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    Asymmetry Between Matter and Antimatter in the Universe

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mazhari, Mohammad (Author) ; Golshani, Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Although the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry remains unknown, continuing advances in theory and improved experimental limits have ruled out some scenarios for baryogenesis: for example, the sphaleron baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition in the standard model. In this thesis, we give an introduction to some of the ideas and attempts to understand the origin of the matte -antimatter asymmetry of the universe. After the discussion of some basic issues of cosmology and particle theory, the scenarios of electroweak baryogenesis, GUT baryogenesis, and leptogenesis are outlined  

    Challenges Against The Front Grand Unified Theories

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zavarbashi, Amin (Author) ; Golshani, Mehdi (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Many physicists believed that all four forces were once unified at high energy levels but as the universe reduced into a lower-energy states the inherent symmetry between the forces began to break down.this broken symmetry caused the creation of four distinct forces of nature. The goal of the unified theory is an attempt to look back in time to when these forces where unified as one. In this thesis I tried to give an overview of the challenges which is againsted theorists in the way of unification. In the first chapter explores the theory that try to unify the electromagnetic and weak forces are investigated.it is done by considering guage principle and spontaneous symmetry breaking.in the... 

    Gut-on-a-chip: Current progress and future opportunities

    , Article Biomaterials ; Volume 255 , 2020 Ashammakhi, N ; Nasiri, R ; Barros, N. R. D ; Tebon, P ; Thakor, J ; Goudie, M ; Shamloo, A ; Martin, M. G ; Khademhosseni, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Abstract
    Organ-on-a-chip technology tries to mimic the complexity of native tissues in vitro. Important progress has recently been made in using this technology to study the gut with and without microbiota. These in vitro models can serve as an alternative to animal models for studying physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. While these models have greater physiological relevance than two-dimensional (2D) cell systems in vitro, endocrine and immunological functions in gut-on-a-chip models are still poorly represented. Furthermore, the construction of complex models, in which different cell types and structures interact, remains a challenge. Generally, gut-on-a-chip models have the potential to... 

    Prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and probiotics: Mechanism of action: A review

    , Article Current Diabetes Reviews ; Volume 16, Issue 6 , 2020 , Pages 538-545 Homayouni, A ; Bagheri, N ; Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, S ; Kashani, N ; Mobaraki Asl, N ; Mirghafurvand, M ; Asgharian, H ; Ansari, F ; Pourjafar, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Bentham Science Publishers  2020
    Abstract
    Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a health problem that is increasing around the world. Introduction: Prevention of GDM, rather than treatment, could have several benefits in terms of both health and economic cost. Even a slight reduction in maternal glucose in non-diabetic women, particularly in women at high risk for GDM, may have significant benefits for pregnancy results and the future health of off-springs. Probiotics are a relatively new intervention, which are assessed by mothers’ metabolism, and can reduce blood sugar levels, prevent gestational diabetes and reduce the maternal and fetal complications resulting from it. The aim of this study was to review the studies... 

    The role of the gut microbiota and nutrition on spatial learning and spatial memory: a mini review based on animal studies

    , Article Molecular Biology Reports ; Volume 49, Issue 2 , 2022 , Pages 1551-1563 ; 03014851 (ISSN) Alemohammad, S.M.A ; Noori, S. M. R ; Samarbafzadeh, E ; Noori, S. M. A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer Science and Business Media B.V  2022
    Abstract
    The gut-brain axis is believed to constitute a bidirectional communication mechanism that affects both mental and digestive processes. Recently, the role of the gut microbiota in cognitive performance has been the focus of much research. In this paper, we discuss the effects of gut microbiota and nutrition on spatial memory and learning. Studies have shown the influence of diet on cognitive capabilities such as spatial learning and memory. It has been reported that a high-fat diet can alter gut microbiota which subsequently leads to changes in spatial learning and memory. Some microorganisms in the gut that can significantly affect spatial learning and memory are Akkermansia muciniphila,...