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    Design and Development of Electrochemical DNA Nanobiosensors for Identification and Determination of Important Biomarkers

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Salimian, Razieh (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Kalhor, Hamid Reza (Co-Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The main purpose of this Ph.D. Thesis is to develop DNA-based biosensors using Label-free approaches applying simple, inexpensive and fast electrochemical techniques to measure the biological markers of cancer.In the first part, a simple protocol for detection of specific-sequence DNA is introduced. In this method carbon nanotube is used as a hybridization indicator. This label-free system provides the advantage of eliminating additional labeling procedure. As the signal enhances in the presence of MWCNT and decreases in the presence of target, the fabricated sensor is known as a signal-off device. The oxidation signal of Fe(CN)63-/4- is followed as an analytical signal to detect target... 

    Design, Construction and Application of Nanostructured Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Aptamers for Diagnosis Some of the Pathogenic Bacteria

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Ranjbar, Saba (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Since that pathogenic bacteria have a predominant role in different aspects of human life such as clinical analysis and spread of contagious disease, food quality control and monitoring of environmental microbial infections, the aim of these studies is design and construction of electrochemical and electro-optical biosensors based on nanomaterials employing specific aptamer and antibody for detection of different bacteria in various real samples. An impedimetric biosensor based on nanoporous gold (NPG) was presented in the first part of the thesis for detection of Salmonella typhimurium as one of the main food- borne pathogenic bacterium. Three-dimensional structure of NPG was synthesized... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrids 3D Graphene/gold Nanostructures for Supercapacitors and Electrochemical Biosensors

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Saeidi, Mohsen (Author) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Energy conversion and storage as well as life sciences are among the areas of our daily life. Interest in carbon nanomaterials for energy storage systems such as supercapacitors has enormously risen due to their attractive electrical conductivity, chemical inertness, and charge storage capacity. Producing these nanomaterials with a simple, scalable, and cost-effective method is the major problem for commercializing them. The reduction of graphitic oxide is a versatile procedure to prepare 3D graphene. Despite many green methods, the dynamics behind ultrafast thermal graphitization have remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate an effort to understand the graphitization mechanism of graphitic... 

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Saberi, Reyhanesadat (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the first part, preparation of different kinds of polypyrrole/carbon composites and their application for drug analysis are described. In the first work, A very sensitive electrochemical sensor constructed from a glassy carbon electrode modified with a layer-by-layer MWCNT/doped overoxidized polypyrrole (oppy/MWCNT /GCE) was used for the determination of acetaminophen (AC) in the presence of codeine and ascorbic acid (AA). In comparison to the bare glassy carbon electrode, a considerable shift in the peak potential together with an increase in the peak current was observed for AC on the surface of oppy/MWCNT/GCE, which can be related to the enlarged microscopic surface area of the... 

    Using Body Fluids for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jalali Dowlatshahi, Sayeh (Author) ; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Today, despite the notable progress in diagnostics and therapeutics, cancer remains the second cause of death worldwide. This rather high mortality rate is often attributed to cancers diagnosed at late stages, including prostate cancer. Among the techniques approved for prostate cancer diagnosis, total or free prostate-specific antigen screening using blood serum samples is the sole method able to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. This test has led to a significant decrease in prostate cancer-related deaths. Nonetheless, it possesses several drawbacks, such as the complex, costly, and time-consuming conventional methods utilized in clinical laboratories to assess the concentration of... 

    An Investigation on the Parameters Affecting Electrochemical Biosensors Performance to Detect Prostate Cancer

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Saghafi, Mohammad Javad (Author) ; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Early detection of prostate cancer using biosensors has been a subject of research for nearly two decades due to its critical importance. The timing of detection plays a crucial role in determining treatment success rates. However, a significant limitation of these studies has been the cost and limited sensitivity of the sensors. In this research, various treatments used in biosensors were compared and necessary parameters to develop a sensitive, low-cost sensor have been subject of optimization. For this reason, we used pencil graphite and graphite sheet electrodes, both of which have potential for low-cost production on a large scale. Additionally, we tested graphene oxide, amine-treated... 

    Investigating Electrochemical Behavior of Biosensor Based on Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Gholizadeh, Azam (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Iraji Zad, Azam (Co-Advisor) ; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin (Co-Advisor) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    In this research we focus on fabrication, characterization and performance of biosensors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes have been used as high density carbon nanotubes and nanoelectrode array. Carbon nanotubes have been grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Characterization and performance of biosensors have been studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods.
    The mediator-less glutamate biosensor is prepared based on covalently attached glutamate dehydrogenase on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. The biosensor has a low detection limit of 57 nM, two linear range of 0.1-20 µM with sensitivity of... 

    Measuring Concentration of Heavy Metals in Waste Water Using Biosensor

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Heydarian Dolatabadi, Ehsan (Author) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor) ; Kalantarian, Asadollah (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Wastewater, especially with heavy metal contamination, is a global environmental concern. Numerous techniques have been tested for online controlling and monitoring the concentration of heavy metal ions; yet, there are many challenges in performing these techniques. Biosensor is cheap, easily available, simple, fast, selective, sensitive, and repeatable so it is an excellent alternative for the detection and quantification of hazardous particles in the wastewater. In this study, a Nano biosensor with high detection of copper ions has been fabricated. PEDOT:PSS as a highly conductive polymer is coupled with gold nanoparticles to modify the surface of graphite electrode and results in higher... 

    ZnO nanoparticle/nanorod-based label-free electrochemical immunoassay for rapid detection of MMP-9 biomarker

    , Article Biochemical Engineering Journal ; Volume 164 , 2020 Shabani, E ; Abdekhodaie, M. J ; Mousavi, S. A ; Taghipour, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2020
    Abstract
    A label-free electrochemical biosensor was developed for the rapid detection of the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) biomarker on the basis of antibody immobilizing on the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle and ZnO nanorod electrodes. The charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the electrodes was used as the indicator for MMP-9 concentration, which was obtained through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The ZnO nanorod-based biosensor exhibited linear behavior in the MMP-9 concentration range of 1–1000 ng/ml, which is a wider range than the available concentration ranges for most of the conventional methods. The biosensor sensitivity was 32.5 μA/(decade × cm2)... 

    Toward single-DNA electrochemical biosensing by graphene nanowalls

    , Article ACS Nano ; Volume 6, Issue 4 , March , 2012 , Pages 2904-2916 ; 19360851 (ISSN) Akhavan, O ; Ghaderi, E ; Rahighi, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    2012
    Abstract
    Graphene oxide nanowalls with extremely sharp edges and preferred vertical orientation were deposited on a graphite electrode by using electrophoretic deposition in an Mg 2+-GO electrolyte. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), reduced graphene nanowalls (RGNWs) were applied for the first time, in developing an ultra-high-resolution electrochemical biosensor for detection of the four bases of DNA (G, A, T, and C) by monitoring the oxidation signals of the individual nucleotide bases. The extremely enhanced electrochemical reactivity of the four free bases of DNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at the surface of the RGNW electrode was compared to electrochemical... 

    Synthesis, first-principle simulation, and application of three-dimensional ceria nanoparticles/graphene nanocomposite for non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection

    , Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society ; Volume 166, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages H3167-H3174 ; 00134651 (ISSN) Rezvani, E ; Hatamie, A ; Berahman, M ; Simchi, M ; Angizi, S ; Rahmati, R ; Kennedy, J ; Simchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Electrochemical Society Inc  2019
    Abstract
    Owing to the exceptional properties of graphene and the crucial role of substrate on the performance of electrochemical biosensors, several graphene-based hybrid structures have recently emerged, yielding improved selectivity and sensitivity. To date, most of the reported biosensors utilize solution-driven graphene flakes with drawbacks of low conductivity (due to high inter-junction contact resistant) and structural fragility. Herein, we present a conductive three-dimensional CeO2 semiconductor nanoparticles/graphene nanocomposite, as a platform for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide, an important molecule in fundamental biological processes. The 3D conductive graphene architecture is... 

    Synthesis, first-principle simulation, and application of three-dimensional ceria nanoparticles/graphene nanocomposite for non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection

    , Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society ; Volume 166, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages H3167-H3174 ; 00134651 (ISSN) Rezvani, E ; Hatamie, A ; Berahman, M ; Simchi, M ; Angizi, S ; Rahmati, R ; Kennedy, J ; Simchi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Electrochemical Society Inc  2019
    Abstract
    Owing to the exceptional properties of graphene and the crucial role of substrate on the performance of electrochemical biosensors, several graphene-based hybrid structures have recently emerged, yielding improved selectivity and sensitivity. To date, most of the reported biosensors utilize solution-driven graphene flakes with drawbacks of low conductivity (due to high inter-junction contact resistant) and structural fragility. Herein, we present a conductive three-dimensional CeO2 semiconductor nanoparticles/graphene nanocomposite, as a platform for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide, an important molecule in fundamental biological processes. The 3D conductive graphene architecture is... 

    Mining the potential of label-free biosensors for in vitro antipsychotic drug screening

    , Article Biosensors ; Volume 8, Issue 1 , 2018 ; 20796374 (ISSN) Kilic, T ; Soler, M ; Fahimi Kashani, N ; Altug, H ; Carrara, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    MDPI AG  2018
    Abstract
    The pharmaceutical industry is facing enormous challenges due to high drug attribution rates. For the past decades, novel methods have been developed for safety and efficacy testing, as well as for improving early development stages. In vitro screening methods for drug-receptor binding are considered to be good alternatives for decreasing costs in the identification of drug candidates. However, these methods require lengthy and troublesome labeling steps. Biosensors hold great promise due to the fact that label-free detection schemes can be designed in an easy and low-cost manner. In this paper, for the first time in the literature, we aimed to compare the potential of label-free optical and... 

    Fabrication of a modified electrode based on Fe3 O4 NPs/MWCNT nanocomposite: Application to simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine in DNA

    , Article Bioelectrochemistry ; Volume 86 , 2012 , Pages 78-86 ; 15675394 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Rastgar, S ; Amini, M. K ; Adeli, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles (Fe 3O 4NPs/MWCNT) were prepared and used to construct a novel biosensor for the simultaneous detection of adenine and guanine. The direct electro-oxidation of adenine and guanine on the modified electrode were investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. The results indicate a remarkable increase in the oxidation peak currents together with negative shift in the oxidation peak potentials for both adenine and guanine, in comparison to the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The surface morphology and nature of the composite film deposited on GCE were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy,... 

    Enhanced electrochemical activity of a hollow carbon sphere/polyaniline-based electrochemical biosensor for HBV DNA marker detection

    , Article ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering ; Volume 5, Issue 5 , 2019 , Pages 2587-2594 ; 23739878 (ISSN) Salimian, R ; Shahrokhian, S ; Panahi, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    Herein, we present a novel, simple, and ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor based on hollow carbon spheres (HCS) decorated with polyaniline (PANI). A thiolated 21-mer oligonucleotide, characteristic of HBV DNA, is immobilized via electrodeposited gold nanoparticles on HCS-PANI. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy is employed to investigate the morphological texture of the fabricated modifier. An enhanced intrinsic signal of PANI is probed to evaluate the biosensing ability of the prepared... 

    Development of a sensitive diagnostic device based on zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 using ferrocene-graphene oxide as electroactive indicator for pseudomonas aeruginosa detection

    , Article ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering ; Volume 7, Issue 15 , 2019 , Pages 12760-12769 ; 21680485 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Ranjbar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    Since Gram-negative bacteria have a predominant role in nosocomial infections, there are high demands to develop a fast and sensitive method for diagnosis of bacteria in clinical samples. To address this challenge, we designed a novel electrochemical biosensor based on aptamers immobilized in engineered zeolitic imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIFs-8) via EDC-NHS chemistry. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were conducted to monitor the electrochemical characterization. With respect to unique π-πinteractions between aptamer and graphene oxide (GO), the differential pulse voltammetry technique was applied with ferrocene-graphene oxide (Fc-GO) as an... 

    A 3D-printed hybrid nasal cartilage with functional electronic olfaction

    , Article Advanced Science ; Volume 7, Issue 5 , 2020 Jodat, Y. A ; Kiaee, K ; Vela Jarquin, D ; De la Garza Hernández, R. L ; Wang, T ; Joshi, S ; Rezaei, Z ; de Melo, B. A. G ; Ge, D ; Mannoor, M. S ; Shin, S. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    John Wiley and Sons Inc  2020
    Abstract
    Advances in biomanufacturing techniques have opened the doors to recapitulate human sensory organs such as the nose and ear in vitro with adequate levels of functionality. Such advancements have enabled simultaneous targeting of two challenges in engineered sensory organs, especially the nose: i) mechanically robust reconstruction of the nasal cartilage with high precision and ii) replication of the nose functionality: odor perception. Hybrid nasal organs can be equipped with remarkable capabilities such as augmented olfactory perception. Herein, a proof-of-concept for an odor-perceptive nose-like hybrid, which is composed of a mechanically robust cartilage-like construct and a biocompatible...