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    Essays on Environmental Economics

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Amanzadeh, Naser (Author) ; Fatemi Ardestani, Farshad (Supervisor) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The relationship between the environment and human life has long been considered by researchers. Technological growth in the last century, by the intensification of natural resources usage, led to environmental degradation, and thus the importance of recognizing the relationship between human life and the environment has doubled. The present dissertation is organized in three chapters, in each of which we investigate the impacts of a dimension of environmental degradation on human well-being.In the first chapter, we investigate the effect of drought on expenditure and income per capita of Iranian households. To do this, we combine the expenditure and income data of more than 600,000 urban... 

    A Micro-found Model of Monetary Policy Making in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Lashkaripour, Ahmad (Author) ; Nili, Farhad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This thesis analyzes the behavior of inflation in the Iranian economy by introducing a micro-founded model of monetary policy. The model predicts a direct relationship between inflation and oil export revenues in the oil dependent economy of Iran. This theory driven claim is verified empirically, and test results tend to confirm a meaningful relationship between inflation and Oil export data in Iran. Based on results attained from the micro-founded model, an augmented SVAR model is proposed for estimating underlying inflation in the Iranian economy. The proposed model is found to render better results than the conventional models used for estimating underlying inflation. Moreover it is... 

    Demand Estimation of Natural Gas

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seyedi, Salar (Author) ; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein (Supervisor) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The provision of developmental infrastructure by governments and their various effects on the lives of citizens has always been the subject of discussion among researchers and policymakers. In particular, the infrastructure associated with access to modern energies causes changes in household economic behavior. The effects of pipeline gas connection on household behavior is the main subject of this research. By using micro level data, these effects compare the behavior of beneficiary households and lack of natural gas. The data includes households living in the entire geographical zone of Iran and between 1377 and 1394. First, we show that natural gas is a direct substitute for liquid fuels... 

    Planning Latency-Aware Multilayer IP-over-Elastic Optical Networks Supporting Various Survivability Mechanisms

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Etezadi, Ehsan (Author) ; Salehi, Javad (Supervisor) ; Beyranvand, Hamzeh (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The growth of traffic in metro and core networks is not deniable today, in addition to the volume of traffic, their different requirement force operators to dimension IP over optical network for the peak traffics and also cares about requirements of the traffics. this multi-policy enabled network using new extended technology such as Elastic Optical Network and Bandwidth variable transponders is used to design network with minimum cost and resource. There is different quality of service parameter, in this work we focus on end to end latency and survivability. we present ILP formulation for the IP over elastic optical network and introduce these parameters to this formulation, as we know... 

    A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding the Dynamics of the Increase of Health Expenditures Share of GDP in Germany

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ebrahimi, Kasra (Author) ; Mashayekhi, Alinaghi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The main question of this research is this: what mechanisms drive the increase of the share of health costs in GDP in Germany? Answering this question not only improves our understanding about health systems in general, but also is specifically useful for the health system of Iran, since it is experiencing similar trends as the health system of Germany does. Since these mechanisms are complex and the ability of human brain to process several interacting variables simultaneously is low, we need a strong methodology and a tool to overcome this limitation. System thinking as a methodology and system dynamics as its tool help us do so. Using system dynamics, we will develop a computer model... 

    Temperature-aware Power Dissipation Analysis in Hyperscale Data Centers

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Rezaei Mayahi Nejad, Mehdi (Author) ; Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Hyperscale cloud data center (HCDC) (a.k.a., hyperscale data center) is the backbone of a wide variety of Internet services such as web-hosting, ecommerce, social networking, software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), application as a service (AaaS), and cloud computing.HCDC platforms consist of massive parallel processing, high utilization rate, and high volume storage that cost hundreds of million dollars.The increased demand for various Internet services and the subsequent dramatic growth in HCDC platforms, have caused an exponential increase in utilization of energy. With energy costs on the rise and global attention focused on carbon footprints, organizations are... 

    Intergenerational Social Mobility In Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Nazari Amnie, Mojtaba (Author) ; Keshavarz Haddad, Gholamreza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    This research studies intergenerational social mobility in Iran using the data from Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) from 1377 to 1399. In the absence of long-term panel data or intergenerational cross-sectional data in which there are some variables connecting people to their parents, the method used here to measure welfare mobility -as a suitable proxy of social mobility- is the synthetic panel method. To use this method, it is assumed that the samples are similar in the two selected stages and they can be related to each other with fixed characteristics such as age and gender. The output of the method is an intergenerational transition matrix that shows the probability of a... 

    Impact of Inflation on Household’s Saving within the Framework of Expenditure System

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mohsenirad, Saman (Author) ; Nili, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this thesis the impact of inflation on urban household saving is investigated. For calculating sensitivity of saving respect to price changing of different groups of commodities, firstly we divided household cost to two separated groups of durable and nondurable and then by defining total income as summation of monetary and nonmonetary income of households, We consider saving as total income minuses nondurable consumption. Finally we estimated the “Extended Linear Expenditure System” model base on the prepared data. Since inflation is result of unequal changes in prices of goods and services, the approach of expenditure system allows us to assess unequal changes in prices for eight... 

    Improving Architecture of Elastic Optical Networks

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Azmoodeh, Amir Reza (Author) ; Pakravan, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Optical telecommunications, and especially optical fiber-based telecommunications, have been one of the most important leading factors in advancing information technology. This age seems to have an insatiable appetite for information in a way that every two years we see a two-fold increase in the traffic of optical networks.The focus of this thesis is in the area of backbone optical networks. We know that companies operating in this field spend a huge amount of money to set up and maintain optical networks. One aspect of reducing costs in optical networks is the use of grooming to reduce the cost of using network equipment.Different heuristic algorithms for optimization are proposed for this... 

    An Investigation on the Size and the Welfare of Different Income Groups During 1376-1399 and an Estimation of the Mobility of the Iranian Urban Low-Income Households

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghaderi, Alireza (Author) ; Nili, Masoud (Supervisor) ; Mohaghegh, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this study, based on Households Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) data, we examined the socio-economic characteristics and transition of Iranian urban households in each of the three different income groups from 1997 to 2020. Moreover, factors affecting entry to poverty or persistence in poverty in Iranian urban households are discussed.The results of this study show that, contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence of accumulation of entrepreneurs and business owners in the urban middle class. Rather, middle-income households have higher-skilled jobs and pay more for social security than low-income ones, as well as pay more attention to investing in human capitals (education and... 

    Evaluation of Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Educational Expenditure in the Iranian’s Household

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Gharakhanlo, Mahtab (Author) ; Fatemi Ardestani, Farshad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the past few decades a range of human capital theories were developed by economists. In all these, education and training are considered as a prominent aspect of the human capital. Among all influential factors on the education, the role of the family in the allocation of educational expenditure is one of the most important factors. In this research, we investigate whether in gendr discrimination among sibiling is observed in Iranian households. Based on household budget data, we estimate the Engel curve in order to investigate the gender discrimination in the allocation of educational expenditure. Families divided into 6 clusters based on the composition of their children and the tests... 

    An Estimation of The Amount of Rent in The Economy of Iran (As an Oil Economy)

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kaviani, Zahra (Author) ; Nili, Massoud (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The main objective of this research is to provide an estimation of the amount of rent in Iran as an oil economy. First by reviewing recent studies, the concept of rent was extracted and the rent measuring indexes were assessed. Having considered the four categories of rent in Iran, budgetary rent, interest rent, import rent and energy rent, the amount of rent in Iran’s economy during (1369:1-1386:4) was estimated. Results show a considerable increase of rent during (1369:1-1372:4) & (1384:1-1386:4). In the next section of this study the long run and short run relationship between rent and some of the macro economic variables was estimated.In this section the co-movement of rent trend with... 

    Estimation of Self-Employed Households’ Average Income Under-reporting in Iran

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fayaz Farkhad, Bita (Author) ; Barakchian, S.Mahdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this thesis, we quantify the extent to which the self-employed systematically under-report their income in Iran households survey by using expenditure based method. The method applied is an improvement of Pissarides and Weber (1989) method which is based on the Engel curve, describing the relationship between incomes and expenditures. In this method, we can estimate the exact amount of average underreporting instead of offering estimation interval.The relationship between incomes and expenditures of wage and salary workers is used to infer the actual income, and thus the reporting gap, of the self-employed based on their reported expenditures. We find that the self-employed underreport... 

    Political Economy of White Elephants in Oil Exporting Countries

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Raeesi, Navid (Author) ; Nili, Masoud (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The procyclical behavior of public investment expenditure in OECs is one of the main channels through which the blessing of the natural resource abundance turns into a curse. The focal issue about the public investment expenditures in OECs is the misallocation and the inefficiency of these expenditures which often appear in the form of white elephants- i.e. government investment projects with large scale and high social/political prestige for the politicians implementing theme, but with negative economic return- especially in the oil booms. Moreover, the imprical evidence shows that the efficiency of public investment management in OECs is positively and significantly correlated with the... 

    Effect of Household Economic Condition on Mps Reelection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mollanoori Shamsi, Mohammad (Author) ; Vesal, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Does the household attribute changes to its economic conditions during the term of the MPs, and chooses to vote with regard to these conditions, including income and employment status, or who decides, regardless of economic characteristics, in this regard Takes? In this study, using micro data of the household income and expenditure survey and building a sample household for each district, we compute economic characteristics for each election district including total income, total cost, employment rate, employment in the government sector, and unemployment rate. . Election data includes the name, vote and status of the candidates for the ninth and tenth Islamic Consultative Assembly... 

    What is energy efficiency and emission reduction potential in the Iranian petrochemical industry?

    , Article International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control ; Volume 12 , 2013 , Pages 460-471 ; 17505836 (ISSN) Mohammadi, A ; Soltanieh, M ; Abbaspour, M ; Atabi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    In this study, the prospects of energy efficiency potential, clean development mechanism (CDM) and carbon income up to and beyond 2012 are investigated in the petrochemical industries of Iran as a major oil-producing country. This paper is to address four questions of: (1) the GHGs emission in Iranian petrochemical complexes, (2) the most energy-consuming processes, (3) units with the highest energy efficiency potentials and (4) potentials of CDM or similar carbon projects based on post-2012 scenarios. The petrochemical processes are investigated in two categories of non-polymeric and polymeric productions. Based on capital expenditure, economic saving, simple payback period, CO2 equivalent... 

    The influence of public R&D and knowledge spillovers on the development of renewable energy sources: The case of the Nordic countries

    , Article Technological Forecasting and Social Change ; Volume 146 , 2019 , Pages 450-463 ; 00401625 (ISSN) Miremadi, I ; Saboohi, Y ; Arasti, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Inc  2019
    Abstract
    Energy innovation is a key requirement to limit global warming and tackle climate change in the years to come. A better understanding of the public R&D mechanism is likely to improve allocation of resources for energy innovation. Thus, the present paper evaluates the impacts of public R&D and knowledge spillovers on the development of renewable energy sources. To achieve this goal, knowledge flow has been modeled as a function of public R&D expenditures, cumulative knowledge stocks and knowledge spillovers. To show the application of the model, the Nordic countries as one of the pioneers in renewable technologies have been chosen. Results show the cumulative knowledge stock will increase to... 

    Studying the effect of kinematical pattern on the mechanical performance of paraplegic gait with reciprocating orthosis

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine ; Volume 226, Issue 8 , 2012 , Pages 600-611 ; 09544119 (ISSN) Nakhaee, K ; Farahmand, F ; Salarieh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    SAGE  2012
    Abstract
    Paraplegic users of mechanical walking orthoses, e.g. advanced reciprocating gait orthosis (ARGO), often face high energy expenditure and extreme upper body loading during locomotion. We studied the effect of kinematical pattern on the mechanical performance of paraplegic locomotion, in search for an improved gait pattern that leads to lower muscular efforts. A three-dimensional, four segment, six-degrees-of-freedom skeletal model of the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis-assisted paraplegic locomotion was developed based on the data acquired from an experimental study on a single subject. The effect of muscles was represented by ideal joint torque generators. A response surface analysis... 

    Planning for investment in energy innovation: Developing an analytical tool to explore the impact of knowledge flow

    , Article International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy ; Volume 8, Issue 2 , 2018 , Pages 7-19 ; 21464553 (ISSN) Miremadi, I ; Saboohi, Y ; Sharif University of Technology
    Econjournals  2018
    Abstract
    The major objective of this study is to provide an analytical tool to identify the role of investment on innovation in the process of new technologies development. To achieve this goal, a model of knowledge flow is developed and the effects of national and international knowledge spillovers are investigated. Results show that when knowledge spillovers are modelled in the Nordic countries, the required investment on domestic energy R&D decreases and the cumulative knowledge increases to 10.7 billion USD by 2030. This is a significant economic potential for technological innovation which can be considered for both energy researchers and energy planners. Finally, some important policy insights... 

    Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995–2050

    , Article The Lancet ; Volume 393, Issue 10187 , 2019 , Pages 2233-2260 ; 01406736 (ISSN) Chang, A.Y ; Cowling, K ; Micah, A. E ; Chapin, A ; Chen, C. S ; Ikilezi, G ; Sadat, N ; Tsakalos, G ; Wu, J ; Younker, T ; Zhao, Y ; Zlavog, B. S ; Abbafati, C ; Ahmed, A. E ; Alam, K ; Alipour, V ; Aljunid, S. M ; Almalki, M. J ; Alvis Guzman, N ; Ammar, W ; Andrei, C. L ; Anjomshoa, M ; Antonio, C. A. T ; Arabloo, J ; Aremu, O ; Ausloos, M ; Avila Burgos, L ; Awasthi, A ; Ayanore, M. A ; Azari, S ; Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha ; Bagherzadeh, M ; Bärnighausen, T. W ; Baune, B. T ; Bayati, M ; Belay, Y. B ; Belay, Y. A ; Belete, H ; Berbada, D. A ; Berman, A. E ; Beuran, M ; Bijani, A ; Busse, R ; Cahuana Hurtado, L ; Cámera, L. A ; Catalá López, F ; Chauhan, B.G ; Constantin, M. M ; Crowe, C. S ; Cucu, A ; Dalal, K ; De Neve, J. W ; Deiparine, S ; Demeke, F. M ; Do, H. P ; Dubey, M ; El Tantawi, M ; Eskandarieh, S ; Esmaeili, R ; Fakhar, M ; Fazaeli, A. A ; Fischer, F ; Foigt, N. A ; Fukumoto, T ; Fullman, N ; Galan, A ; Gamkrelidze, A ; Gezae, K. E ; Ghajar, A ; Ghashghaee, A ; Goginashvili, K ; Haakenstad, A ; Bidgoli, H. H ; Hamidi, S ; Harb, H. L ; Hasanpoor, E ; Hassen, H. Y ; Hay, S. I ; Hendrie, D ; Henok, A ; Heredia-Pi, I ; Herteliu, C ; Hoang, C. L ; Hole, M. K ; Rad, E. H ; Hossain, N ; Hosseinzadeh, M ; Hostiuc, S ; Ilesanmi, O. S ; Irvani, S. S. N ; Jakovljevic, M ; Jalali, A ; James, S. L ; Jonas, J. B ; Jürisson, M ; Kadel, R ; Matin, B. K ; Kasaeian, A ; Kasaye, H. K ; Kassaw, M. W ; Karyani, A. K ; Khabiri, R ; Khan, J ; Khan, M. N ; Khang, Y. H ; Kisa, A ; Kissimova Skarbek, Katarzyna ; Kohler, S ; Koyanagi, A ; Krohn, K. J ; Leung, R ; Lim, L. L ; Lorkowski, S ; Majeed, A ; Malekzadeh, R ; Mansourian, M ; Mantovani, L. G ; Massenburg, B. B ; Mckee, M ; Mehta, V ; Meretoja, A ; Meretoja, T. J ; Kostova, N. M ; Miller, T. R ; Mirrakhimov, E. M ; Mohajer, B ; Darwesh, A. M ; Mohammed, S ; Mohebi, F ; Mokdad, A. H ; Morrison, S. D ; Mousavi, S. M ; Muthupandian, S ; Nagarajan, A. J ; Nangia, V ; Negoi, I ; Nguyen, C. T ; Nguyen, H. K. T ; Nguyen, S. H ; Nosratnejad, S ; Oladimeji, O ; Olgiati, S ; Olusanya, J. O ; Onwujekwe, O. E ; Otstavnov, S. S ; Pana, A ; Pereira, D. M ; Piroozi, B ; Prada, S.I ; Qorbani, M ; Rabiee, M ; Rabiee, N ; Rafiei, A ; Rahim, F ; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa ; Ram, U ; Ranabhat, C. L ; Ranta, A ; Rawaf, D. L ; Rawaf, S ; Rezaei, S ; Roro, E. M ; Rostami, A ; Rubino, S ; Salahshoor, M ; Samy, A. M ; Sanabria, J ; Santos, J. V ; Milicevic, M. M. S ; Sao Jose, B. P ; Savic, M ; Schwendicke, F ; Sepanlou, S. G ; Sepehrimanesh, M ; Sheikh, A ; Shrime, M. G ; Sisay, S ; Soltani, S ; Soofi, M ; Srinivasan, V ; Tabarés Seisdedos, R ; Torre, A ; Tovani-Palone, M. R ; Tran, B. X ; Undurraga, E. A ; Valdez, P. R ; Van Boven, J. F. M ; Vargas, V ; Veisani, Y ; Violante, F. S ; Vladimirov, S. K ; Vlassov, V ; Vollmer, S ; Vu, G. T ; Wolfe, C. D. A ; Yonemoto, N ; Younis, M. Z ; Yousefifard, M ; Zaman, S. B ; Zangeneh, A ; Zegeye, E. A ; Ziapour, A ; Chew, A ; Murray, C. J. L ; Dieleman, J. L ; Sharif University of Technology
    Lancet Publishing Group  2019
    Abstract
    Background: Comprehensive and comparable estimates of health spending in each country are a key input for health policy and planning, and are necessary to support the achievement of national and international health goals. Previous studies have tracked past and projected future health spending until 2040 and shown that, with economic development, countries tend to spend more on health per capita, with a decreasing share of spending from development assistance and out-of-pocket sources. We aimed to characterise the past, present, and predicted future of global health spending, with an emphasis on equity in spending across countries. Methods: We estimated domestic health spending for 195...