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    Preparation of New Titanium Nitride-Carbon Nanocomposites and Evaluation of their Electrocatalytic Behavior

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Yousefi, Elahe (Author) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    Titanium nitride-carbon nanocomposites are synthesized by the reaction of TiCl4 and NaN3 in supercritical benzene medium that also serves as a carbon source. In order to improve the crystallinity of the as-prepared precursor (SI), it is further heat-treated at 1000 ˚C for 3-10 h using anhydrous ammonia and UHP nitrogen atmospheres at 1000 ˚C (SIII-SV). Moreover, to improve electrochemical behavior, the synthesized nanocomposite (SIV) is modified with Pt nanoparticles using a polyol process. For better understanding of synthesized catalyst nature and justifying their variant ORR activity several analyses are done. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron... 

    Removal of Ammonia from Wastewater by Ion Exchange Method using Natural Zeolite Adsorbent

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Golshani Sarkhosh, Omid (Author) ; Moslemi, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    The existing thesis investigates the removal efficiency of ammonia from wastewater using natural zeolite, and the effects of various parameters on the removal efficiency. The importance of this research is due of the fact that ammonia is among the primary contaminants of wastewater. The common method of removing ammonia is biological processes that have a number of drawbacks. The ion exchange method could be a suitable alternative to the former method. Ammonia removal from wastewater was investigated through both batch and continuous experiments. In these experiments the initial ammonia concentration in the wastewater was chosen to be 1000 mg/L, 100 mg/L. The optimum ammonia removal was... 

    Study on Separation of Uranium from Phosphoric Acid by Column Chromatography

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Grayeli, Fatemeh (Author) ; Sohrabpour, Mostafa (Supervisor) ; Khanchi, Ali Reza (Supervisor) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    In this study, uranium removal from phosphoric acid with doulite resin was examined. Different uptake properties of the doulite resin were examined using batch, stirred and column methods. Langmuier, freundlich and dubinin equation was fitted the isotherm data and freundlich equation showed the best fitting. Adsorption kinetics was controlled by slow intraparticle diffusion of UO22+ ions in resin, and it obeyed a shrinking core model. Also a pseudo-second order chemical reaction fairly fitted the kinetics data  

    Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Ferrous Biooxidation in a Monolithic Bioreactor

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kahrizi, Ehsan (Author) ; Vossoughi, Manoochehr (Supervisor) ; Alemzadeh, Iran (Supervisor)
    The bio-oxidation of ferrous iron is a potential industrial process in the regeneration of ferric iron and the removal of H2S in combustible gases. Bio-oxidation of ferrous iron may be an alternative method of producing ferric sulfate, which is a reagent used for removal of H2S from biogas, tail gas and pulp and paper industry. For practical use of this process, this study evaluated the optimal pH and initial ferric concentration. pH control looks like a key factor as it acts both on growth rate and on solubility of materials in the system. Some process variables such as pH and amount of initial ferrous ions on oxidation by A. ferrooxidans and the effects of such process variables dilution... 

    Study of Lithium-transition Metals-orthosilicates as Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kalantarian, Mohammad Mahdi (Author) ; Asgari, Sirous (Supervisor)
    In this study, orthosilicate materials with chemical formula of Li2MSiO4 (M one or two transition metal/metals) were investigated experimentally and theoretically as cathode material of Li-ion batteries. The most important material in this category i.e. Li2FeSiO4 was synthesized by three methods including nitrate-based sol-gel, oxalate-based solid state reaction and oxide-based solid state reaction. Based on XRD and SEM evaluations, grain size of synthesized powders was estimated to be between 15 to 100 nanometers. Of these three methods, oxide-based solid state reaction was employed in this study for the first time. This syntheses method is very important due to the significant lower... 

    Design of a Colorimetric Sensor Array Based on Triangular Silver Nanoparticles for the Detection and Discrimination of Halide Ions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Keshavarzi, Parham (Author) ; Hormozinezhad, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    The exitance of a certain amount of halide ions including Chloride (Cl-), Bromide (Br-) and Iodide (I-) in human body is crucial for ensuring health. However, exposure to high levels of these ions can cause diseases, such as goiter and neurological disfunction. As a result, the development of a simple and efficient analytical method for determining the aforesaid halide ions is so important. Triangular silver nanoparticles (TSNPs) display wide color variations due to their tunable plasmonic properties dependent on the aspect ratio of the nanoparticles. Hence, designing a colorimetric sensor array using the optical properties of TSNPs for determination and discrimination of halide ions is of... 

    Investigation of Excitation-contraction behavior in Skeletal Muscle by Means of Chemomechanical Modeling

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Karami, Mina (Author) ; Zohoor, Hassan (Supervisor) ; Firoozbakhsh, Keikhosrow (Supervisor)
    Numerous studies have shown a direct relationship between skeletal muscle active force and intracellular calcium ion concentrations; In fact, no matter how the muscle is stimulated (neurological, electrical, chemical, and mechanical stimuli), the main cause of muscle activation and consequently force generation is calcium ions.According to this scientific finding, the purpose of this study is to present a new chemo-mechanical multiscale model of skeletal muscle based on the fundamental principles of continuum thermodynamics. In this model, unlike other similar studies, muscle active force is not considered as the conventional multiplication of isometric force in a set of corrective... 

    Developing an Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Failures

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Chenariyan Nakhaee, Muhammad (Author) ; Houshmand, Mahmood (Supervisor) ; Fattahi, Omid (Co-Advisor)
    Prognostics is necessary to ensure the reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles or satellites. This process can be achieved by capacity estimation, which is a direct fading indicator for assessing the state of health of a battery. However, the capacity of a lithium-ion battery onboard is difficult to monitor. This paper presents a data-driven approach for capacity estimation. First, new features are extracted from cyclic charge/discharge cycles and used as health indicators. Three algorithms are used to characterize the relationship between extracted features and battery capacity. Decision tree, random forest and boosting algorithms are trained using a... 

    Copper Adsorption by Nanoadsorbents Based Graphene Oxide from Industrial Wastewater

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pishnamazi, Mohammad (Author) ; Borghei, Mehdi (Supervisor) ; Ghasemi, Shahnaz (Co-Supervisor)
    In this thesis, a novel graphene oxide (GO)/sodium alginate (SA)/polyacrylamide (PAM) ternary nanocomposite hydrogel with excellent mechanical performance has been fabricated through freeradical polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) and SA in the presence of GO in an aqueous system followed with ionically crosslinking of calcium ions. Physical and chemical characteristics of the composite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling behaviors of the composite hydrogels were investigated under varying conditions of time and pH. The optimized swelling capacity in standard conditions was found to be 1711% per gram of the hydrogel. The... 

    Preparation of Polymeric Ion-Exchange Membrane for Water Desalination

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vakilzadeh Ebrahimi, Mohammad Kazem (Author) ; Musavi, Abbas (Supervisor)
    In present research work, methods of preparing ion exchange membranes, especially anion exchange membranes, were studied and chemical modification of polysulfone was chosen as a safe and economical method for preparing anion exchange membranes. The chloromethylated polysulfone was characterized by HNMR spectroscopy and functionalization degree was determined according to peak area integration. Membranes were produced by mixing and amination of the chloromethylated and normal polysulfone (40-100% wt). Morphology and chemical structure of membranes were investigated by SEM images and FTIR spectroscopy.The ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity and water content of samples were measured. The... 

    Development of Nanostructured Lithium-Rich Cathode Material

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Vahdatkhah, Parisa (Author) ; Sadrnezhaad, Khatiboleslam (Supervisor)
    This research is divided in three parts. In the first part of this research, we report the one-pot synthesis of carbonate-coated nanostructured LLO (Li2CO3@LLO) through a polyol-assisted method as a Li-ion battery cathode. Carbonate protects the cathode from adverse reactions with the electrolyte, also reduces the layered-to-spinel phase transition, thereby stabilizing the cathode structure. LLO nanostructure provides a fast Li+ diffusion. The target material exhibits excellent long-term stability with 77% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 0.2C-rate. In the second part of research, Li(Na-doped)-Mn-Ni-O oxides were synthesized by different LiOH.H2O amount, type and amount of reducing... 

    Adsorption Processes in Capacitive Deionization

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Vaezi, Mehran (Author) ; Taghavinia, Nima (Supervisor)
    Today the water crisis affects billions around the world.According to existance of large amount of salty water on the earth, it seems one of the best soloution is desalination of salty water.There are methods for removing ions from water such as thermal methods, membrane methods , chemical methods and capacitive deionization.Capacitive deionization is based on the deviation of ions in the electric field.CDI system contains of two conductive porous electrodes that an elecric field is applied between them.While the brine pass through the space between the elecrodes the ions are absorbed by elecrodes. After a while the electrodes get saturated so a reverse potential is needed to regenerate the... 

    Study of Ion Transport from the Two-Dimensional Structure of MXene

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemifar, Fatemeh (Author) ; Esfandiar, Ali (Supervisor)
    Reverse electrodialysis-based membranes are one of the most promising approaches to osmotic energy production. However, conventional reverse electrodialysis membranes have high strength and insufficient mass transfer, which leads to low power density and efficiency. In recent decades, the transport of ions at the nanoscale for the manufacture of reverse electrodialysis machines has attracted much attention. Compared to conventional devices, power density and energy conversion efficiency increase dramatically due to space constraints and electrostatic interactions at the nanoscale. Lamellar nanostructures, which can be easily fabricated by stacking two-dimensional nanosheets, may be a... 

    Study on the Kinetics of Uranium Adsorption in the Stirred Reactors, and Search for the Scalable Kinetic Models for This

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemi Oalya, Ali (Author) ; Otukesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Khanchi, Alireza (Supervisor)
    One of the main uranium separations of ore that uranium percent application of enhanced design strategies in the industrial cracking furnaces are of practical interest for oil, gas and petrochemical industries. For such engineering purposes the exact simulation of temperature, species concentration and flow fields in the furnace is essential. In this paper, a study was performed to simulate 3D flue gas flow pattern, temperature and species concentration field in the radiation section of an industrial cracking furnace using the computational fluid dynamics (100-500) ppm technique. The steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (Resin in pulp)equations were solved, in a finite volume scheme,... 

    Analysis of Ratcheting in Elastic-plastic Behavior of Li-ion Battery Electrodes

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hashemi, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Naghdabadi, Reza (Supervisor)
    Among the various materials, silicon anodes have the highest lithium absorption in lithium-ion batteries. But this high lithium absorption capacity can cause 300 percent volume expansion and large stresses. Experimental observations show that charge and discharge cycles may cause plastic deformation in some parts of the electrode particle. On the other hand, there is a possibility of a ratcheting phenomenon due to changing in elastic properties of the electrode material during the charging and discharging processes. However, this phenomenon has not been reported for silicon spherical electrode particles yet.This study aims to model the elastic-plastic behavior of silicon spherical electrode... 

    Study on Adsorption of Uranium from Saghand Ore Leach Liquor by Continuous Ion Exchange Systems

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Noori Khangah, Behrooz (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Godocynejhad, Davood (Supervisor) ; Saberyan, Kamal (Co-Supervisor) ; Asghari, Reza (Co-Supervisor)
    The current study was attributed to uranium uptake by Varion-AP resin from Saghand, Iran Uranium Mine, ore leach liquor. A suitable high-efficiency system was designed for continuous ion exchange at the bench scale and the uranium uptake parameters were optimized. In this system, 1 reactors was used with a volume of 3 liters in stage with the same height difference. A leach liquor containing uranium with a concentration of between 200 and 300 mg/l was flowed from the feed storage by gravity between reactor 1 to 10 at a flow rate of 30 lit/h and Varion-AP resin was transferred in counter-current flow from stage 10 to 1 by a pneumatic pump. The output of each reactor had a screener that... 

    Synthesis and Evaluation of Modified Zeolites for Separation of Acidic Gases

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Najafi, Amir Mohammad (Author) ; Khorasheh, Farhad (Supervisor) ; Soltanali, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Ghasabzadeh, Hamid (Co-Supervisor)
    The adsorption equilibria of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen on pelletized cation-exchanged faujasite zeolite (with alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions) have been investigated by a volumetric apparatus. The standard instrumental analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were utilized to characterize binder-free modified zeolites. The EDX spectra and AAS results revealed that the ion-exchange was successfully achieved with expected tendencies. The results indicate that the type of cation present in the zeolite... 

    Design of an Optoelectronic Tongue Based on Anti-Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles for Detection and Classification of Heavy Metal Ions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Najafzadeh, Fatemeh (Author) ; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    The first report of anti-aggregation-based sensor arrays is presented. The strategy is based on the competitive interaction of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and heavy metal ions (i.e., Hg(II), Ag(I), Fe(III), and Pb (II)) with three aggregation reagents (i.e., cysteine, melamine, and arginine). In the presence of aggregation reagent,the color and UV–vis spectra of AuNPs are changed indicating the aggregation ofAuNPs. Addition of the aggregation reagents which are firstly treated with the ions, causes AuNPs turn from the aggregation to the dispersion state. The anti-aggregation capability of ions towards various aggregation reagents is different because of distinct stability... 

    Analysis of Various Approaches for Expounding Dissipative Effects in
    Open Quantum Systems

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Naeij, Hamid Reza (Author) ; Shafiee, Afshin (Supervisor)
    Quantum Theory leads to results that are consistent with the very high accuracy with experience and also includes a wide range of empirical phenomena. Hence, quantum mechanics is accepted as the best and most acclaimed physical theory. However, there is still no consensus between physicists on the interpretation of parts of this theory. One of the unresolved issues in quantum mechanics is the measurement problem. The basis of the measurement problem is a kind of transition from the quantum world to the classical world. The fundamental question that arises here is, where is the boundary between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics? and how can be described the transition from quantum... 

    Derivation of a Scalable Mass Ttransfer Equation for Adsorption of Uranium on Resin in Stirred Reactors

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naderi, Ali (Author) ; Outokesh, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; khanchi, Alireza (Supervisor)
    Resin In Pulp(RIP) is One of the most important processes for separation of uranium from ore while concentration of uranium in ore is low , based on adsorption of uranium that exist in the slurry on onion exchanger resins .uranium ore is dissolved in sulfuric acid and slurry that contain uranium is produced,then this slurry enter stirred reactors and adsorption process is performed.RIP are accepted universally and now adays countries such as canada,south africa and australia use this process when concentration of uranium in slurry after leaching process is 100-500 ppm.in iran also this process is performing in ardacan-saghand mine.Kinetic of adsorption process in stirred reactors has been...