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    Electric-field-induced Response of Charged Droplets in Uncharged Hydrogels

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Maghsoudnia, Abolfazl (Author) ; Mohammadi, Ali Asghar (Supervisor)
    The electric field induced response of a charged droplet in an uncharged gel is calculated theoretically. For modeling, the gel is considered as a soft porous solid that is saturated with a Newtonian electrolyte and modeled as a continuum that contains 3 phases: a porous, soft and compressible solid, an incompressible Newtonian fluid and the ions inside fluid. Droplet is modeled as a charged incompressible Newtonian fluid immiscible with the gel. The droplet-gel interface is considered as a surface with electrostatic potential ζ . After obtaining governing equations, they solved by using perturbation methodology and linear superposition. Boundary conditions, especially at the droplet-gel... 

    Topological Defects in Confined Nematics by Planar Anchoring

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seyed Nejad, Reza (Author) ; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor) ; Mozaffari, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Confining nematic liquid crystal between two curved boundary conditions while the nematic molecules have a degenerate planar anchoring leads to complex and beautiful textures of molecular disparagement(defect) in the bulk and on the surfaces. Such the liquid crystal shells are made with double-emulsion techniques in microfluidic devices have provided applications for micro-scale colloidal linkers.In this work, we have numerically minimized the elastic energy in one-constant approximation in present of Fournier’s degenerate surface potential with finite element method. The nematic shell is confined between two spherical surfaces that we have studied the final energies and their related... 

    Numerical Investigation of Droplet Generation in a Microfluidic Flow-Focusing Junction Aiming High-Throughput Droplet Generation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mardani Boldaji, Fatemeh (Author) ; Taghipoor, Mojtaba (Supervisor) ; Hosseini, Vahid (Supervisor)
    Droplet microfluidic platform generates monodisperse droplets in a desired size through immiscible multiphase flows inside microchannels. Droplets are individual reactor and can be used for bio(chemical) analyses. Also, for materials fabrication, droplet microfluidics offers a versatile platform for generation of nano- or micro-sized particles and microcapsules that are widely used in drug delivery. In addition to the monodispersity, high-throughput generation is also necessary in many applications. Therefore, droplets must be formed in stable regimes (dripping and squeezing) in the highest possible frequency. In this study, the flow-focusing geometry, which is the most common geometry in... 

    Numerical Study of Spray Impingement to Solid Wall

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abbasi Chenari, Fatemeh (Author) ; Morad, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor) ; Jahannama, Mohammad Reza (Co-Supervisor)
    Spray-wall impingement is one of the phenomenon that associated in different subject such as spray cooling, combustion chamber and gas turbine. With the impingement of spray to the wall, liquid film begins to form. Wall film characteristics is still an important subject to study. Due to the various stages of liquid film formation from injection of spray till spray-wall impingement, the investigation of this phenomenon is far more complicated. This paper is meant to provide detailed data on spray-wall impingement and wall film formation physics with the help of computational analysis of OpenFOAM . A Lagrangian-Eulerian method based on discrete phase model (DPM) was employed to model... 

    Experimental and Numerical Study of The Production of Alginate Microgels and Cancer Spheroids by Droplet-Based Microfluidic

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rezaeian, Masoud (Author) ; Shamloo, Amir (Supervisor) ; Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak (Supervisor)
    Significant advances in biotechnology have led to the emergence of a cost-effective way with less ethical issues to study disease, organ functions, tumors, and their response to drugs besides studying on animals. Microfluidic devices and organ on a chip (tumor on a chip) were introduced to remove those obstacles. Organ on a chip is a powerful tool for studying different types of tissues and simulating diseases, especially cancers, for biological and medical applications. Organ (tumor) on a chip is considered as a smaller scale of the real organ or tumor and it causes to the real-time study of tissues and their functions more accurately. In this study, to fabricate a droplet-based... 

    Experimental Study on Primary Breakup Dynamics and Spray Characteristics of Rotary Atomizers

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Rezayat, Sajjad (Author) ; Farshchi, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    The liquid breakup analysis and spray characteristics measurement of atomizers are very essential for the numerical modeling of the primary atomization in combustion chambers. The rotary atomizers are used in many applications especially in small gas turbine engines as a fuel injection system. An experimental investigation of primary breakup dynamics and spray characteristics of rotary atomizers with high aspect ratio discharge channels are described. Four different rotary atomizers with round radial, round radial-axial, round radial tangential, and square radial discharge channels are studied. The purposes of this study are to identify the effect of channel orientation and its geometry on... 

    Experimental Study on Liquid Breakup Process in Slinger Injection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rezayat, Sajjad (Author) ; Farshchi, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In small turbojet engines, it is important to find a suitable fuel injector with good spray quality. However, the rotating fuel injection system can potentially provide high atomization quality without the high-pressure fuel pump through the centrifugal forces of the engine shaft. The spray characteristics of rotary atomization for small gas turbines can be investigated using a high-speed camera. To analyze the breakup process of the liquid column and liquid film, spray visualization tests should performed under varied test conditions.In this research, experimental study on liquid breakup process has performed in rotary atomizer of j402 turbojet engine with the name of slinger injector, to... 

    Experimental Study of Droplet Formation in Surfactant Solution

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Niknezhad, Mahdi (Author) ; Firoozabadi, Bahar (Supervisor) ; Afshin, Hossein (Co-Advisor)
    Surfactants are materials that reduces surface tension, and this property has provided a wide range of applications for them. Most of the surfactants reduce surface tensions at the interface of two fluids. The pharmaceutical and food industries, detergents, cosmetics, agricultural pesticides, dye production and oil extraction are among these applications.In this study, the formation of droplets in the presence of three types of surfactants SDS, CTAB and Tween 20 has been investigated. To evaluate the droplet behavior in the presence of specific surfactants, various parameters such as formation time of the droplet, the diameter and length of the droplet formed, the diameter and length of the... 

    Numerical Modelling and Experimental Validation of Nano Colloid Droplet Formation in the Electrohydrodynamic 3D Printer

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Mohammadi, Kaivan (Author) ; Movahhedy, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor) ; Khodaygan, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Co-Supervisor) ; Mofrad, Mohammad Reza (Co-Supervisor)
    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing technology is an Additive Manufacturing (AM) method that can be used in the manufacture of submicron-size structures. Due to the multiphysics dynamics and the multiphase nature of the microdroplet formation in the EHD printers, modeling of this phenomenon is complicated. In this thesis, the formation of a droplet in an EHD printer—under a pulsed electrical field—is simulated using a new numerical model which couples the fluid flow, the electric field distribution and the movement of the electric charges under dynamic and transient conditions. The level-set method is applied to the entire multiphysics domain in order to study the formation of the... 

    Modeling of the Wet Compression System in Transient Behavior of the Industrial Gas Turbine

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Keshavarz Mohammadian, Poorya (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Hassan (Supervisor)
    In general, the output power of the gas turbines decreases as the ambient temperature increases. One of the ways to deal with such a performance loss is to use a wet compression system, which reduces the air temperature rise throughout the compressor. In this system, the water droplets are injected into the compressor inlet and evaporated throughout the stages. As a result, the work of the compressor decreases, and the power and efficiency of the whole engine increase. Most of the researchers in this field have tried to develop mathematical models to investigate the effects of this system on compressor and gas turbine performance in steady-state conditions. However, it is necessary to... 

    Numerical Simulation of Forced Impregnation in a Thick Capillary Tube

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Safavi, Mohammad (Author) ; Mousavi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Drop penetration into the capillary tube, as a classical problem, has been studied over 100 years. But there are a few studies that investigate forced impregnation of capillary tubes, which has major application in coating, inkjet printing and rain drop penetration into the soil, have been made. A comprehensive numerical investigation on millimeter droplet impact dynamics on a thick capillary tube with micrometer sized pore is conducted and validated against experimental data. This work is extended to oblique impact of drops into pores and normal impact on nanoscaled pores. We apply the finite volume numerical method to solve the time-dependent governing equations of continuity, momentum in... 

    Numerical Modeling of Fuel Droplet Vaporization in Gas Phase at Supercritical Conditions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rajabi Matin, Zahra (Author) ; Hejranfar, Kazem (Supervisor)
    The study of evaporation of fuel droplet and determination of the rate of vaporization are important in designing combustion chambers. For achieving high performance of a combustor, the evaporation of fuel droplets takes place within a high pressure environment. At these conditions, the use of low-pressure models is not appropriate and many effects that are assumed negligible at low ambient pressures become very important. For example, the solubility of the ambient gas into the liquid phase is increased by increasing the ambient pressure. In addition, the ideal gas assumption is not valid for these conditions and one should use an appropriate equation of state (EOS) that can predict the... 

    CFD-Modeling and Simulation of Droplets Evaporation With a Size Distribution Function

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pirhadi, Zahra (Author) ; Farhadi, Fatollah (Supervisor)
    Injecting several droplets with a known size distribution function in the hot gas environment makes droplets smaller because of evaporation or reaction. Droplets lifetime specification is important in vapor-liquid interactive processes such as chemical or process industries. In previous works, different approximate semi-empirical methods are developed to specify droplets lifetime without considering their size distribution. In this work, governing equations is studiedconsidering a size distribution function for droplets. There is not any analytical method for solving this set of equations, so numerical methods using CFD packages such as Fluent, are applicable in these cases. In this study,... 

    Design and Fabrication of a Microfluidic Digital PCR

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Bahrami, Mohammad Amin (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Saeed (Supervisor) ; Firouzabadi, Bahar (Supervisor)
    Polymerase chain reaction, abbreviated as PCR, is a method of amplifying the number of copies of a desired DNA sequence through special protocols. The rapid advance of microfluidic devices and the emerging concept of digital microfluidics has resulted into the development of digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) systems with their significant uses in the detection of rare mutations, cancer diagnosis, and surveillance. In this study, an integrated ddPCR microfluidic chip alongside its thermoelectric thermal cycler and optical analysis systems have been designed, fabricated and their performance has been tested and evaluated. It was shown that the effect of master mold’s surface quality, the material of... 

    The Passive Design and Development of Digital Microfluidic Dynamic Memor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Aminizadeh, Javad (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor)
    Microfluidics with the ability to control Nano-to-Pico meter volumes have caused the revolution in the systems of analytical biology and chemistry. However, the most Lab-On-Chip technologies (LOCs) depend on external control elements, so a lab is required to operate a chip. Bubble or drop logic through the bubble (drop) can control the flow internally and intrinsically digitally without utilizing of off-chip or moving components. Non-linearity is applied by using mutual drop-drop' effects on reversible linear flow in low Reynolds. for the proper exploitation of microfluidic systems, It is necessary to control droplet generation systems in one chip appropriately. The most crucial part of the... 

    Design of a Microfluidic Digital Droplet PCR

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Abedini, Ali (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Saeed (Supervisor)
    Polymerase chain reaction, abbreviated as PCR, is a method of amplifying the number of copies of a desired DNA sequence through special protocols. The rapid advance of microfluidic devices and the emerging concept of digital microfluidics has resulted into the development of digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) systems with their significant uses in the detection of rare mutations, cancer diagnosis, and surveillance. A large number of micron-sized droplets are required to perform ddPCR. in this study, To investigate the gradient of confinements induced droplet self-breakup mechanism, we carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the two-phase flow using a commercial software... 

    Numerical and Experimental Study of the Effects of Surfactant on Droplet Motion and Deformation

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Salehi, Moloud Sadat (Author) ; Firoozabadi, Bahar (Supervisor) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Surface Active Agents/surfactant have a strong tendency to adsorb at the interface between two immiscible fluids, due to the existence of hydrophobic portions in their molecules’ structure. Accumulation of these molecules on the liquid interface changes the intermolecular forces and causes the interfacial tension to decrease. Production of drops of the same size at a specified rate and controlling their movement’s speed are among the most important factors effective in the efficiency of processes associated with liquid drops, which could profoundly be influenced by the presence of a small amount of a surface active agent. In this study, the effects of surface active agents on the growth,... 

    LBM Computational Simulation of Oscillations Caused by Formation and Detachment of Drops

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mardani, Ramin (Author) ; Taeibi Rahni, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Ebrahimi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    Formation and detachment of drops are of fundamental importance in studying two-phase flows, such as ink jet printing, emulsion, and spray. Drops are formed under the effects of surface tension forces. After formation, forces like gravity detach the drop from the rest of the fluid. The flow rate is varied from dripping to jetting regime. In this project, formation and detachment of drops were simulated, using LBM with phase field model, which can simulate flows with high-density ratios and is a robust method for applying wetting condition on the walls. Results were validated using single-phase and two-phase flows. After code validation, the oscillations caused by formation and detachment of... 

    Numerical Simulation of Non-Newtonian Droplet Formation under External Electric Field in a Microfluidic Device

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Amiri, Nasir (Author) ; Moosavi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak (Supervisor)
    Droplet formation and breakup processes are one of the important steps in many microfluidic devices with a wide range of biological and chemical applications. The purpose of this study is numerical simulation of non-Newtonian droplet formation under the influence of electric field in a microfluidic system. The innovation aspect of this project is the use of non-Newtonian fluid in this process, which, despite many applications in real issues, has been less studied, and in most of the previous researches, Newtonian fluid assumption has been used to simplify the solving. Also, simultaneously, the effects of an external electric field on this process were also studied. Carboxymethyl cellulose... 

    Numerical Simulation of Self-propelled Droplet over a Surface with Surface Tension Gradient

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zolfi, Hamid Reza (Author) ; Javadi, Khodayar (Supervisor)
    Ice accretion may cause malfunction or serious performance degradation in outdoor facilities and structures, such as aircraft, ship, locks and dams, offshore platforms, solar panels, wind turbines, power transmission towers and lines, and sports facilities, leading to huge economic loss or even loss of human lives. Icephobic materials, typically applied in the form of coatings, have received growing attention in the last decade. This work focuses on surfaces with a surface tension gradient which has icephobic properties. various surface tension gradients such as linear, exponential, cycloid and parabola have been imposed on a surface in order to achieve the shortest time for a droplet to...