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    Preparation of New Titanium Nitride-Carbon Nanocomposites and Evaluation of their Electrocatalytic Behavior

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Yousefi, Elahe (Author) ; Ghorbani, Mohammad (Supervisor) ; Dolati, Abolghasem (Supervisor)
    Titanium nitride-carbon nanocomposites are synthesized by the reaction of TiCl4 and NaN3 in supercritical benzene medium that also serves as a carbon source. In order to improve the crystallinity of the as-prepared precursor (SI), it is further heat-treated at 1000 ˚C for 3-10 h using anhydrous ammonia and UHP nitrogen atmospheres at 1000 ˚C (SIII-SV). Moreover, to improve electrochemical behavior, the synthesized nanocomposite (SIV) is modified with Pt nanoparticles using a polyol process. For better understanding of synthesized catalyst nature and justifying their variant ORR activity several analyses are done. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron... 

    Synthesis and Electrochemical Evaluation of Graphene-Ni/Cu/Zn Nanocomposite Coating Modified by Pt/Ru Nanoparticles

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Yaghoubinezhad, Yadollah (Author) ; Afshar, Abdollah (Supervisor)
    In this research,Graphene Oxide nanoplatelets (GO) were synthesized by chemically modified Hummer's method.After the GO nanosheets electrochemically reduced to graphene, nanoparticles imposed to this thin film.This optimized nanostructure coating was utilized for investigating the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER) over the copper substrate. In order to optimize the kinetic of electrodeposition and reduction, diverse electrochemical approaches such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometic and potentiometric as well as pulse electrodeposition methods were employed. Electrochemical procedures were aligned by Design of Experiment (DOE) ... 

    Investigation of Reaction Times and Maneuver for Bus Drivers Based on Road and Drivers Characteristics Using Driving Simulator

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yahyazadeh, Ehsan (Author) ; Vaziri, Manouchehr (Supervisor)
    One of the most prominent issues in road safety is to observe reaction time and sight distance in geometric design. Various sight distances are available is Iran's specifications on "Geometric Design of Roadways" taken from the AASHTO standard from which stopping sight distance, decision sight distance and their corresponding car driver reaction times are noteworthy. This research puts effort in obtaining these values for bus drivers in Iran. To achieve this, a test designed using bus driving simulator apparatus, developed in K.N.Toosi University of Technology, was conducted on a number of bus drivers. Obtained results of driver behavior were then analyzed and compared to corresponding... 

    Dynamic NMR Study of Ethyle-4-Morpholine-Carbotiate

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Yavari, Shadi (Author) ; Tafazzoli, Mohsen (Supervisor)
    In this project rotational barrier around the C-N bond in 4-ethyle-morpholine- carboxylate has been studied using DNMR spectroscopy. Spectra were taken at variable temperature, and then with simulation of bandshape broadening pattern at coalescence region, rate constants of exchange were obtained for all temperatures. For simulation of line-shape broadening Spinworks software was used, that with two interfaces made possible simulation with two bandshape simulator programs, DNMR and MEXICO. The rate constants obtained from simulations, were used for calculation of thermodynamic activation parameters (∆G#, ∆H#, ∆S# and Ea). ∆G# 298 value of 13.66 Kcal/mol for 4-ethyle-morpholine- carboxylate... 

    New Methods for the Synthesis of N,S‑Heterocycles and Dithiocarbamates Using Amine Derivatives and CS2

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Goudarzi, Mehri (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    In the first section, a novel and efficient multicomponent reaction for the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives is described under catalyst-free conditions using unltrasonic irradiation. The reactions were performed via a one-pot four-component condensation of secondary amines, carbon disulfide, isocyanides, and gem-dicyano olefins at room temperature to afford polysubstituted pyrrolidines diastereoselectively in 56-96% yields. This is the first report of Mumm-type rearrangement with dithiocarbamates followed by intramolecular cyclization which lead to the preparation of the key structure of pyrrolidine.In the second section, an efficient and unprecedented green protocol... 

    Simulation of Carbonate Matrix Acidizing Using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE)at Darcy Scale

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Goudarzi, Mojtaba (Author) ; Jamshidi, Saeed (Supervisor) ; Bazargan, Mohammad (Supervisor)
    Injection of acid into the carbonate rock dissolves the rock, and the porous medium is constantly changing. As a result, the boundaries between the acid and the porous medium, which are in fact the interface between the solid phase and the liquid phase, are constantly changing. Therefore, on the issue of acid injection into carbonate rock, we are facing dynamic boundary conditions. Also, due to the simultaneous solution of transfer and reaction phenomena, modeling acid injection into carbonate rock faces many challenges.In such problems, the ALE method, which is a combination of the best features of the Lagrangian method and the Eulerian method, offers a very precise solution and is used as... 

    Design of a Double-Network Hydrogel Scaffold for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Ganjali, Amir Reza (Author) ; Abdekhodaei, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Osteoarthritis has always been one of the most common diseases in middle age because it causes severe pain and inflammation in the joints of the body. Cartilage tissue does not have the ability to repair itself. For this reason, fabricating and designing the most efficient, least-expensive, and most convenient methods for the treatment of cartilage defects is always an important issue. Today, there are surgical and injectable methods to relieve pain and initiate the body's natural healing response. But due to the many disadvantages and limitations of these methods, tissue engineering science has turned to modifying these methods or providing new methods. One of these methods is the use of... 

    Modeling and Simulation of Zinc-Bromine Redox Flow Batteries

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Gol Ahmadi Avilagh, Bahram (Author) ; Molaei Dehkordi, Asghar (Supervisor)
    Zinc-bromine redox flow batteries are promising for large-scale energy storage applications due to their high energy density and open-circuit voltage. Proposed models for predicting these batteries' performance are limited due to challenges such as zinc deposition during the charging step and the utilization of a complexing agent. In this study, a 2D dynamic model was developed to investigate the battery performance. The kinetic equations for half-reactions are considered according to their two-step electron transfer mechanism. The model predictions were validated against experimental data reported in the literature for different current densities. Afterward, effects of various operating... 

    Chemical Reaction Systems with Toric Steady States

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Grami Moghaddam, Morteza (Author) ; Pournaki, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Mass-action chemical reaction systems are frequently used in computational biology. The corresponding polynomial dynamical systems are often large (consisting of tens or even hundreds of ordinary differential equations) and poorly parameterized (due to noisy measurement data and a small number of data points and repetitions). Therefore, it is often difficult to establish the existence of (positive) steady states or to determine whether more complicated phenomena such as multi-stationarity exist. If, however, the steady state ideal of the system is a binomial ideal, then we show that these questions can be answered easily. The focus of this work is on systems with this property, and we say... 

    Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via Domino Knoevenagel Hetero Diels–Alder Reaction on Thiocarbonyls and Investigation of Tandem Dinucleophilic Addition on Pyridinium Salts

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kiamehr, Mostafa (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    In the first chapter, three efficient synthesis of novel polyheterocyclic indole and thiochromone-annulated thiopyranocoumarin derivatives are achieved via domino Knoevenagel hetero Diels–Alder reaction of O-acrylated and O-propargylated salicylaldehyde derivatives with indolin-2-thiones and 4-hydroxy dithiocoumarin. The domino Knoevenagel-hetero-Diels–Alder reactions are very efficient process that allows the formation of two or more rings at once, avoiding sequential chemical transformations. The products are formed in good-to-excellent yields with high regio- and stereoselectivity. The major advantage of this reaction is the ease of the work-up during which the products can be isolated... 

    Electrochemical Hydrogen Generation Using Metal Organic Frameworks Derived Catalysts

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Koohdareh, Amir Reza (Author) ; Gholami, Mohamad Reza (Supervisor)
    In recent years, the widespread investigation on multi-transition metal oxides that with two or more transition metal oxides, have been increased rapidly for electrochemical application due to low cost, high conductivity and good electrochemical performance other than single metal oxides. In this project, CuCo2O4 nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by decomposing of CuCo-MOF as the template. The as prepared samples were used to synthesis a new nanocomposite of MoS2 and CuCo2O4. The best ratio of the two component were optimized to prepare the best electrocatalyst for Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The structure of prepared nanocomposite were investigated by various techniques such as... 

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Koushki, Behzad (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    We have reported a new and efficient synthesis of a broad spectrum of heterotetracyclic benzoxazocines via unique tandem 1,3-dinucleophilic addition of different bifunctional nucleophiles to quinolinium and isoquinolinium salts. The reaction generally involves the initial addition of nucleophiles to quinolinium salts to form enamine intermediate which can be trapped by intramolecular O/S-alkylation of nucleophiles. In the third part, as continues, we have reported another method which consists of Anthocyanidins and Thioindoles by using water and acetic acid as the solvent. This protocol is a very mild and simple method for construction of eight-membered ring in fused heterocycles in a... 

    Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Influence of Chemical Environments and Investigation of their Effects on the Kinetics of Redox Reactions using Metal and Metal Oxide Nanocatalyst

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kohantorabi, Mona (Author) ; Gholami, Mohammad Reza (Supervisor)
    Bimetallic nanoparticles with unique structure, synergistic effect between two metals, and the tunable physical/chemical properties have been used for catalysis. Various methods exist for the staibility, and improvement of the catalytic performance of nanoparticles. In this thesis, different co-catalysts were applied to increase tha staibility, and activity of nanoparticles and metal oxides. In this way, Ni-based bimetallic nanoparticles including CuNi, CoNi, and AgNi, and AgPt with different concentrations were synthesized on the cerium oxide nanorods derived from cerium metal-organic frameworks and magnetic graphene oxide nanosheets, respectively and characterized. The catalytic... 

    Immobilization of Pd Nanoparticles on Functionalized SBA-15 and a Robust Mesoporous Catalyst for Reduction and Oxidation Reactions and Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Pyrroles Via Multicomponent Reactions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kalvani, Pedram (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    In first part Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was synthesized by template synthesis method and the surface of SBA-15 was functionalized with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 5-Phenyl-1H-tetrazole. Palladium nanoparticles were immobilized on the aforementioned mesoporous support. Characterization of catalyst regarding to its structure, morphology and other parameters was investigated by physiochemical analysis such as XRD, SEM, TEM, and TGA. This heterogeneous catalyst has high capability in reduction of nitrobenzenes and selective oxidation of primary alcohols which respectively gain aminoarenes and benzaldehydes in high yields. Reduction and oxidation reactions are done in water as a green... 

    Preparation of Nitrogen Rich Magnetic Nanocomposite for Immobilization of Transition Metals and Investigation of their Catalytic Activity in Organic Reactions

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Keshavarzi, Nahid (Author) ; Pourjavadi, Ali (Supervisor) ; Matloubi, Firouz (Supervisor)
    In this thesis, heterogeneous magnetic catalysts immobilize have been designed and synthesized in a triazine polymer support. Triazine polymeric support increases the amount of nitrogen due to their high levels of nitrogen, which in turn reduces the amount of catalyst consumed and reduces metal waste and increases catalyst activate. Melamine and TCT from the triazine family are used because of the ability to form hydrogen bonds, chelate with metals, and the interaction of π-π as an appropriate ligand for stabilizing metals on substrates. In this thesis, various nitrogen-rich polymers based on triazines in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles coated with silica and their compositions with... 

    Synthesis of Pd-based Magnetic Nanocatalyst and its Application on C-F Activation in Coupling Reactions, Using Sm for Cyanation Reacion and Diastereoselective Synthesis of Novel Hit Compounds and Their Pharmacological Evaluation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karimi, Ashkan (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    Formation of C-C and C-hetero atom bonds in coupling reactions is among the most important organic chemistry reactions, which is useful for achieving the complex molecules from simple ones. The goal of this thesis, was using the organometallic and also metal free methods in coupling reactions and getting the advantage of them in the synthesis of novel hit compounds. In this way, some novel reactions were designed and some novel catalysts were synthesised and identified. Finally, computational quantum chemistry and computational drug design were used as powerful tools for supporting the reaction mechanism, electronic and structural studies and pharmacological evaluation. C-X bond activation... 

    Synthesis and Application of Acidic and Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids in Mannich Reaction and Esterification of Fatty Acids

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Karbalaie Reza, Mina (Author) ; Mahmoodi Hashemi, Mohammed (Supervisor)
    The current study deals with application of a surfactant-like Brønsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogensulfate (catalys 1) for Mannich reaction at room temperature. The reaction has been efficiently proceeds in water as solvent without using any harmful and expensive organic additives. Our observation has been shown that the reaction is selective for cyclohexanone and no product was observed by using cyclopentanone at room temperature. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to provide evidence about the nature of reactivity of the cyclohexanone/cyclopentanone. The activity of the catalyst 2 (1-dodecyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium... 

    Investigation of Water Splitting Performance of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-67 and Graphene Quantum Dots Composite

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Kabirian Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza (Author) ; Simchi, Abdolreza (Supervisor)
    Depleting resources and heavy pollution of fossil fuels have drawn the world's attention to clean energy and the most ideal one is hydrogen. Water splitting is one of the most effective ways to produce hydrogen and due to slow kinetic rate different kind of catalysts (optical, electrochemical, etc.) are developed for this reaction. In this work a ZIF-67 and N-doped graphene quantum dots composite is developed and its electrocatalytic performance in oxygen evolution reaction is evaluated. The synthesized graphene quantum dots are between 2-4 nm and the incorporation of nitrogen atom in their structure was verified by FTIR analysis. The metal-organic framework which is produced in this work... 

    Study of Catalytic Activity of Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks in the Epoxide Ring-Opening Reactions

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Chegeni, Mohsen (Author) ; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba (Supervisor)
    In current research, two zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks, MIP-202 (Zr) and UIO-66(CO2H)2 were employed as catalysts in the epoxy ring-opening reactions by amino and alcoholic nucleophiles. Firstly, these metal-organic frameworks were prepared under mild synthetic conditions and then characterized by means of spectral techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron microscopy Scanning (SEM) and X-ray energy diffraction (EDAX) spectroscopy were confirmed. Finally, their catalytic activity in epoxy ring-opening reactions was investigated and in to determine optimal conditions, the... 

    A Five-Component Reaction for the Synthesis of New Benzylidenemalononitrile Derivatives Using Ultrasound Irradiation

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Chamani, Fatemeh (Author) ; Matloubi Moghaddam, Firouz (Supervisor)
    Nowadays, using one-pot multicomponent reactions in the synthesis of organic and natural compounds has attracted a lot of attention due to their ideal synthetic features. These types of reactions play an important role in synthetic chemistry by reducing reaction steps, costs, wastes, and by-products and increasing the reaction efficiency as an efficient method. The issue that led to this project was the development of a novel procedure for developing synthetic methods for the synthesis of thioxo-pyrrolidine 3-carbutamide compounds. In this study, the first Mumm rearrangement was performed by using dithiocarbamates by applying ultrasonic irradiation. The reaction was investigated in methanol...