Search for: helium
Total 26 records
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Ghotbi, Sirus ; Karimi Sabet, Javad ; Mousavi, Abbas
Thin film graphene oxide(GO) membranes have been promising potential for gas purification due to thin lamellar microstructure, stable a few atom thick layers and very short intersheet distances. In this research, the nanoporous graphene oxide membranes have been prepared by vacuum and pressurized ultrafiltration on the modified polyacrylonitryle(mPAN) sublayer for helium separation from Nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas mixture. The separation performance of synthesized GO membrane was controlled by varying parameters such as concentration of stabilized aqueous GO solution, pores size range of support and its surface properties, centrifuge time, applied pressure after synthesis, humidity,...
Three Dimensional Simulation and Experimental Modeling of Two Stage GM Type Pulse Tube Refrigeration with Double-Inlet, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan
There are numerous ways available to achieve low temperatures that cryocoolers might be among the most important of them. In the meantime, the pulse tube refrigerator has a special place due to its simple geometry and not be using any moving parts. This simple property make the pulse tube refrigerator one of the most popular methods to achieve low temperatures. Nowadays, a pulse tube refrigerator is used for cooling in the range of 4 to 123 Kelvin in two form of one-stage and two-stage and up to an approximate power of 1 KW. Today, due to the temperature and the amount of power required for cooling, as well as the time it takes to reach that temperature, this chiller is used in medical,...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hosein
Liquefaction of gases is one of the applications of cryogenic science. Among the gases, Helium has the lowest boiling point, which at a pressure of 1atm is approximately 4.2K. Liquid helium can be used to cool superconductors in transportation equipment, military radars, and medical imaging equipment. For helium liquefaction, various cycles are used; these cycles have different parameters in their structure such as of input mass fraction to expanders, heat exchanger effectiveness, expander arrangement and ... which their analysis for improving the performance of the cycle is important. In this research, the aim is to study 2, 3 and 4 expander cycle with various parameters and structure. For...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hossein
Heat exchangers are one of the most important components used in liquefaction cycles and overall efficiency of the cycle mainly depends on the heat exchangers effectiveness. It has been shown that the effectiveness of these equipments should be high enough to be able to liquefy a gas. Spiral heat exchangers are used frequently in cryogenic industry and specially in Helium liquefaction industry due to their specific characteristics, however according to literature review it turns out that little study is done in the field of simulation and geometrical parameter investigation of these kind of heat exchangers, so in this study the design and simulation of these cryogenics heat exchangers are...
One Dimensional Numerical Solution of Pulsating Flow in a Pulse Tube Cycle Considering Real Gas Behavior, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan ; Kazemzade Hannani, Siamak
Helium gas is the working fluid in common Pulse Tube Refrigerators (PTRs) due to its brilliant properties in reaching cryogenics temperature as low as 4 K. Generally ideal gas equation of state has been used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of He. However using ideal gas equation of state for He in 10 bar and 5 K causes considerable error on estimation of density. The objective is to use real gas equation of state for temperatures near zero Kelvin. This approach makes an accurate prediction of PT cooling capacity and COP. In this thesis the objective is to realize the most relevant equations of state describing the proper behavior of He in the regions of operating point of PTR. Later on...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hossein
Gas liquefaction is one of the main applications of Cryogenics science. Due to the unique properties of Helium, it is a strategic product in the world. Therefore, appropriate and applicable analysis should be used to investigate and optimize the Helium liquefaction cycles. In the current study, the goal is to find the optimal point with the help of energy and exergy analysis based on economic criterion, for the various parameters of Collins’ cycle. In order to simulate the cycle, a computer code is developed. First, sensitivity analysis of different parameters affecting the exergy efficiency and liquid fraction of the cycle has been done. Then, Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm...
The Modeling of Hydrogen Purification and Carbon Dioxide Capture by two Dimensional Porous Membranes Using Molecular Dynamicssimulations, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Tafazzoli, Mohsen
Carbon dioxide is one of the most significant greenhouse gases in biocycle. This gas makes the equilibrium temperature by absorbing IR radiations on the earth. It is the reason that prevent the earth from freezing. Increasing CO2 emissions in atmosphere, makes problems such as global warming. According to the Kyoto Protocol, all the countries attended to this protocol, must decrease greenhouse gases emissions. Although H2 fuel is one of the best alternative fuel against fossil fuels, the most important industrial process (steam-methane reforming) produce CO2 as by-product. Thus, gas separation has a prominent role in industrial processes such as CO2 capture and H2 purification.Today, gas...
M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hossein ; Farhanieh, Bijan
Helium is a valuable substance that is widely used in industry and medicine because of its unique properties. Due to the increasing demand for helium in the global market, several helium extraction units have been launched in the world in recent years; Nevertheless, there is still a significant gap between projected global helium production capacity and demand. Today, natural gas is known as the main source of helium on the earth. The method of industrial extraction of helium from natural gas is cryogenic. Due to the low temperature of this process, relatively high power consumption is used to extract helium from natural gas. Therefore, the optimization of this process is of great...
Design and Optimization of Helium Extraction and Liquefaction Cycle from Natural Gas by Direct Method, Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hossein
Helium is known as a strategic material due to its unique properties and applications in the development of advanced industries. Currently, natural gas is the only source from which helium can be produced economically. The United States, Qatar, Algeria, and Russia have the largest share of helium production, respectively. In this research, the process of helium extraction from natural gas and its liquefaction, independent of LNG production based on helium in South Pars gas of Iran, which is the largest helium reservoir in the world, were designed and simulated.In the helium liquefaction section, the speed and accuracy of the process simulation were improved by developing a home code based on...
A Numerical Model Development for Cryogenic Spiral Wound Heat Exchanger Design Considering Temperature dependent thermo-physical properties, Heat Leakage, and Longitudinal Heat Conduction, M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology ; Afshin, Hossein
Cryogenic temperature is below than 123 Kelvin and any physical study that occurs below this temperature is Cryogenic science. Cryogenic has varaiety of application in medical, industry, food, oil and gas etc. Based on this paper and its relavant source spiral wound HE is one of the most optimum HE for cryogenic application specially for helium liquification cycle. In order to liquefy helium in helium cycle efficiency of spiral wound HE shall be over than 85 percent. For this reason and special fluid behavour in low temperature considering property variation, heat in leak and axial conduction is vital for calculating efficiency in cryogenic temperature of helium liquification cycle. In this...
Synthesis and characterization of pure metallic titanium nanoparticles by an electromagnetic levitation melting gas condensation method, Article RSC Advances ; Vol. 4, issue. 14 , 2014 , pp. 7104-7108 ; ISSN: 20462069 ; Halali, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Pure titanium nanoparticles were synthesized by utilizing an Electromagnetic Levitation Melting Gas Condensation (ELM-GC) method. Pure bulk titanium samples were melted and evaporated by electromagnetic levitation technique in an inert gas atmosphere in a silica tube. Titanium nanoparticles were formed from ascending vapor by employing high purity argon and helium as carrier gases and cooling agents. Particle size and morphology of the produced nanoparticles were studied by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. Results showed almost spherical nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution under both cooling atmospheres. The purity of...
Superconducting compact coplanar waveguide filters based on quarter-wavelength spiral resonators with suppressed slot-line mode, Article Electromagnetics ; Volume 34, Issue 1 , 2 January , 2014 , Pages 12-18 ; ISSN: 02726343 ; Bruno, A ; Farzaneh, F ; Fardmanesh, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Quarter-wavelength superconducting spiral resonators have been used to realize a coplanar waveguide bandpass filter and bandstop filter around the center frequency of 6 GHz. These compact coplanar waveguide filters have been made from 300-nm-thick NbTiN thin film on a 525-μm-thick silicon substrate. The bandpass filter is a six-pole Chebyshev filter with two zero transmissions due to nonadjacent coupling in its structure. Accurately microfabricated air-bridges have been used to suppress the undesired slot-line mode in this filter. The bandstop filter is a very simple two-pole structure that used wire bonding to suppress the slot-line mode. Measurements have been done at a temperature of 4.2...
Experimental and numerical investigation on the jet characteristics of spark ignition direct injection gaseous injector, Article Applied Energy ; Volume 105 , 2013 , Pages 8-16 ; 03062619 (ISSN) ; Saidi, M. H ; Mozafari, A. A ; Hajialimohammadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
Natural gas has widely been used as a fuel in conventional Diesel and spark ignition engines. The better understanding of injector parameters on the jet structure is helpful for the combustion optimization. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on the jet structure of gaseous fuel injector in spark ignition direct injection engine by Schlieren technique and numerical procedure. Helium was injected through a gaseous injector at the different pressure ratios and nozzle diameters to understand the effects of nozzle geometry and pressure ratio for a dedicated correlation of CNG-SIDI injector. It was found that higher pressure ratio and exit nozzle diameter led to more tip...
Article Adsorption ; Volume 18, Issue 2 , 2012 , Pages 75-86 ; 09295607 (ISSN) ; Kazemeini, M ; Ahmadi, S. J ; Allahyar, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
Henry's law constant and crystal diffusivity of xenon in the granulated nano-NaY zeolite were measured by the pulse gas chromatography method. For this purpose the moments of response peaks of xenon were analyzed. The effect of extra column parts of the utilized chromatographic system was also considered by analyzing the moments of the response peak which was obtained by pulse injection of inert gas of helium into the carrier gas of nitrogen. In addition, the measurement of average velocity of the carrier gas regarding the pressure drop in the extra column parts of the system attributed to precise results. By carrying out the experiments at various temperatures in the range of 30-110 °C the...
Article ASME 2011 9th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels, ICNMM 2011, 19 June 2011 through 22 June 2011 ; Volume 1 , June , 2011 , Pages 289-294 ; 9780791844632 (ISBN) ; Karchani, A ; Khaledi Alidusti, R ; Schneider, G. E ; Sharif University of Technology
Microfilters are commonly used to block undesirable particles in the fluid flows and to control the flow patterns in MEMS. The main purpose of this study is to understand the effect of gas type on density, pressure, Mach number, and velocity distributions of fluid flows through a microfilter. The Knudsen number is the slip flow regime passing through the microfilter. We use direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to simulate the flow of nitrogen, helium, oxygen, air and methane passing through a specific microfilter. The geometry of microfilter is unique in all cases. Our results confirm that every gas performs a different performance passing through a specific microfilter, and that the...
Article Chemical Engineering Journal ; Volume 168, Issue 1 , March , 2011 , Pages 441-445 ; 13858947 (ISSN) ; Halali, M ; Sharif University of Technology
Electromagnetic levitation gas condensation (ELGC) method was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (NPs). Silver droplets were melted and levitated stably at about 1130°C with appropriate flat coils in a 10mm OD silica tube. High purity argon, nitrogen and helium were employed as carrier gases and cooling media. Morphology and particle size of the products were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The DLS, SEM and TEM studies demonstrated narrow size distribution of spherical shape silver NPs with mean particle size of about 60, 50 and 30nm...
Article ASME 2010 8th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels Collocated with 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting, ICNMM2010, 1 August 2010 through 5 August 2010, Montreal, QC ; Issue PARTS A AND B , 2010 , Pages 1021-1027 ; 9780791854501 (ISBN) ; Karchani, A ; Akhlaghi, H ; Schneider, G ; Sharif University of Technology
This paper concern is to study the gas properties effect in flow and heat transfer behaviors through microchannels using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The flow is rarefied and supersonic. The channels are investigated at two different inlet boundary conditions. The collision process is modeled using the NTC (no-time-counter) scheme. The VHS model is chosen to simulate collision between particle pairs. The study is provided for many different gases including nitrogen, helium, and oxygen. The Knudsen number is chosen in a manner to provide slip flow through the channel. The results show that the heat transfer from the wall is lower for heavier gases. A comparative study among the...
Article Nature ; Volume 558 , 20 June , 2018 , Pages 420-423 ; 00280836 (ISSN) ; Geim, A. K ; Janardanan, A ; Rooney, A. P ; Esfandiar, A ; Hu, S ; Dar, S. A ; Grigorieva, I. V ; Haigh, S. J ; Wang, F. C ; Radha, B ; Sharif University of Technology
Nature Publishing Group 2018
Gas permeation through nanoscale pores is ubiquitous in nature and has an important role in many technologies 1,2 . Because the pore size is typically smaller than the mean free path of gas molecules, the flow of the gas molecules is conventionally described by Knudsen theory, which assumes diffuse reflection (random-angle scattering) at confining walls 3-7 . This assumption holds surprisingly well in experiments, with only a few cases of partially specular (mirror-like) reflection known 5,8-11 . Here we report gas transport through ångström-scale channels with atomically flat walls 12,13 and show that surface scattering can be either diffuse or specular, depending on the fine details of the...
Article Journal of Materials Chemistry A ; Volume 6, Issue 6 , 2018 , Pages 2775-2791 ; 20507488 (ISSN) ; Shojaei, A ; Mousavi, S. A ; Sharif University of Technology
Royal Society of Chemistry 2018
The major obstacles in gas separation by mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) are poor dispersion and poor affinity between polymers and fillers. The present study demonstrates that these challenges can be overcome appropriately by utilizing a series of synthesized stand-alone MMMs. The matrix used was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the MMMs were synthesized by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of UiO-66, NH2-UiO-66 and vinyl group attached UiO-66. In situ polymerization of MMA in the presence of vinyl attached UiO-66 resulted in PMMA grafted UiO-66 with a high degree of grafting. Microscopic analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)...
Article 2008 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE 2008, Boston, MA, 31 October 2008 through 6 November 2008 ; Volume 13, Issue PART A , 2009 , Pages 129-135 ; 9780791848746 (ISBN) ; Tajalli, S. A ; Ahmadian, M. T ; Sharif University of Technology
In this study, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to study dynamic pull-in instability in microbeams considering different sources of nonlinearity. Electrostatic actuation, fringing field effect and midplane stretching causes strong nonlinearity in microbeams. In order to investigate dynamic pull-in behavior, using Galerkin's decomposition method, the nonlinear partial differential equation of motion is reduced to a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The obtained equation is solved analytically in time domain using HAM. The problem is studied by two separate manners: direct use of HAM and indirect use of HAM in conjunction with He's Modified Lindstedt- Poincaré Method....