iranian Conference of Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2012 ; 2012 , Pages 174-178 ; 9781467331302 (ISBN) Shiri, F ; Firoozabadi, B ; Saidi, M. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this study, at first the cardiovascular system is modeled based on the 1D method and then the simulation of the reactive hyperemia experiment has been applied on the model. In this simulation, by applying a cuff at the brachial artery, the flow downstream of the cuff is occluded. Then with releasing the cuff immediately, a large amount of shear stress, about 4 times the basal amount, is applied downstream of the cuff and consequently to the endothelial cells in a very short moment. Considering a reported experimental transfer function between shear stress and vasodilation, the increase of the artery diameter due to the sudden increase of the shear stress is obtained. Finally, the... 

    Exact simulating of human arteries using lumped model and probing constriction in femoral and carotid arteries

    , Article American Journal of Applied Sciences ; Volume 6, Issue 5 , 2009 , Pages 834-842 ; 15469239 (ISSN) Mirzaee, M. R ; Ghasemalizadeh, O ; Firoozabadi, B ; Sharif University of Technology
    Problem statement: Modeling Human cardiovascular system was always an important issue from long past because by doing such modeling, investigation in cardiovascular system and its abnormities would be simpler. One of the most effective ways to do such modeling is using lumped method (Electrical analogy). Approach: Lumped method was used for simulating a complete model in this approach. A 36-vessel model was chosen to make equivalent circuit of lumped method from it. This complicated circuit includes equivalent segment for arteries, pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles. Furthermore, in this complex circuit some additional points were considered to improve this method. Some of the most... 

    Beat pressure and comparing it with ascending aorta pressure in normal and abnormal conditions

    , Article 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, ECIFMBE 2008, Antwerp, 23 November 2008 through 27 November 2008 ; Volume 22 , 2008 , Pages 276-285 ; 16800737 (ISSN); 9783540892076 (ISBN) Ghasmelizadeh, O ; Mirzaee, M. R ; Firoozabadi, B ; Sajadi, B ; Zolfonoon, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced... 

    Exact modeling of cardiovascular system using lumped method

    , Article 2008 International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, BIOCOMP 2008, Las Vegas, NV, 14 July 2008 through 17 July 2008 ; 2008 , Pages 408-417 ; 1601320558 (ISBN); 9781601320551 (ISBN) Ghasemalizadeh, O ; Mirzaee, M. R ; Firoozabadi, B ; Hassani, K ; Sharif University of Technology
    Electrical analogy (Lumped method) is an easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments  

    An age index for vascular system based on photoplethysmogram pulse contour analysis

    , Article IFMBE Proceedings ; Volume 21 IFMBE, Issue 1 , 2008 , Pages 125-128 ; 16800737 (ISSN); 9783540691389 (ISBN) Chellappan, K ; Mohd Ali, M. A ; Zahedi, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Verlag  2008
    An approach based pulse on contour analysis is proposed for the development of an aging index for the vascular system. The approach is non-invasive, using photoplethysmography (PPG), which is in wide clinical use. A probe is applied to the subject's finger-tip to provide a measure of the pulse waveform. The measured waveforms are filtered, digitized and post-processed. Individual pulses are extracted and the best pulse was selected by using the best pulse selection algorithm. Pulse contour analysis is then performed with specially formulated PPG fitness equation. Results of measurements taken from 72 subjects are reported. The age range of the subjects was from 19 to 68 years, all of them... 

    Effects of physical exercise on the photoplethysmogram waveform

    , Article 2007 5th Student Conference on Research and Development, SCORED, Selangor, 11 December 2007 through 12 December 2007 ; 2007 ; 1424414709 (ISBN); 9781424414703 (ISBN) Chellappan, K ; Zahedi, E ; Mohd Ali, M. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Photoplethysmography is a non-invasive method which is suitable to estimate vascular compliance. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform has been used to evaluate vascular characteristic changes due to exercise. Quantification of the primary and secondary peak position is of interest as a potential objective, individualized measure of the level of exercise that a subject has achieved with respect to a baseline status, prior to the beginning of the exercise session. The modified bicycle ergonomic protocol was selected for this experiment. Two different signal processing methods were employed in processing the PPG waveform to characterize its changes through a single parameter. Both, the visual... 

    Analysis of the effect of ageing on rising edge characteristics of the photoplethysmogram using a modified windkessel model

    , Article Cardiovascular Engineering ; Volume 7, Issue 4 , 2007 , Pages 172-181 ; 15678822 (ISSN) Zahedi, E ; Chellappan, K ; Mohd Ali, M. A ; Singh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Ageing is one of the main contributing factors towards increasing arterial stiffness, leading to changes in peripheral pulses propagation. Therefore the characteristics of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) pulse, especially the rising edge and peak position, are greatly affected. In this study, the PPG pulse rising edge and corresponding peak position have been investigated non-invasively in human subjects as a function of age. Fifteen healthy subjects were selected and grouped in five age intervals, from 20 to 59 years, based on their comparable systolic-diastolic blood pressure and PPG amplitude. As expected, the peripheral pulse shows a steep rise and early peak in younger subjects. With age,... 

    Estimation of mean radius, length and density of microvasculature using diffusion and perfusion MRI

    , Article Scientia Iranica ; Volume 13, Issue 4 , 2006 , Pages 348-354 ; 10263098 (ISSN) Ashoor, M ; Jahed, M ; Chopp, M ; Mireshghi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Sharif University of Technology  2006
    In theory, diffusion and perfusion information in MRI maps can be combined to yield morphological information, such as capillary density, volume and possibly capillary plasma velocity. This paper suggests a new method for determination of mean radius, length and capillary density in normal regions using diffusion and perfusion MRI. Mean Transit Time (MTT), Cerebral Blood Volume (CBV), Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*) and ΔR2 and ΔR2* values were utilized to calculate mean radius, length and capillary density. To verify the proposed theory, a special protocol was designed and tested on normal regions of a male Wistar rat using obtained functions. Mean... 

    Conceptual modeling of cardiovascular sounds

    , Article 2005 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE-EMBS 2005, Shanghai, 1 September 2005 through 4 September 2005 ; Volume 7 VOLS , 2005 , Pages 2308-2311 ; 05891019 (ISSN); 0780387406 (ISBN); 9780780387409 (ISBN) Pouladian, M ; Tehrani Fard, A. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc  2005
    In this paper, it is shown that the main source of mechanical energy of cardiovascular (CV) system i.e., rhythmic heart contraction is transformed to the oscillations of the CV walls and blood flow, and finally CV acoustical waves. These waves propagate through both blood flow (hemodynamical pathways) and tissues (viscoelastical pathways) toward the skin. Nonetheless, the CV walls could be assumed as the source of acoustical waves, since they act as the interface between blood flows and other tissues including skin. After obtaining the approximate accelerations of CV walls from pressure-flow (PF) models, we also needed to model the viscoelastical pathways until the skin. Some improvements on... 

    Pulsating Pulmonary Blood Inflow in Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC) after Fontan Surgery

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moradi, Hamed (Author) ; Sayadi, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Firoozabadi, Bahar (Supervisor) ; Navabi Shirazi, Mohammad Ali (Co-Supervisor) ; Malakan Rad, Elaheh (Co-Supervisor)
    Patients with a single ventricle disease who have undergone Fontan surgery have always had long-term complications. These complications include pulmonary artery stiffness and decreased ability to exercise. In fact, due to removal of the right ventricle from the circulatory system, blood pressure and pulsatility inflow to total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) are reduced following this surgery. Creating waves (radial displacement) on the IVC (Inferior Vena Cava) wall can increase pulmonary flow pulsations. The Objective of this study is to test the effect of induced wave amplitude on the pulmonary flow pulsations at the rest condition. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were... 

    Designing and Manufacturing of an Electrospinning Machine and Prediction of Mechanical Responses of Artificial Blood Vessels Using Neural Networks and Finite Element Analysis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rafiei, Soroush (Author) ; Nourani, Amir (Supervisor) ; Chizari, Mahmoud (Co-Supervisor)
    Cardiovascular disease is one of the most leading causes of death in the world and one of the common methods for treating such diseases is replacing damaged blood vessels with artificial ones. Electrospinning, which is a method of producing polymer fibers, is one of the best and common methods of producing synthetic vessels. The first goal in this study was to create a suitable structure for fiber production; therefore, first, an electrospinning device and environmental chamber were designed and built. Then, the effect of alternative and uniform flow on the diameter and structure of the fibers was investigated using 15% wt. Polycaprolactone solution. The results of this study showed that the... 

    Air Pollution Effects on Mortality

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Moghani, Vahid (Author) ; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In this paper evaluate the short-term effects of air pollution on the mortality rate caused by cardiovascular problems, respiratory problems, digestive problems and tumors and cancers. This is done by using daily mortality data of Tehran, Tabriz, Mashad, Shiraz, Ahwaz and Isfahan during the years 1390 to 1394, we also use daily measurements of pollutant levels including Carbon-monooxcide, Sulfure-dioxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Ozone and Particulate matters in the same period. The effects are estimad by looking at the relation of daily mortality in each city along with its pollution level. By controling for the weather conditions and city and month fixed effects, we find significant positive... 

    Modeling of the Cardiovascular System using Breathing Stimuli for Evaluation of the Autonomic Nervous System

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Goldouzian, Layli Sadat (Author) ; Zahedi, Edmond (Supervisor) ; Jehed, Mehran (Supervisor) ; Zarzoso, Vicente (Supervisor)
    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls involuntary activities of the body, e.g. heartbeat function and blood circulation. Common tests used for evaluation of the functionality of ANS system in regulation of the cardiovascular system include heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and studying the changes in heart rate or blood pressure during deep respiration, sit-to-stand or head-up tilt table test and Valsalva maneuver. Test parameters affect the amplitude of the variations of the cardiovascular signals. Therefore, in the recent years, analysis and modeling of the interaction between the relevant signals, e.g. heart rate, blood pressure and respiration, have been widely used for the... 

    Design and Fabrication of Engineered Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications such as Cardiovascular System

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Khayat Norouzi, Sara (Author) ; Shamlou, Amir (Supervisor)
    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death all over the world, even more common than cancers. The first reason of mortality in Iran according to statistics is the occlusion of coronary arteries. Unfortunately almost one third of patients doesn’t have enough blood vessels to be used in the bypass surgery and need artificial vessels. These artificial blood vessels with small diameters (less than 6 mm) will fail quickly. As a result there is an increasing demand for tissue engineered blood vessels which are capable of enduring high blood pressures. An artificial blood vessel should mimic both structure and mechanical properties of the real one. Blood vessels have layered structures,... 

    Modeling the Relationship between Central Aortic Pressure and Radial Photoplethysmogram in Flow-mediated Dilation Test

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Parsafar, Mohammad Habib (Author) ; Vosughi Vahdat, Bijan (Supervisor) ; Zahedi, Edmond (Supervisor)
    According to the World Health Organization, about 35% of deaths worldwide are due to cardiovascular diseases, therefore the evaluation of vascular endothelial function has great prognostic and diagnostic value for cardiovascular diseases. The conventional noninvasive method for endothelial function evaluation is the measurement of flow-mediated dilation in brachial artery using ultrasound imaging (FMD-US). As the accuracy of FMD-US depends on the operator's skill and the resolution of the ultrasound images, this method has not been adopted. In this work, we propose to use a low cost, easily-accessible surrogate signal, the photoplethysmogram (PPG) to implement the FMD test. Whereas previous...