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    Factors affecting platinum extraction from used reforming catalysts in iodine solutions at temperatures up to 95 °C

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 97, Issue 1-2 , 2009 , Pages 119-125 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Zanjani, A ; Baghalha, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    Platinum extraction from the spent reforming catalysts in iodine-iodide solutions at temperatures from 25 to 95 °C was investigated. The reforming catalyst mostly consists of a porous gamma alumina support with metallic platinum finely dispersed on the walls of the nano-pores of the catalyst support. The effect of a variety of factors, including catalyst particle size, impeller agitation speed, reactant concentrations, liquid to solid mass ratio, temperature and the solution pH on the Pt extraction rate and recovery were investigated. It was found that the catalyst particle sizes less than 106 μm and impeller agitation speed higher than 700 rpm eliminated the effects of catalyst size and... 

    Relative and interactive effects of fluid's physicochemical characteristics on the incipient motion of a granular particle under laminar flow condition

    , Article Journal of Hydraulic Engineering ; Volume 144, Issue 5 , 2018 ; 07339429 (ISSN) Xiao, M ; Gholizadeh Vayghan, A ; Adams, B. T ; Rajabipour, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)  2018
    Abstract
    This paper presents an experimental research for studying the relative and interactive effects of three physicochemical fluid characteristics (viscosity, pH, and ionic strength) on the incipient motion of a granular particle under laminar flow condition. Critical flow velocity for particle's incipient motion, an important factor for evaluating flow-induced soil erosion, was used to quantify the relative erosive capacity of the test fluids. Response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical design of experiments, was used to design and implement 20 test fluids with various levels of the three fluid characteristics. Incipient motion of a highly spherical glass bead positioned atop a specially... 

    Influence of key parameters on crude oil desalting: An experimental and theoretical study

    , Article Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering ; Volume 90-91 , July , 2012 , Pages 107-111 ; 09204105 (ISSN) Vafajoo, L ; Ganjian, K ; Fattahi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2012
    Abstract
    Desalting plants are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. Experiments in both the laboratory and field have shown the desalting process parameters to be very complicated. This research reflects the results of a study conducted regarding the impact of operational desalting parameters, including the effects of temperature, injected chemicals and the pH of the crude oil associated water, on an electrostatic desalter on one of the oil platforms owned by the Iranian Oil Offshore Company in the Persian Gulf. The temperature range applied was between 98 to 133 °C, at which the effects on water and oil density as well as salt... 

    Microbial leaching of a low-grade sphalerite ore using a draft tube fluidized bed bioreactor

    , Article Hydrometallurgy ; Volume 99, Issue 3-4 , 2009 , Pages 131-136 ; 0304386X (ISSN) Soleimani, M ; Hosseini, S ; Roostaazad, R ; Petersen, J ; Mousavi, M ; Kazemi Vasiri, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    The use of a draft tube fluidized bed bioreactor (DTFBB) has been successfully demonstrated for the bioleaching of a chalcopyrite concentrate (Mousavi, et. al., 2005). In the present paper this technique was used for the bioleaching of zinc from a sphalerite bearing low-grade ore. A strain of the thermophilic bacterium, Sulfobacillus, has been isolated from the Kooshk lead and zinc mine near the city of Yazd (Iran) and is tested at temperatures 47 °C-72 °C. This is compared to leaching with a strain of the mesophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which has been adapted to the high levels of zinc and the presence of the low-grade ore, and which was tested at temperatures 18 °C-42 °C. The... 

    Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    , Article Materials Science and Engineering A ; Volume 527, Issue 4-5 , 2010 , Pages 917-926 ; 09215093 (ISSN) Shojaei, A ; Faghihi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed... 

    Mild steel carbon dioxide corrosion modelling in aqueous solutions

    , Article Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology ; Volume 43, Issue 4 , 2008 , Pages 290-296 ; 1478422X (ISSN) Shayegani, M ; Afshar, A ; Ghorbani, M ; Rahmaniyan, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    A model for prediction of corrosion of mild steel in aqueous solutions containing carbon dioxide is proposed. In this model, formation of protective corrosion product is not yet considered, species concentration at the surface was calculated by using molecular diffusion phenomena and the diffusion equations were solved using the finite difference method. Calculated electrochemical currents at the steel surface may be used to determine the corrosion rate. The model was verified experimentally under atmospheric pressure and the effect of parameters, such as liquid velocity and pH, was investigated. The model can predict the electrochemical reaction rates when they were controlled by diffusion... 

    Electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube coated glassy carbon electrode for the improved sensing of tinidazole

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 78 , September , 2012 , Pages 422-429 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Rastgar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    2012
    Abstract
    The electrochemical reduction of tinidazole (TNZ) is studied on gold-nanoparticle/carbon-nanotubes (AuNP/CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes using the linear sweep voltammetry. An electrochemical procedure was used for the deposition of gold nanoparticles onto the carbon nanotube film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The effect of the electrodeposition conditions, e.g., salt concentration and deposition time on the response of the electrode was studied. Also, the effect of experimental parameters, e.g., potential and time of accumulation, pH of the buffered solutions and... 

    Glassy carbon electrode modified with a bilayer of multi-walled carbon nanotube and polypyrrole doped with new coccine: Application to the sensitive electrochemical determination of Sumatriptan

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 56, Issue 27 , November , 2011 , Pages 10032-10038 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Kamalzadeh, Z ; Saberi, R. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    A promising electrochemical sensor was developed based on a layer by layer process by electro-polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of new coccine (NC) as dopant anion on the surface of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) pre-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was used as a new and sensitive electrochemical sensor for voltammetric determination of sumatriptan (SUM). The electrochemical behavior of SUM was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results showed a remarkable increase (∼12 times) in the anodic peak current of SUM in comparison to the bare GCE. The effect of experimental variables such... 

    Glassy carbon electrodes modified with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 55, Issue 11 , 2010 , Pages 3621-3627 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Ghalkhani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2010
    Abstract
    A novel modified glassy carbon electrode with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan is constructed and used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of azathioprine (Aza). The surface morphology and thickness of the film modifier are characterized using atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of the electrode toward Aza are investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic role for the electrochemical reduction of Aza, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and enhancement of the kinetics of the electrode reaction with a significant increase of peak current. The effects of experimental... 

    Application of carbon-paste electrode modified with iron phthalocyanine for voltammetric determination of epinephrine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 137, Issue 2 , 2009 , Pages 669-675 ; 09254005 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Ghalkhani, M ; Amini, M. K ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    A carbon-paste electrode (CPE) modified with iron(II) phthalocyanine was used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of epinephrine (EN). The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward EN, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) were investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV). The results show an efficient catalytic activity of the electrode for the electro-oxidation of EN, which leads to improvement of reversibility of the electrode response and lowering its overpotential by more than 100 mV. The effect of pH and potential sweep rate on the mechanism of the electrode process was investigated. The modified electrode exhibits an... 

    Studies on the recovery of uranium from nuclear industrial effluent using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    , Article International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ; Volume 9, Issue 4 , October , 2012 , Pages 629-636 ; 17351472 (ISSN) Sepehrian, H ; Samadfam, M ; Asadi, Z ; Sharif University of Technology
    Springer  2012
    Abstract
    In this paper, the sorption of uranium onto nanoporous silica adsorbent in the presence of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride and phosphate was studied. The effect of contact time between the nanoporous sorbent and aqueous solution, pH and initial concentration of uranium was also investigated. Uranium sorption onto nanoporous silica adsorbent is a very fast process as sorption rate increases with pH increment. Optimum pH for uranium sorption was 4-8. Experimental sorption isotherm is successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results obtained by batch experiments showed that the presence of high concentration of nitrate, sulfate, chloride and phosphate anions alone had... 

    Uranium(VI) sorption behavior onto amberlite CG-400 anion exchange resin: Effects of pH, contact time, temperature and presence of phosphate

    , Article Annals of Nuclear Energy ; Volume 48 , October , 2012 , Pages 21-24 ; 03064549 (ISSN) Semnani, F ; Asadi, Z ; Samadfam, M ; Sepehrian, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier  2012
    Abstract
    In this paper, uranium sorption onto amberlite CG-400 anion exchange resin in the presence of phosphate anions was studied. The effect of contact time between the sorbent and aqueous solution, pH, initial concentration of uranium and temperature were also investigated. Kinetic studies show that uranium sorption onto amberlite CG-400 resin in the presence of phosphate is a fast process and follows pesudo-second-order kinetics. It was also found that the pH value and the presence of phosphate play very important roles in the uranium sorption onto CG-400 resin. Optimum pH for uranium sorption in the presence of phosphate anions was about 3.5. The experimental sorption isotherm is successfully... 

    Thermal control of the size and crystalline phase of CdS nanoparticles

    , Article Nanotechnology ; Volume 17, Issue 15 , 2006 , Pages 3812-3816 ; 09574484 (ISSN) Sedaghat, Z ; Taghavinia, N ; Marandi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    CdS nanoparticles were grown using CdSO4 and Na 2S2O3 as the precursors and thioglycerol (TG) as the capping agent. TG was shown to exhibit a catalytic role in the reaction and also acted as a capping agent. It was demonstrated that size growth is linearly related to the temperature of the reaction, i.e.the sizes can be controllably adjusted by temperature. The crystalline phase of the nanocrystals was also dependent on the temperature of growth: higher temperature favours the cubic phase. The pH also plays an important role in nanoparticle growth, as lower pH leads to a higher release rate of sulfur species. At pH as high as 10, the growth rate remains slow even at boiling temperature. This... 

    Partially hydrolyzed kappa carrageenan - polyacrylonitrile as a novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogel: synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors

    , Article Polymer Engineering and Science ; Volume 46, Issue 12 , 2006 , Pages 1778-1786 ; 00323888 (ISSN) Savoji, M. T ; Pourjavadi, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2006
    Abstract
    In this paper, synthesis and swelling behavior of a novel superabsorbent hydrogel based on kappa carrageenan (κC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was investigated. To achieve partially hydrolyzed κC-PAN hydrogel, physical mixture of κC and PAN was hydrolyzed by NaOH solution. During alkaline hydrolysis, the nitrile groups of PAN are converted to a mixture of hydrophilic carboxamide and carboxylate groups follow by in situ crosslinking of the grafted PAN chains. The reaction variables affecting on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel were systematically optimized to achieve a hydrogel with swelling capacity as high as possible. Under the optimized conditions concluded, super swelling hydrogel... 

    Thermodynamics of extraction of RE O4 - from aqueous sulfuric acid media with Tri-n-butyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene

    , Article Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science ; Volume 32, Issue 1 , 2001 , Pages 5-10 ; 10735615 (ISSN) Sadrnezhaad, S. K ; Keshavarz Alamdari, E ; Sharif University of Technology
    2001
    Abstract
    Rhenium distribution between Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in kerosene and sulfuric aqueous media is investigated under different temperatures, acidities, and TBP concentrations. Results show an exothermic extraction reaction with a distribution factor that decreases with the increase of the temperature and increases with the increase of the acidity and the TBP concentration. The stoichiometry of the reaction indicates neutralization of 1 mole of H+ with 1 mole of ReO4- and solvating of a neutral molecule with four molecules of TBP. The structure of the complexes formed is, therefore, 4TBP · HReO4. The apparent Gibbs free energy of the formation of 4TBP · HReO4 from TBP, ReO4-, and... 

    Effective factors in the treatment of kerosene-water emulsion by using UF membranes

    , Article Journal of Hazardous Materials ; Volume 161, Issue 2-3 , 2009 , Pages 1216-1224 ; 03043894 (ISSN) Rezvanpour, A ; Roostaazad, R ; Hesampour, M ; Nyström, M ; Ghotbi, C ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    The effects of different parameters including membrane type (regenerated cellulose and polysulphone), transmembrane pressure (TMP), the content of oil in the feed, the flow velocity of the feed and pH on the ultrafiltration of an emulsion of kerosene in water were studied. It was found that the important factors affecting ultrafiltration were, in order, membrane type, pressure and oil concentration. The greatest flux at the optimum conditions here of 3 bar, an oil content of 3% (v/v) and with membrane type C30F was predicted as 108 L/(m2 h) that was within the range of the confidence limit of the measured value of 106 L/(m2 h). The normalised FTIR results of the virgin cellulosic membranes... 

    Effect of pH on aerobic granulation and treatment performance in sequencing batch reactors

    , Article Chemical Engineering and Technology ; Volume 38, Issue 5 , 2015 , Pages 851-858 ; 09307516 (ISSN) Rezasoltani, S ; Shayegan, J ; Jalali, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Wiley-VCH Verlag  2015
    Abstract
    Two sequencing batch reactors were operated to investigate the effect of influent alkalinity and reactor pH on aerobic granulation. In the first reactor R1 with high influent alkalinity the pH was adjusted in the neutral range, and in the second reactor R2 with low alkalinity the pH was held within the acidic range. The R1-dominating species were bacteria and the appearance time of granules was three weeks after reactor start-up. On the other hand, the acidic environment of R2 provided favorable conditions for fungal growth, and rapid granule formation occurred within the first week of operation. The varying microbial structure of granules resulted in different reactor performance in terms... 

    TiO2 nanofibre assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 19 dye from aqueous solution

    , Article Environmental Technology ; Volume 30, Issue 3 , 2009 , Pages 233-239 ; 09593330 (ISSN) Rezaee, A ; Ghaneian, M. T ; Taghavinia, N ; Khajeh Aminian, M ; Hashemian, S. J ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) dye has been studied using TiO2 nanofibre as the photocatalyst in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. Titanium dioxide nanofibre was prepared using a templating method with tetraisopropylorthotitanate as a precursor. The experiments were carried out in the presence of the TiO2 nanofibre, and the effects of pH and electron acceptors on the degradation process were investigated. In order to observe the quality of the aqueous solution, chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements were also carried out before and after the treatments. The photocatalytic decomposition of RB19 was most efficient in acidic solution. With the addition of... 

    Synthesis and evaluation of pH and thermosensitive pectin-based superabsorbent hydrogel for oral drug delivery systems

    , Article Starch/Staerke ; Volume 61, Issue 3-4 , 2009 , Pages 161-172 ; 00389056 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Barzegar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    2009
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to produce intelligent pectin-based superabsorbent polymers (SAP) to be used as pH- and thermosensitive carriers for the controlled delivery of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The superabsorbent formation was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of pH, ionic strength, temperature, porosity, particle size and levels of loaded drug on drug release profile in various surrounding media were investigated. Each sample was well characterized through swelling studies. The molecular weight between crosslinks (M̄C), crosslinking density (ve) polymer-solvent interaction parameter... 

    Synthesis, characterization and swelling behavior of chitosan-sucrose as a novel full-polysaccharide superabsorbent hydrogel

    , Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science ; Volume 109, Issue 4 , 15 August , 2008 , Pages 2648-2655 ; 00218995 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Aghajani, V ; Ghasemzadeh, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    2008
    Abstract
    A novel full-polysaccharide hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking of chitosan with periodate-oxidized sucrose. A tetraaldehyde molecule is synthesized via periodate oxidation of sucrose and then applied as a crosslinking agent to form a new hydrogel network. A mechanism for the superabsorbent hydrogel formation via reductive N-alkylation was also suggested. The structure of the hydrogel was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that crosslinking of chitosan can improve its thermal stability. The effects of crosslinker concentration, pH, and inorganic salt on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel were studied. The...