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    Application of coupled lattice boltzmann and Phase-field methods for multiphase flow simulations

    , Article ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conf. Collocated with the ASME 2013 7th Int. Conf. on Energy Sustainability and the ASME 2013 11th Int. Conf. on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, HT 2013 ; 2013 ; ISBN: 9780791855492 Premnath, K. N ; Patil, D. V ; Banerjee, S ; Sharif University Of Technology
    Coupling of lattice Boltzmann (LB) and phase-field (PF) methods is discussed for simulation of a range of multiphase flow problems. The local relaxation and shifting operators make the LB method an attractive candidate for the simulation of the single-phase as well as multiphase flows. For simulating interface dynamics, LB methods require to be coupled with an appropriate scheme representing interfacial dynamics. To this end, we have used a model based on the order parameter, which could be either an index function or a phase-field variable, and coupled it with a LB solver for the simulation of various classes of complex multi-physics and multiphase flows. The LB method is used to compute... 

    Modeling and estimation of unmeasured variables in a wastegate operated turbocharger

    , Article Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power ; Vol. 136, Issue. 5 , 2014 ; ISSN: 07424795 Salehi, R ; Vossoughi, G ; Alasty, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Estimation of relevant turbocharger variables is crucial for proper operation and monitoring of turbocharged (TC) engines, which are important in improving fuel economy of vehicles. This paper presents mean-value models developed for estimating gas flow over the turbine and the wastegate (WG), the wastegate position, and the compressor speed in a TC gasoline engine. The turbine is modeled by an isentropic nozzle with a constant area and an effective pressure ratio calculated from the turbine upstream and downstream pressures. Another physically sensible model is developed for estimating either the WG flow or position. Provided the WG position is available, the WG flow is estimated using the... 

    Application of sol-gel technique to synthesis of copper-cobalt spinel on the ferritic stainless steel used for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    , Article Journal of Power Sources ; Vol. 266, issue , 2014 , pp. 79-87 ; ISSN: 03787753 Paknahad, P ; Askari, M ; Ghorbanzadeh, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    The conductive CuCo2O4 spinel coating is applied on the surface of the AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel by the dip-coating sol-gel process and it is evaluated in terms of the microstructure, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity. The results show that the CuCO2O 4 coating forms a double-layer scale consisting of a Cr, Fe-rich subscale and Cu-Co spinel top layer after 500 h in air at 800 °C. This scale is protective, acts as an effective barrier against Cr migration into the outer oxide layer and alleviates the cathode Cr-poisoning. The oxidation resistance is significantly enhanced by the protective coating with a parabolic rate constant of 5.8 × 10-13 gr2 cm-4 s -1, meanwhile... 

    Geometrical optimization of parallel infinitely variable transmission to decrease vehicle fuel consumption

    , Article Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines ; Vol. 42, Issue. 4 , 2014 , Pages 483-501 ; ISSN: 15397734 Delkhosh, M ; Foumani, M. S ; Boroushaki, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    One solution to reduce fuel consumption (FC) of vehicles is to use infinitely variable transmission (IVT) as the power train. However, inappropriate design of IVT leads to an inadequate decrease in the vehicle FC. Therefore, in order to reach a maximum fuel economy, an optimization on the power train proves to be necessary. The present article aims to optimize IVT to decrease the vehicle FC in a driving cycle. The results have revealed that the FC of the vehicle equipped with the optimized IVT is approximately 7% and 4.7% compared to the cases of using the optimized six-speed and nine-speed manual transmissions, respectively  

    Analyses of mass and heat transport interactions in a direct methanol fuel cell

    , Article International Journal of Hydrogen Energy ; Vol. 39, issue. 21 , July , 2014 , p. 11224-11240 ; ISSN: 03603199 Kalantari, H ; Baghalha, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this paper, a two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model is presented to predict the electrochemical, mass transfer and heat transfer behaviors in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Governing equations including the momentum, continuity, heat transfer, proton and electron transport, species transport for water, methanol, and all the gas species (carbon dioxide, methanol vapor, water vapor, oxygen, and nitrogen) and the auxiliary equations are coupled to studying the various phenomena in DMFC. The modeling results agree well with the four different experimental data in an extensive range of operation conditions. A parametric study is also performed to examine the effects of the cell... 

    Double-layer dye-sensitized solar cells based on Zn-doped TiO2 transparent and light scattering layers: Improving electron injection and light scattering effect

    , Article Solar Energy ; Vol. 103 , May , 2014 , pp. 210-222 ; ISSN: 0038092X Ghanbari Niaki, A. H ; Bakhshayesh, A. M ; Mohammadi, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    A new strategy for enhancing the efficiency of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by design of a new double-layer film doped with Zn ions, with various morphologies and phase compositions, is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that Zn2+ (in the range 0.25-0.1 at.%) was successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice without forming secondary phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analyses showed that the synthesized nanoparticles had nanometer grains with different phase compositions and average crystallite sizes in the range of 8-48 nm, depending upon Zn atomic percentage. UV-vis absorption verified that Zn... 

    Dme direct synthesis from syngas in a large-scale three-phase slurry bubble column reactor: transient modeling

    , Article Chemical Engineering Communications ; Vol. 201, issue. 5 , Nov , 2014 , pp. 612-634 ; ISSN: 00986445 Papari, S ; Kazemeini, M ; Fattahi, M ; Fatahi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this research, a new transient mathematical model based upon tanks-in-series configuration was developed to simulate the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas in a commercial-scale slurry bubble column reactor. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data showed that the applied model might acceptably describe the behavior of the slurry reactor. Furthermore, simulation results in the heterogeneous bubble flow regime indicated that the proposed model with 10 tanks-in-series provided the optimum condition. Utilizing this transient model and considering catalyst deactivation, the effect of operating conditions on DME productivity and CO conversion were... 

    Chemometrics-assisted effect-directed analysis of crude and refined oil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    , Article Environmental Science and Technology ; Vol. 48, issue. 5 , 2014 , pp. 3074-3083 ; ISSN: 0013936X Radovic, J. R ; Thomas, K. V ; Parastar, H ; Diez, S ; Tauler, R ; Bayona, J. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    An effect-directed analysis (EDA) of fresh and artificially weathered (evaporated, photooxidized) samples of North Sea crude oil and residual heavy fuel oil is presented. Aliphatic, aromatic, and polar oil fractions were tested for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, demonstrating for the first time the AR antagonist effects in the aromatic and, to a lesser extent, polar fractions. An extension of the typical EDA strategy to include an N-way partial least-squares (N-PLS) model capable of relating the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) data set to the bioassay data... 

    Optimization of biodiesel production by alkali-catalyzed transesterification of used frying oil

    , Article Process Safety and Environmental Protection ; Vol. 92, issue. 2 , 2014 , pp. 179-185 ; ISSN: 09575820 Atapour, M ; Kariminia, H. R ; Moslehabadi, P. M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Biodiesel as an alternative fuel for fossil diesel has many benefits such as reducing regulated air pollutants emissions, reducing greenhouse gases emissions, being renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic. In this study, used frying oil was applied as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The design of experiments was performed using a double 5-level-4-factor central composite design coupled with response surface methodology in order to study the effect of factors on the yield of biodiesel and optimizing the reaction conditions. The factors studied were: reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction time... 

    Light harvesting and photocurrent generation by nanostructured photoelectrodes sensitized with a photosynthetic pigment: A new application for microalgae

    , Article Bioresource Technology ; Volume 163 , July , 2014 , Pages 1-5 ; ISSN: 09608524 Mohammadpour, R ; Janfaza, S ; Abbaspour Aghdam, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Here in this study, successful conversion of visible light into electricity has been achieved through utilizing microalgal pigments as a sensitizer of nanostructured photo-electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For the first time, photosynthetic pigments extracted from microalgae grown in wastewater is employed to imitate photosynthesis process in bio-molecule-sensitized solar cells. Two designs of photoanode were employed: 10μm nanoparticular TiO2 electrode and 20μm long self-ordered, vertically oriented nanotube arrays of titanium dioxide films. Microalgal photosynthetic pigments are loaded on nanostructured electrodes and their photovoltaic performances have been investigated.... 

    Performance of a standalone wind-hydrogen power system for regions with seasonal wind profile: A case study in Khaf region

    , Article Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments ; Vol. 7 , September , 2014 , pp. 265-278 ; ISSN: 22131388 Ahmadi, S ; Rezaei Mirghaed, M ; Roshandel, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    The present study was aimed at performance and energy analysis of a hybrid wind-hydrogen power system. Such system consists of wind turbines, batteries for the short time energy storage, electrolyzer, fuel cell and hydrogen tank for long time energy storage. The proposed configuration is used to supply energy demand of a region with discrete seasonal wind speed regime. Temporary wind energy profiles restrict using batteries for electricity storage as they lose much electrical stored energy for the long time. Based on direct wind turbine usage, batteries and hydrogen storage, different energy supply strategies are introduced and analyzed to power the household electricity demand. The energy... 

    Numerical study on water distribution in different layers of direct methanol fuel cells

    , Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society ; Vol. 161, issue. 8 , 2014 , pp. E3110-E3124 ; ISSN: 00134651 Kalantari, H ; Baghalha, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    In this paper, a two-dimensional, two-phase, isothermal model is presented to investigate the water transport characteristic and water distribution in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) with emphasis on exploring the water distribution in different layers of DMFC. The liquid-gas two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode is formulated based on multi-fluid model in porous media and water and methanol crossover through the membrane are considered with the effect of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The modeling results agree well with the three different experimental data in an extensive range of operation conditions. A parametric study is also performed to examine... 

    Effects of microhydrophobic porous layer on water distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    , Article Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology ; Vol. 11, Issue. 1 , 2014 ; ISSN: 1550-624X Ahmadi, F ; Roshandel, R ; Sharif University of Technology
    Performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) at high current densities is limited to transport reactants and products. Furthermore, large amounts of water are generated and may be condensed due to the low temperature of the PEMFC. Development of a two-phase flow model is necessary in order to predict water flooding and its effects on the PEMFC performance. In this paper, a multiphase mixture model (M2) is used, accurately, to model two-phase transport in porous media of a PEMFC. The cathode side, which includes channel, gas diffusion layer (GDL), microporous layer (MPL), and catalyst layer (CL), is considered as the computational domain. A multidomain approach has been used... 

    Development of a 3D multigroup program for dancoff factor calculation in pebble bed reactors

    , Article Annals of Nuclear Energy ; Vol. 72, issue , 2014 , pp. 311-319 ; ISSN: 03064549 Ghaderi Mazaher, M ; Vosoughi, N ; Sharif University of Technology
    The evaluation of multigroup constants in reactor calculations depends on several parameters. One of these parameters is the Dancoff factor which is used for calculating the resonance integral and flux depression in the resonance region in heterogeneous systems. In the current paper, a computer program (MCDAN-3D) is developed for calculating three dimensional black and gray Dancoff coefficients, based on Monte Carlo, escape probability and neutron free flight methods. The developed program is capable to calculate the Dancoff factor for an arbitrary arrangement of fuel and moderator pebbles. Moreover this program can simulate fuels with homogeneous and heterogeneous compositions. It might... 

    Design and modeling of an integrated CHP system with solar hydrogen/methane fueled pem fuel cell for residential applications

    , Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) ; Vol. 6B , November , 2014 ; ISBN: 9780791849521 Amirian, H ; Sayedin, F ; Maroufmashat, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    This paper describes the designing and evaluation of an alternative energy system which consists of PEMFC, PV, PEM electrolyser, methane reformer and hydrogen tank. In order to find out the minimum capacity of the components, a system sizing model is developed in MATLAB based on meteorological and electrical demand data. Three scenarios are considered based on different combinations of solar energy and fossil fuel energy as energy resources. The heating energy produced by the fuel cell is recovered for supplying domestic hot water while the system would supply electrical energy. Results show that system sizing strongly depends on scenarios and unit cost of electricity decreases through the... 

    An analytical and experimental study of a hybrid rocket motor

    , Article Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering ; Vol. 228, Issue. 13 , December , 2014 , pp. 2475-2486 ; ISSN: 09544100 Rezaei, H ; Soltani, M. R ; Sharif University of Technology
    The hybrid rocket motor is a kind of chemical propulsion system that has been recently given serious attention by various industries and research centers. The relative simplicity, safety and low cost of this motor, in comparison with other chemical propulsion motors, are the most important reasons for such interest. Moreover, throttle-ability and thrust variability on demand are additional advantages of this type of motor. In this paper, the result of an internal ballistic simulation of hybrid rocket motor in a zero-dimensional form is presented. Further to validate the code, an experimental setup was designed and manufactured. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data... 

    Assessment of an optimized combination of Iranian power plants by environmental costs impact of carbon tax and fossil fuel price on longterm development of iranian electricity supply system

    , Article Journal of Environmental Studies ; Vol. 40, issue. 2 , 2014 , p. 415-430 Manzoor, D ; Farmad, M ; Aryanpur, V ; Shafiei, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    Despite the abundant renewable energy sources, the Iranian energy sector relies almost entirely on fossil fuel energy resources. Power sector is dominant source of CO2 emissions and responsible for about 35% of total CO2 emissions in the country. Additionally, long-term electricity demand of Iran is expected to grow quickly, which in turn requires extensive investment to meet the growing demand over the next decades. On the other hand, increasing domestic fossil fuel consumption had been a serious challenge due to high costs of oil and gas. Current study pays particular attention to the possible penetration rates of renewable electricity technologies and their implications for fossil fuel... 

    Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in multi-baffled containers

    , Article Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements ; Vol. 47, issue. 1 , Octobe , 2014 , p. 82-95 Ebrahimian, M ; Noorian, M. A ; Haddadpour, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    This study presents a method to determine an equivalent mechanical model (EMM) for multi-baffled containers with arbitrary geometries. The method is implemented for 2D and axisymmetric containers. The Laplace equation and Green's theorem are used to develop the fluid model and the boundary element method (BEM) is used to solve the fluid field governing equation. Moreover, a zoning method is utilized to model arbitrary arrangements of baffles in multi-baffled containers and a reduced order model is developed to model the free-surface sloshing. The exerted hydrodynamic pressure distribution, forces and moments on the walls of the container are determined based on the Bernoulli equation and a... 

    Two strategies for multi-objective optimisation of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    , Article International Journal of Sustainable Energy ; Vol. 33, issue. 4 , 2014 , p. 854-868 Roshandel, R ; Behzadi Forough, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    This paper focuses on multi-objective optimisation (MOO) to optimise the planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks performance using a genetic algorithm. MOO problem does not have a single solution, but a complete Pareto curve, which involves the optional representation of possible compromise solutions. Here, two pairs of different objectives are considered as distinguished strategies. Optimisation of the first strategy predicts a maximum power output of 108.33 kW at a breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.51 $/kWh and minimum breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.30 $/kWh at a power of 42.18 kW. In the second strategy, maximum efficiency of 63.93%at a breakeven per-unit energy cost of 0.42... 

    Directly coupled photovoltaic-electrolyzer system optimization using a novel ica methodology

    , Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) ; Vol. 6B, issue , 2014 Sayedin, F ; Maroufmashat, A ; Sattari, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Hydrogen is considered to be the fuel of the future. It is a cleaner alternative to the fossil fuels we consume every day. Of all the different hydrogen production pathways that exist, producing the gas by utilizing the power generated by renewable energy sources has been a topic of interest for many researchers across the world. The following work focuses on minimizing the energy loss by optimizing the size and the operating conditions of an electrolyzer directly connected to a photovoltaic (PV) module at different irradiance. The hydrogen, in the proposed system, is produced using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. A nonlinear method is considered, because of the complexity of...