Search for: liquefaction
0.011 seconds
Total 93 records

    Comparison of Constitutive Laws for Numerical Simulation of Soil Liquefaction Phenomenon

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Iranmanesh, Mohammad Ali (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Liquefaction is one of the probable consequences of earthquake in soil layers of saturated loose sands. Various aspects of liquefaction have been investigated using different methods of field, laboratory, and numerical studies. Numerical simulation of liquefaction constitutes a major part of these researches. A proper constitutive law must be implemented in the numerical analysis for modeling the complicated behavior of saturated sands during dynamic loading. Simplicity of formulation, limited number of parameters and good performance are the main features of a proper constitutive law. In this study, Endochronic model for simulating liquefaction has been introduced. This model is implemented... 

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Seyfi, Sahand (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Lateral spreading is a common mode of earthquake-induced failure that usually occurs as a result of liquefaction in gently sloped sandy layers. Numerical simulation of this phenomenon requires fully coupled analysis of displacement of solid sand particles and pore water pressure under seismic loading. Predicting occurrence of initial liquefaction and sub-sequent ground movement requires employing an efficient and robust constitutive model that can predict the undrained behavior of saturated sand under different conditions. In this study, a fully coupled finite element code “PISA” utilizing a critical state two-surface plasticity constitutive model, proposed by Manzari and Dafalias (1997),... 

    Parametric Study of Shallow Foundations Settlement Due to Liquefaction Phenomenon on a Two-Layered Soil

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ayoubi, Peyman (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    Settlement and tilt of structures due to liquefaction of subsoil layers is a major cause of damage during earthquake. Among different soil profile type, two layered soil is very common which was reported many times in differen earthquakes. Settlement of structures was measured by means of empirical methods before which were not viable because they do not consider different effective parameters. Consequently, different experimental studies performed to shed light on different aspects of liquefaction phenomena. In these studies, researchers consider some of the main parameters which have effect on the soil, otherwise, they neglected some important factors. So, numerical procedure is more... 

    Parametric Study and Numerical Simulation of Spiral Wound Heat Exchanger Performance at Cryogenic Temperatures

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Hosseinian Khorasgani, Mohsen (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Cryogenic is the study of physical phenomena at temperatures below 123 Kelvin. One of the applications of cryogenic science is the liquefaction of gases. In the liquefaction cycles of gases, such as helium liquefaction, fluidization occurs in the pressure reducing valve but temperature of the gas should be greatly reduced before it enters the pressure reducing valve. For this purpose, high-performance heat exchangers should be used. Spiral Wound is one of the heat exchangers that has ability to achieve over 90% efficiency due to its structure. Researchs in the field of design and simulation of spiral heat exchangers are limited and are done with a lot of simple assumptions such as constant... 

    Study of Phase Behavior and Economical Investigation on Transportation Of LNG and LPG Mixture

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mashhadi Ebrahim, Amir (Author) ; Badakhshan, Amir (Supervisor) ; Taghikhani, Vahid (Supervisor) ; Ghotbi, Siroos (Supervisor)
    Many technologies should be applied for transportation or consumption of natural gas. There are many different ways for transporting natural gas from origin of production to the location of consumption which the simplest way is transportation via pipelines but for transportation of natural gas for long distances, we can not use this method in this way we should apply other technologies such as converting the natural gas to the liquid state. For using this method, first we should liquefy the natural gas up to -162 degree of centigrade at the atmospheric pressure and then transport it with large cargo ships. By using this method, the transportation costs are decreased in compared with the... 

    Physical Modeling of Effect of Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading on Single Piles

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Torabi, Hooman (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Pile foundations suffered severe damages during the past earthquakes in all around the world. These damages were more severe in laterally spreading grounds and they mostly have been observed in gently sloping grounds and coastal areas. In these cases, Pile foundations not only are subjected to structures inertial loads and kinematic loads of liquefied soil but also lateral spreading intensifies damages. Thus, in the recent decade, several researches have been conducted to investigate the behavior of pile foundations in liquefiable and laterally spreading grounds, however, some uncertainties still remain in modeling of soil-pile interaction. In this study, the effects of liquefaction- induced... 

    Numerical Modeling of liquefaction-induced Settlement of Free Field and Comparison of its Results with Empirical Models

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sadeghi, Habibollah (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    A numerical framework is proposed to estimate the liquefaction-induced settlement of the fully saturated sandy layers in the free fields due to earthquake excitation and the results of the proposed method are compared with those of the empirical or probabilistic methods suggested by the previous researchers. Liquefaction is a sudden transformation of saturated sandy soil into a viscous fluid which is caused by the increase in the pore pressure and decrease in the effective stress and results in the reduction of the shear strength of the soil. One of the most important consequences of liquefaction is the liquefaction induced settlement which has caused severe damages in many places in the... 

    Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups Due to Liquefaction- Induced Lateral Spreading

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Pakzad, Amin (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    The phenomenon of lateral spreading occurs as a consequence of earthquakes induced liquefaction in grounds with mild slopes or ending to an opening. This phenomenon has caused many damages to deep foundations and associated structures. Therefore, it is necessary to study and estimate the forces which may be induced by lateral spreading to these structures. Due to the complex mechanism of the effect of lateral spreading on the piles, various tests have been carried out in the form of shaking table as well as centrifuge tests. According to the results of these tests, the forces applied to the piles are significant and can cause crucial damages to deep foundations. On the other hand, because... 

    Numerical Simulation of Ground Displacement Induced by Lateral Spreading Phenomenon

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghasemifare, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    The lateral movement of a liquefiable layer on gently slopes is the most visible and devastating type of liquefaction-induced ground failure. Occurrence of liquefaction in sloping ground causes large deformations on ground surface, which may lead to several meters in some cases. Recent earthquakes have shown that this phenomenon causes severe damages to coastal structures, piers of bridges and life-lines, by exerting large lateral forces. In this research, a fully coupled two-dimensional dynamic analysis has been used to simulate the lateral spreading phenomenon and to evaluate the magnitude of deformations occurred in liquefiable soils. The critical state bounding surface elastic-plastic... 

    Numerical Simulation of Effect of Lateral Spreading Due to Liquefaction on Piles and Estimate Soil Lateral Displacement Pattern by Image Processing

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Sayaf, Hiva (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    In recent earthquakes piles have been severely damaged due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. Liquefaction causes lateral spreading in gently sloped saturated soft granular soils, leading to significant damage in structures and deep foundations. Although in recent years many studies have focused on different aspects of this phenomenon, the complex nature of the dynamic interaction between piles and liquefied soil is not yet fully understood. This potential damages are of high degree of importance in southern and northern coastal areas of Iran where several ports and critical facilities are located. The present study focuses on the behavior of a 2x2 pile group against lateral loads... 

    Integrated and Multi-Scale Design of the Value Chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (Lng) Production from Associated Gas Considering Economic, Safety, and Environmental Objectives

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Eini, Saeed (Author) ; Davood Rashtchian (Supervisor) ; Mahdi Sharifzadeh (Co-Supervisor)
    Natural gas liquefaction is an enabling technology which could make natural gas resources globally accessible. Nonetheless, the design and operation of LNG processes is highly complex, and is subject to multiple criteria including energetic, environmental and safety performance. Moreover, such processes must be flexible enough to operate under different feed conditions. The present research applies integrated process and product design framework to enhance simultaneously energy efficiency, environmental benignness, and inherent safety of a small-scale LNG process. The challenge is that the current group contribution methods applied for the estimation of the thermophysical properties, suffer... 

    Design and Simulation of Cryogenic Spiral Heat-exchanger for Gas Liquefaction Plant

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Rajabi, Vahid (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Heat exchangers are one of the most important components used in liquefaction cycles and overall efficiency of the cycle mainly depends on the heat exchangers effectiveness. It has been shown that the effectiveness of these equipments should be high enough to be able to liquefy a gas. Spiral heat exchangers are used frequently in cryogenic industry and specially in Helium liquefaction industry due to their specific characteristics, however according to literature review it turns out that little study is done in the field of simulation and geometrical parameter investigation of these kind of heat exchangers, so in this study the design and simulation of these cryogenics heat exchangers are... 

    Design and Construction of Large-scale Laminar Shear Box for Study of the Behavior of Deep Foundations Subjected to Lateral Loads due to Lateral Spreading using 1-g Shake Table Tests

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kamali Zarch, Mohsen (Author) ; Haeri, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    Using appropriate box as an artificial boundary condition is one of the critical tasks in geotechnical physical modeling of the soil mass especially under cyclic loading such as earthquakes. In general there are two types of boxes which can simulate boundary conditions of scaled models as rigid or flexible conditions. Main purpose of this study is design and construction of a flexible box in a way that effects of boundary condition have been minimized during tests. Construction of this box is the first step of an investigation project which concern to evaluate the effect of lateral spreading as a result of liquefaction on deep foundations of bridges, piers, harbors by using shake table test... 

    Design and Optimization of Helium Extraction and Liquefaction Cycle from Natural Gas by Direct Method

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Ardeshir Larijani, Morteza (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Helium is known as a strategic material due to its unique properties and applications in the development of advanced industries. Currently, natural gas is the only source from which helium can be produced economically. The United States, Qatar, Algeria, and Russia have the largest share of helium production, respectively. In this research, the process of helium extraction from natural gas and its liquefaction, independent of LNG production based on helium in South Pars gas of Iran, which is the largest helium reservoir in the world, were designed and simulated.In the helium liquefaction section, the speed and accuracy of the process simulation were improved by developing a home code based on... 

    Optimal Design of Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for Gas Liquefication Cycle

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ebrahimi Ghalinghieh, Hamed (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Gas liquefication in low temperatures is one of the most challenging fields in engineering due to complexity of its thermodynamic analisys and fabrication of equipments. Heat Exchangers are one of the most important equipments in these prosseces. High prices of Heat Exchangers in these facilities makes their Optimal and cost effective design, of crucial importance. In this thesis three dimensional model of a Plate Fin Heat Exchanger is thoroughly investigated. Fistly, by means of Aspen Heat Exchanger design Software a counter flow Heat Exchanger is designed. This HX is to be placed in Collins cycle, so, working fluid in both hot and cold streams is Helium Gas. The HX then by means of ANSYS... 

    Flexible Design of LNG Multi-Stream Heat Exchanger (Coldbox) with the Focus on Exergy Destruction and Part-load Operation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Fathi, Mohammad Sadegh (Author) ; Saeedi, Mohammad Hassan (Supervisor) ; Hosseini, Vahid (Supervisor)
    Natural gas liquefaction is a gas refrigeration technology, which enables the export of natural gas worldwide, in liquids formed and stored at very low temperatures. In this project, a plate-fin type of heat exchanger, which is used for liquefaction of natural gas (mainly methane) at very low temperatures, has been investigated. The most important and effective part of this gas refrigeration cycle is the cold box heat exchanger. The cold box consists of two or more floors in which some sorts of fins are installed in each floor. In this simulation, the three-sream heat exchanger is designed in such a way that the input temperature of the natural gas is about 200 K and the output is 145 K at a... 

    A Numerical Model Development for Cryogenic Spiral Wound Heat Exchanger Design Considering Temperature dependent thermo-physical properties, Heat Leakage, and Longitudinal Heat Conduction

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Beheshtikhoo, Amir (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Cryogenic temperature is below than 123 Kelvin and any physical study that occurs below this temperature is Cryogenic science. Cryogenic has varaiety of application in medical, industry, food, oil and gas etc. Based on this paper and its relavant source spiral wound HE is one of the most optimum HE for cryogenic application specially for helium liquification cycle. In order to liquefy helium in helium cycle efficiency of spiral wound HE shall be over than 85 percent. For this reason and special fluid behavour in low temperature considering property variation, heat in leak and axial conduction is vital for calculating efficiency in cryogenic temperature of helium liquification cycle. In this... 

    Study of Effective Parameters on Helium Liquefaction Cycle using Exergy Analysis

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Eslami, Mahdi (Author) ; Afshin, Hosein (Supervisor)
    Liquefaction of gases is one of the applications of cryogenic science. Among the gases, Helium has the lowest boiling point, which at a pressure of 1atm is approximately 4.2K. Liquid helium can be used to cool superconductors in transportation equipment, military radars, and medical imaging equipment. For helium liquefaction, various cycles are used; these cycles have different parameters in their structure such as of input mass fraction to expanders, heat exchanger effectiveness, expander arrangement and ... which their analysis for improving the performance of the cycle is important. In this research, the aim is to study 2, 3 and 4 expander cycle with various parameters and structure. For... 

    An Economic Approach To Study & Optimization of Helium liquefier

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mahmoudabad Bozchelou, Mohammad Amin (Author) ; Afshin, Hossein (Supervisor)
    Gas liquefaction is one of the main applications of Cryogenics science. Due to the unique properties of Helium, it is a strategic product in the world. Therefore, appropriate and applicable analysis should be used to investigate and optimize the Helium liquefaction cycles. In the current study, the goal is to find the optimal point with the help of energy and exergy analysis based on economic criterion, for the various parameters of Collins’ cycle. In order to simulate the cycle, a computer code is developed. First, sensitivity analysis of different parameters affecting the exergy efficiency and liquid fraction of the cycle has been done. Then, Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm... 

    Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Pile Foundations in Non-homogeneous Liquefiable Soils

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ghaffaripour, Omid (Author) ; Pak, Ali (Supervisor)
    The behavior of pile foundations during earthquakes is one of the most important factors that affect the performance of structures. Therefore, a large number of studies have been performed on the behavior of pile foundations under dynamic loading. A lot of procedures for the analysis and design of piles under earthquake loading have been developed, especially after the earthquakes which took place in 1964 in Niigata and Alaska. They introduced two major mechanisms for the failure of pile foundations in liquefiable grounds: Bending mechanism and buckling mechanism.In this research the focus is the evaluation of pile failure under buckling mechanism. A fully coupled three-dimensional dynamic...