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    Development and Application of Carbon Nanomaterials-based Polymer Modified Electrodes for Electrochemical Determination of Pharmaceutical Compounds

    , Ph.D. Dissertation Sharif University of Technology Kamalzadeh, Zahra (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this thesis, in the first part, a promising electrochemical sensor was developed based on a layer by layer process by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of new coccine (NC) as dopant anion on the surface of the CNTs pre-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was used as a new and sensitive electrochemical sensor for voltammetric determination of sumatriptan (SUM). The results showed a remarkable increase in the anodic peak current of SUM in comparison to the bare GCE. In the second part, the electropolymerization of pyrrole was performed in the presence of Nitrazine Yellow (NY) as a dopant anion on the surface of the electrode precoated with CNTs. The... 

    Synthesis and Characterization of Supercapacitor Electrodes Based on Graphene and MnO2 Nanostructure

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Mardi, Saeed (Author) ; Moshfegh, Alireza (Supervisor) ; Moradlou, Omran (Co-Advisor)
    Abstract
    Supercapacitors represent a new class of energy storage devices that have been attracted many researchers in last few years. Graphene with unique properties such as superior electrical conductivity and large specific surface area is one of the most suitable materials in supercapacitor applications. Besides, metal oxides are being used as active compounds in supercapacitors due to their role in redox reactions. In this research, synthesis and characterization of supercapacitor electrodes based on graphene and MnO2 nanostructured materials was studied under different conditions. For this purpose, Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by Hummers’ method and then, it was deposited on a nickel foam... 

    Preparation and Application of the Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Carbon Nanomaterials for Studies of the Electrochemical Behavior and Quantitative Determination of Metoclopramide and Furazolidone

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Naderi, Leila (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the first part, a novel electrochemical sensor based on nanocellulose-carbon nanoparticles (NC–CNPs) nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is developed for the analysis of metoclopramide (MCP). The electrochemical behavior of MCP was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Characterization of the surface morphology and properties of NC/CNPs was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effective experimental variables, such as scan rate, pH of the supporting electrolyte, drop size of the casted modifier suspension and accumulation... 

    Electrochemical Determination of Piroxicam at thin Carbon
    Nanoparticle Composite And Investigation of the Electrochemical Behavior and Synthesis of Catechols in the Presence of Mercapto Methyl Tetrazol as a Nucleophile

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jokar, Effat (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    The electrochemical oxidation behavior of the anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam was investigated. A carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-chitosan (CS) film-coated graphite electrode (PGE) was fabricated and the electrochemical behaviors of piroxicam on its surface was investigated by the means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In comparison to the bare PGE, at the surface of the CNP-CS film modified electrode, the oxidation peak current of piroxicam increased significantly and the peak potential shifted negatively. Consequently, a simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for the determination of piroxicam. The... 

    Experimental and Theoretical investigation of Electro-oxidation of C1 Compounds on Nickel and Copper Surfaces

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Zeinaghaji, Mohammad (Author) ; Gobal, Fereydoon (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    A study of the electro-oxidation and surface reactions of C1 compounds on Ni and Cu electrodes, Ni(111) and Cu (111) has been performed by methods of cyclic voltammetry, BOC-MP and DFT. The diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the electro-oxidation of methanol and formaldehyde in alkaline solution on Ni electrode have been derived. Values around 2.27×10-6 cm2s-1, 1.98×10-5cm2s-1, 12.15 Kcal mol-1 and 11.65 Kcal mol-1 have been obtained respectively. In theoretical study , the elimination of hydrogen from CH3 and CH2 groups has been proposed as a mechanism in surface reactions of methanol and formaldehyde on Ni(111) ... 

    Study of Supramolecular Chemistry of Fullerene (C60) with Azobenzene Tweezer Linking to Biaza-Crown Macrocycles Coordinated to Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology (Author) ; Ghanbari, Bahram (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In this project, in continuation of a PhD resreach undertaken in this research group in 2017, the synthesis and study of two new tweezer and linker molecule bearing azobenzene moiety were carried out, characterized by applying IR spectroscopy, ¹H and ¹³C {¹H} NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. Firstly, interaction of T2 with meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato zinc(II) and aluminium tetraphenylporphyrinato were studied using the fluorescence spectroscopy. The formation constant of T2 in cis and trans isomer with ZnTPP was measured as 5.1(±0.4) ×108 and 2.0×108(±1074) dm6mol-2, respectively. The formation constant of T2 in with... 

    Preparation and Investigation of the Electrochemical Behavior of Sensors Modified with Reduced Graphene Oxide nanohybrids for Electrochemical Determinations of Some Biologically Important Compounds

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Navabi, Mostafa (Author) ; Shahrokhian, Saeed (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    In the first work, a stable composite film of silver nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide is easily prepared. The surface morphology of the modified electrode is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The electrochemical behavior of TNZ on the surface of the modified electrode is investigated by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The prepared modified electrode acts as a highly sensitive platform for the voltammetric determination of tinidazole (TNZ). Voltammetric investigations demonstrated that, in comparison to the glassy carbon electrode individually coated with... 

    Using Body Fluids for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    , M.Sc. Thesis Sharif University of Technology Jalali Dowlatshahi, Sayeh (Author) ; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad Jafar (Supervisor)
    Abstract
    Today, despite the notable progress in diagnostics and therapeutics, cancer remains the second cause of death worldwide. This rather high mortality rate is often attributed to cancers diagnosed at late stages, including prostate cancer. Among the techniques approved for prostate cancer diagnosis, total or free prostate-specific antigen screening using blood serum samples is the sole method able to detect prostate cancer at an early stage. This test has led to a significant decrease in prostate cancer-related deaths. Nonetheless, it possesses several drawbacks, such as the complex, costly, and time-consuming conventional methods utilized in clinical laboratories to assess the concentration of... 

    Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    , Article Talanta ; Vol. 128, issue , 2014 , Pages 231-236 ; ISSN: 00399140 Es-Haghi, A ; Baghernejad, M ; Bagheri, H ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Sol-gel based solid-phase microextraction fibers supported by a stainless steel wire were fabricated and employed for GC-MS determination of oxadiargyl in real samples. The fibers were based on four compounds with different polarity: polar and non-polar (end-capped) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and poly(ethylene-propyleneglycol)-monobutyl ether (UCON). For this purpose, the surface of the stainless steel was initially modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The results of the modification procedure were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. After the modification, four different sol-gel based SPME fibers with... 

    Modification of well-aligned carbon nanotubes with dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate: Application to highly sensitive nanomolar detection of simvastatin

    , Article Journal of Applied Electrochemistry ; Volume 44, Issue 2 , February , 2014 , Pages 263-277 ; ISSN: 0021891X Fayazfar, H ; Afshar, A ; Dolati, A ; Ghalkhani, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    The first usage of dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate (DHP)-modified highly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) forests in a sensor configuration was developed to investigate the electrochemical oxidation and determination of simvastatin (SV) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Synthesis of well-aligned MWCNTs on a conductive Ta substrate by catalytic vapor deposition technique using a common chemical, ethylenediamine, and without being plasma-aided was reported. The electrochemical behavior and oxidation of SV at the aligned MWCNTs/DHP/Ta electrode were discussed in detail through cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. This modified electrode showed considerably higher... 

    Highly sensitive 3D gold nanotube ensembles: Application to electrochemical determination of metronidazole

    , Article Electrochimica Acta ; Volume 106 , 2013 , Pages 288-292 ; 00134686 (ISSN) Mollamahale, Y. B ; Ghorbani, M ; Ghalkhani, M ; Vossoughi, M ; Dolati, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    2013
    Abstract
    Three-dimensional gold nanoelectrode ensembles (3D GNE) have proven to be promising nanoelectrodes by representing much higher sensitivity compared to both their 2D nanostructures and bulk counterparts. The sensitivity of 3D gold nanotubes (GNTs) fabricated through electrodeposition inside the pores of polycarbonate templates, was examined toward metronidazole (MTZ) as one of their pharmaceutical applications. The electrochemical behavior of MTZ at the 3D GNT-modified electrode was discussed in detail through cyclic voltammetry (CV) which suggested an irreversible reduction of nitro group to the corresponding hydroxylamine and a subsequently reversible redox peak for the corresponding... 

    The Pt/Ni modified TiO 2 nanotubes and its catalytic activity toward glucose

    , Article ECS Transactions, 1 May 2011 through 6 May 2011 ; Volume 35, Issue 35 , May , 2011 , Pages 63-69 ; 19385862 (ISSN) ; 9781607682950 (ISBN) Mahshid, S. S ; Mahshid, S ; Ghahremaninezhad, A ; Dolati, A ; Ghorbani, M ; Luo, S ; Yang, L ; Cai, Q ; Sharif University of Technology
    2011
    Abstract
    The catalytic activity of Pt/Ni/TiO 2 nanotubes electrode toward glucose has been studied. Fabrication of Pt/Ni nanostructures was done in a single-bath solution through electrochemical pulse method by changing the deposition potential between -0.3 and -4 V vs. SCE, respectively. The resulting modified electrode represented high conductivity due to the effective presence of metallic components and uniform surface area caused by dispersion of Pt and Ni nanostructures. The scanning electron microscopy images also confirmed that a large amount of metals colonies were well-dispersed at the edge of the TiO 2 nanotubes. In addition, the Pt/Ni TiO 2 nanotubes modified electrode exhibited an... 

    Synthesis and characterization of semi-conductive nanocomposite based on hydrolyzed collagen and in vitro electrically controlled drug release study

    , Article Polymer (United Kingdom) ; Volume 76 , October , 2015 , Pages 287-294 ; 00323861 (ISSN) Pourjavadi, A ; Doroudian, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2015
    Abstract
    In this study, a semi-conductive nanocomposite for electrically controlled drug delivery is introduced. Hydrolyzed collagen known as a naturally abundant polypeptide was modified with polycaprolactone. This modification changed the mechanical properties of the hydrolyzed-collagen. A hydrogel compound was synthesized through radical co-polymerization of acrylic acid on the backbone of this biocompatible polymer in the presence of a crosslinker. The reaction parameters affecting the water absorbency of the hydrogel were optimized using Taguchi method. In situ polymerization of aniline, incorporated conductive nanofiber pathways throughout the hydrogel matrix. 1H NMR, TGA, AFM, SEM, FTIR,... 

    Enhanced hardness and corrosion resistance of Zn/SiO2 films by electrodeposition

    , Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society ; Volume 162, Issue 9 , 2015 , Pages D480-D485 ; 00134651 (ISSN) Ghorbani, M ; Salehi, F ; Razavizadeh, O ; Sharif University of Technology
    Electrochemical Society Inc  2015
    Abstract
    The electrodeposition of Zn-SiO2 nanocomposites has been investigated with different electrolytes: triethanolamine as a dispersing agent, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and dodecyl dimethylamine oxide as ionic (cationic) and non-ionic surfactants. Appropriate electrophoretic potentials for each solution were obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the most stable SiO2 nanoparticles with zeta potential range of 25 to 41 mV, along with highest SiO2 mobility of 0.4 to 0.7 m2/V.s were dispersed by triethanolamine in ethanol and the resulting coating adhesion improved up to 5.87 MPa in the standard pull off test, with the enhanced hardness of... 

    Electrochemical determination of CdS band edges and semiconducting parameters

    , Article Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan ; Volume 88, Issue 6 , February , 2015 , Pages 814-820 ; 00092673 (ISSN) Miandari, S ; Jafarian, M ; Mahjani, M. G ; Gobal, F ; Heidaripour, A ; Sharif University of Technology
    Chemical Society of Japan  2015
    Abstract
    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin film was electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) by chronoamperometry. The SEM images showed that hexagonal sheets of CdS deposited on the ITO surface. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed this structure for CdS crystals and the average of crystalline size and the lattice constant parameters are approximately 39.54 and a = 0.4136, c = 0.6696 nm respectively. Photo-electrochemical investigations were performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. CdS band edges and density of states (DOS) were determined by CV technique. The band gap energy (Ebg) was measured... 

    Multistep reduction of oxygen on polycrystalline silver in alkaline solution

    , Article Cuihua Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Catalysis ; Volume 31, Issue 5 , 2010 , Pages 541-546 ; 02539837 (ISSN) Jafarian, M ; Gobal, F ; Mahjani, M. G ; Hosseini Aliabadi, M ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Oxygen reduction on a polycrystalline silver electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction occurred by a two-electron pathway. The steps in the mechanism were observed in the cyclic voltammograms recorded with different scan rates. The intermediates formed in the steps were detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

    The pH effects on the capacitive behavior of nanostructured molybdenum oxide

    , Article Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry ; Volume 14, Issue 4 , 2010 , Pages 681-686 ; 14328488 (ISSN) Farsi, H ; Gobal, F ; Raissi, H ; Moghiminia, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Abstract
    Nanostructured molybdenum oxide having a particle size in the range of 30-80 nm was prepared by potentiodynamic electrodeposition method, and the effects of H2SO4 concentration on its capacitive behavior were studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Poor to fair capacitive behaviors were witnessed depending on the electrolyte concentration and conditions of charge/discharge. Increasing acid concentration to 0.02 M had favorable effect, while beyond that, the effect was detrimental. Capacitance around 600 F g-1 was recorded in the potential range of 0 to -0.55 V vs. Ag/AgCl  

    Nanoporous gold as a suitable substrate for preparation of a new sensitive electrochemical aptasensor for detection of salmonella typhimurium

    , Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical ; Volume 255 , 2018 , Pages 1536-1544 ; 09254005 (ISSN) Ranjbar, S ; Shahrokhian, S ; Nurmohammadi, F ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier B.V  2018
    Abstract
    Nowadays, achievement to easy, fast, reliable and cost-effective techniques and tools is one of the most important challenges in detection of microorganisms. Salmonella typhimurium is one of the most important pathogenic bacteria that affect the human health and environmental infections. In this work we report a new, stable, biocompatible and cost-effective platform for construction of an aptasensor based on nanoporous gold (NPG) for detection of S. typhimurium. Nanoporous gold is electrochemically synthesized using Au-Cu alloy at the surface of Au/GCE. Thiol functionalized aptamer is used for effective linking to the surface of NPG/Au/GCE via self-assemble monolayers (SAMs) formation.... 

    Development of a sensitive diagnostic device based on zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 using ferrocene-graphene oxide as electroactive indicator for pseudomonas aeruginosa detection

    , Article ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering ; Volume 7, Issue 15 , 2019 , Pages 12760-12769 ; 21680485 (ISSN) Shahrokhian, S ; Ranjbar, S ; Sharif University of Technology
    American Chemical Society  2019
    Abstract
    Since Gram-negative bacteria have a predominant role in nosocomial infections, there are high demands to develop a fast and sensitive method for diagnosis of bacteria in clinical samples. To address this challenge, we designed a novel electrochemical biosensor based on aptamers immobilized in engineered zeolitic imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIFs-8) via EDC-NHS chemistry. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were conducted to monitor the electrochemical characterization. With respect to unique π-πinteractions between aptamer and graphene oxide (GO), the differential pulse voltammetry technique was applied with ferrocene-graphene oxide (Fc-GO) as an... 

    Electrocrystallization of Ni nanocones from chloride-based bath using crystal modifier by electrochemical methods

    , Article Journal of Alloys and Compounds ; Volume 818 , 2020 Barati Darband, G ; Aliofkhazraei, M ; Dolati, A ; Rouhaghdam, A. S ; Sharif University of Technology
    Elsevier Ltd  2020
    Abstract
    The early stages of nucleation and growth of nanostructures can control the shape and final size of the fabricated nanostructure. Therefore, the study of the nucleation and growth mechanism of nanostructures is of great importance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nucleation and growth mechanism of nickel nanocones from a chloride-based bath containing ethylene ammonium dichloride as a crystal modifier. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronoamperometry tests were employed to investigate the nucleation and growth mechanism and also the mechanism of crystal modifier performance on the growth of nanocones. Electrochemical studies revealed...